History Revision 2 Tov & Lon

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GCSE HISTORY REVISION SESSION 2

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History Revision 2 Tov & Lon

  1. 1. HISTORY REVISION – ARRRGHH! LESSON 2 – Treaty of Versailles & the League of Nations
  2. 2. ToV & LoN summary This is a PAPER 1 topic for your exam on 3rd June. You will need to revise the following: 1. Aims of the Big 3 2. Terms of the Treaty 3. Opinions of the treaty 4. Structure of the League 5. Failures 0f the League – Manchuria 6. Failures of the League - Ethiopia
  3. 3. Aims of the Big 3 USA BRITAIN FRANCE DAVID LLOYD GEORGE WOODROW WILSON GEORGES CLEMENCEAU 1. He said he would ‘make 1. He wanted to make the 1. He wanted revenge, and Germany pay’ – because world safe. He wanted he knew that was what the to punish the Germans to end war by making a British people wanted to for the war. fair peace. hear. 2. In 1918, Wilson 2. He wanted ‘justice’, but he published ‘Fourteen 2. He wanted to make did not want revenge. He Points’ saying what he Germany pay for the said that the peace must wanted. not be harsh – that would damage done during the 3. He said that he wanted just cause another war in war. a few years time. He disarmament, and a 3. He also wanted to tried to get a ‘halfway League of Nations weaken Germany, so point’ – a compromise (where countries could between Wilson and France would never be talk out their problems, Clemenceau. invaded again. without war). 3. He ALSO wanted to 4. He also promised self- expand the British determination for the Empire, maintain British peoples of Eastern control of the seas, and Europe. increase Britain's trade.
  4. 4. Terms of the Treaty Blame – Germany forced to accept the blame for the war (war guilt clause). Reparations – Germany had to pay £6600 million in compensation to the Allies. Army – Germany was restricted to 100,000 soldiers (not in the Rhineland), no tanks, submarines or air force and only 6 battleships. Territory – Germany lost all its colonies and lots of land including – Alsace & Lorraine, Saar, Danzig, West Prussia and Eupen and Malmedy. Germany were also forbidden from uniting with Austria!
  5. 5. This table summarises how Versailles was 'the hated treaty' Opinions of the treaty The Treaty of Versailles was unpopular, not only with the Germans, but also with the people who had drawn it up. Even at the time, the peace- makers left the conference feeling that they had failed to make a treaty that would keep the peace, and historians have ever since blamed the Treaty of Versailles for helping to cause the Second World War. Germans British French Americans League of Nations Hated it OK Hated it Hated it Guilt Clause Hated it OK OK Hated it German army Hated it Hated it OK Hated it reduced Reparations Hated it Hated it OK Hated it German lost land Hated it Hated it Hated it Hated it
  6. 6. The League of Nations • The League of Nations was set up by the Treaty of Versailles. • Its aims were to stop wars, encourage disarmament, and make the world a better place by improving people's working conditions, and by tackling disease. • Its organisation comprised an assembly, which met once a year; a council, which met more regularly to consider crises; a small secretariat to handle the paperwork; a Court of International Justice; and a number of committees such as the International Labour Organisation and the Health Committee to carry out its humanitarian work. • strengths was that it had set up by the Treaty of Versailles, which every nation had signed, and it had 58 nations as members by the 1930s. To enforce its will, it could offer arbitration through the Court of International Justice, or apply trade sanctions against countries that went to war. • Its main weaknesses were the fact that it was set up by the Treaty of Versailles (which every nation hated); that its aims were too ambitious; that Germany, Russia and the USA were not members; that it had no army; that its organisation was cumbersome; and that decisions had to be unanimous.
  7. 7. Manchurian Crisis 1932 • In 1932, Japan (a member of the League's Council) invaded Manchuria. It took the League nearly a year to send a commission and declare that Japan ought to leave - whereupon Japan left the League. The League couldn't send an army, and it needed America's support to impose sanctions successfully. In the end, it did nothing.
  8. 8. Ethiopian (Abyssinian) Crisis 1935 • In 1935, Italy invaded Abyssinia. Although the Abyssinian emperor Haile Selassie went to the League himself to ask for help, all the League did was to ban arms sales, which did Abyssinia more harm than Italy. A League commission offered Italy part of Abyssinia, but Italy invaded anyway. Far from stopping Italy, Britain and France tried to make a secret pact to give Abyssinia to Italy.

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