History Revision 1 – Causes Of Ww1

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GCSE HISTORY REVISION SESSION 1

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History Revision 1 – Causes Of Ww1

  1. 1. HISTORY REVISION – ARRRGHH! LESSON 1 – Causes of World War 1
  2. 2. Causes of WW1 summary This is a PAPER 1 topic for your exam on 3rd June. You will need to revise the following: 1. Long-term causes of the war 2. Incidents that increased tension 3. Assassination at Sarajevo 4. The Schlieffen plan 5. The steps to war in 1914
  3. 3. 1) Long-term causes of the war • Nationalism – A belief that ‘our country is better than yours’. • Alliances – The triple alliance (Germany, Austria- Hungary & Italy) and the triple entente (Britain, France & Russia). • Colonies – German was jealous of other countries possessions abroad and wanted to extend it’s empire. • Arms Race – German competed with Britain and France to see who could build the biggest army & navy.
  4. 4. 2) Incidents that increased tension • First Moroccan Crisis (1905) - Kaiser Wilhelm promised to support the sultan of Morocco against France's attempts to take over the country. • Bosnia (1908) - Austria annexed Bosnia in the Balkans from Turkey. This annoyed Serbia, which had wanted to take over the area. Russia wanted to help Serbia, but had to back down. • Agadir (2nd Moroccan Crisis 1911) - There was a revolution in Morocco, so France sent an army to take over. Kaiser Wilhelm sent the gunship 'Panther', but Britain and France forced him to back down. • Balkan Wars (1912-1913) - Serbia and other countries in the Balkans conquered most of Turkey's land in Europe. Serbia became a powerful country, and said Austria-Hungary was its next target.
  5. 5. 3) The assassination of Franz Ferdinand... On the morning of 28 June 1914, a failed assassination attempt led Archduke Franz Ferdinand to try to abandon his visit to the Sarajevo. However, by a stroke of bad luck, he came face to face with another assassin on his journey to the railway station and was shot dead. 1. Sarajevo was in Bosnia, the province that - to Serbia's anger - had been annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908. Archduke Franz Ferdinand was heir to the throne of Austria- Hungary. He was inspecting the army in Sarajevo with his wife Sophie. The royal couple arrived by train at 9.28am. 2. The first conspirator who tried to kill Franz Ferdinand was Nedeljko Cabrinovic - he threw a bomb at his car. He missed and was arrested. 3. The Archduke escaped unhurt and went to the town hall. He decided to abandon the visit and return home via a different route to the one planned. The royal couple left the town hall immediately. 4. No one had told the driver the route had changed. On the way back, therefore, the driver turned into Franz Josef Street, following the published route and, when told of his error, stopped the car to turn around. Unfortunately, the car stopped in front of Gavrilo Princip, one of the conspirators, who was on his way home thinking he had failed. 5. Princip pulled out a gun and shot at Franz Ferdinand, hitting him in the jugular vein. There was a tussle, during which Princip shot and killed Sophie. By 11.30am, Franz Ferdinand had bled to death.
  6. 6. 4. The Schlieffen plan • The plan was drawn up by General Von Schlieffen. • German troops would suprise the French by attacking Paris through Belgium. • It was thought the Russians would take weeks to organise an army. • Little resistance expected, plan was to capture Paris in 6 weeks! • The French surrender would allow the Germans to move troops to the Russian front.

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