EXAMPLES OF INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS
IES FORT PIUS
nutrients of a meal
IES FORT PIUS
nutrients of a meal
IES SEDETA (15yo)
travel to any time in
history you wish
IES SEDETA (15yo)
travel to any time in
history you wish
IES ICARIA (16yo)
IES ICARIA (16yo)
Before starting, read the following article:
Introducing New Products
MARKETING AND ADVERTISING ACTIVITIES
Done in the company Outsourced
-Liaising with the sales and purchasing
-Showing visitors around the company.
-Speaking to journalists and writing press
-Offering free samples and periods of trial.
-Presenting at a trade fair
-Choosing the ad agency and
commissioning the campaign.
-- Analysing the feasibility of the
project. Doing market research;
Talking to customers.
- Drawing up a marketing plan.
- Creating advertisements.
-Organising the ad campaign.
Market research is any organized effort to gather information about markets
or customers using statistical and analytical methods and techniques of the
applied social sciences to gain insight or support decision making. It is a
very important component of business strategy. It provides important
information to identify and analyze the market need, market size and
competition (competitors’ analysis is also an important kind of market
It is the best way of knowing what people WANT, NEED or BELIEVE.
Qualitative market research
It is not numerically-based, but opinion-based. It can be used to uncover how people
feel and what they think about your product and identifying trends. One common type
of qualitative research occurs when a company gets a number of their target
customers together and presents them with a new product – say, a new yoghurt. One
member might come out and say, “this product is far too fruity” and another might say,
“I find the texture of this yoghurt far too runny”. This kind of feedback helps the
supplier improve the product.
Open-ended interviews: questions that can not be answered with a
simple yes or no. This type of interview gives you a lot of information,
but is time consuming.
Focus groups should be lead by professionals skilled in leading small
groups of 6 to 12 people through a series of questions ranging from
specific to general in nature. Usually, focus group sessions last for at
least an hour. Since focus groups must be lead by trained
professionals to be most effective, they are the most expensive form of
Surveys take longer to develop, but are generally easier to administer
than other types of market research. Since they take less time to
complete, people are usually more willing to answer them. Also, surveys
provide excellent information if they are well-constructed with thoughtful
questions. The easiest and most cost effective way to conduct surveys is
either by telephone or where the product is sold.
Quantitative market research
Research that involves statistical analysis and mathematics. It should be used
whenever you need to identify a numerical output. It could be appropriate to
calculate market sizes for your potential product, that is to say, the number of
people who could be interested in buying it.
SOURCES OF AVAILABLE DATA:
-Sales and purchasing statistics (by studing your sales records, for instance, you get
some information about the people who buy from you).
-Panel surveys (A longitudinal study in which variables are measured on the same
units/samples over time.) For example, studying the musical taste of a specific sector
of the population which ranges from 15 to 20 years old and repeating the same survey
among the same sector of the population after periodical periods of time.
-In contrast to panel surveys, we have cross-sectional studies can be used to estimate
change by asking questions about past behaviour.
COLLECTION OF NEW DATA:
-Individual interviews (direct contact with each one of the interviewed
people. The most effective method but the most expensive one. Street
interviews are an example of individual interviews).
-Postal survey (by mail)
-Email surveys. (They can be done, for instance, to the most loyal
customers. This is called DIRECT MARKETING).
-Telephone surveys (photoc. Page 15).
-Feedback forms: forms to know about your company’s performance.
Thus you know the level of satisfaction of your clients. They may include
questions such as “please tell us if you plan on doing business with us
again/consult professionalism/consult overall performance/ rate the
quality of your meal: excellent, good, sufficient, abismal/please enter
any request you may have below…”).
-Social events. (This is a good chance to know about what existing and
potential clients need).
-Trade journals (by reading them, you learn about new trends).
ANALISING THE ENVIRONMENT
- Legal environment: the company must apply the law currently in force
for instance, relating the safety rules for the product, its composition, for
the allowed preservatives, its pollutant waste, etc.
- Technological environment: the company must know all the
technological improvements which can ease the production process and
- Social environment: it is essential to know the changes going on among
the potential consumers: tastes, economy, fashion, trends, salaries, etc.
- Economic environment: recessions, expansion, economic downturn.
Any economic environment affect the consumption of a product.
ANALISING THE COMPETITION
To do so, it is important to follow these steps:
-Positioning of the competition.
-Research of the required information: market share, costumers profile, prices,
suppliers, presentations of their products, location of its premises, applied
technology, marketing plans, ads, etc.
-Comparison concurrence-our company.
ANALISING THE CUSTOMER
-Who buys? (The buyer is often not the same person as the consumer)
- What? (What’s the feature of our product which is attractive for the
-Where (what kind of stores are their favourite)?
-Why (what are the costumers’ needs?
-When? (Has our product a seasonal consumption?)
-How much? (Big/small quantities?)
-What’s our clients’ behaviour? (Do they care for brand loyalty? Do they
follow the trends?)
This is a marketing strategy that involves dividing a broad target market into
subsets of consumers who have common needs.
Segmentation according to geographic criteria—nations, states, countries,
cities, neighborhoods, or zip codes. With respect to region, in rainy regions
you can sell things like raincoats, umbrellas and gumboots. In hot regions you
can sell summer wear. In cold regions, warm clothes.
Consumers are divided according to their lifestyle, personality, values and
social class. Consumers within the same demographic group can exhibit very
different psychographic profiles.
In behavioral segmentation, consumers are divided into groups according to
their knowledge of, attitude towards, use of or response to a product.
Segmentation according to occasions
It is based on the arising of special need and desires in consumers at
various occasions. For example, for products that will be used in relation
with a certain holiday, such as Christmas decorations or Halloween masks
are marketed almost exclusively in the time leading up to the related event,
and will not generally be available all year round. Another type of occational
market segments are people preparing for their wedding or a funeral,
occasions that only occur a few times in a persons lifetime but happens so
often in a large population that it can be considered a market segment.
Segmentation according to benefits
Segmentation takes place according to benefits sought by the consumer or
which the product/service can provide.
THE MARKETING PLAN
MARKETING = All the activities a company does to satisfy the
consumers’ needs in order to get a profit. It is a critical business process
that is responsible for attracting, retaining and growing customers.
Goods and high-quality products aren’t sold if there isn’t a good
marketing plan behind the scenes which make the product known and
desirable. To make a product successful quality is not enough. We also
need to know for instance when and where the consumers need it.
Drawing up a marketing plan
Fixing objectives and sales
Selecting strategies (being
focused on the marketing mix)
Follow-up (is there any need
for corrective measures?)
Photoc. Page 26
ANALYSISA structured planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses,
Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. (=DAFO
= debilitats, amenaces, fortaleses i oportunitats). It involves specifying the
objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external
factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective.
Lack of working capital
Lack of staff
Old-fashioned technology (...)
Up-to-date technology (...)
The need of pollutant waste (...)
A wide target market
An increase in import duties
Good options for exporting
Deciding the best way to get the fixed objectives, always focusing on the
marketing mix. Some examples:
-To offer short delivery times to customers
-To invest in important ad campaigns
-To become more specialized as a company
-Not to commercialise a product in some specific markets
-To increase the product portfolio
-To change the distribution channel
-To increase some feature of the product
When organising your marketing plan, take
into account what is called the
MARKETING MIX, that is to say, the four
- place (=distribution)
To better understand these concepts (0-5.40min):
Features which make it different and better from other existing products.
These features should also respond to the customers’ needs and should be
flexible and adaptable to them.
KINDS OF PRODUCTS:
-CONSUMER GOODS: Products that are purchased for consumption by the
average consumer. Clothing, food, automobiles and jewelry are all examples of
consumer goods. They satisfy the needs of individuals.
-INDUSTRIAL GOODS: Those used by companies. They can be the same as
the consumer goods but with an industrial purpose.
-SERVICES: those intangible products included in the tertiary sector: turism,
insurances, education, health, finances, leisure, etc.
The product portfolio is comprised of all products a company commercializes.
- Captive product pricing: Pricing one item very low and its complement very high.
(cheap printers and expensive cartridges)
- Economy pricing: Pricing goods/services as cheaply as possible.
- Geographical pricing: Pricing according to area where goods are sold. (cheaper in
countries with a lower per-capita income).
- Penetration pricing: Pricing goods at a very low price to encourage people to buy them
– often the prices are later raised.
- Premium pricing: Keeping a price artificially high in order to encourage favorable
perceptions among buyers (“the quality justifies the cost”).
This element of the marketing mix includes two concepts:
The kind of stores
where the product
STORES: These are some types of shop which can become sellers of your
product. Match the definitions with the name of the shop:
Chain stores – convenience stores – franchises – high-street shops - hypermarkets
mail-order stores – online stores – outlet stores
a. Large no-frills stores located outside the town centre .......................
b. Stores selling thorough the Internet ..................
c. Independently-owned shops licensed to trade under the same name ..............
d. Shops located in the centre of town .................
e. Shops run by a single company with multiple locations around the
f. Very large stores that sells groceries, clothes, and many other products..........
g. Stores selling through a catalogue posted to customers ..................
h. Small, independently-owned stores selling essential products .................
DISTRIBUTION: the process of making a product or service available for
use or consumption by a consumer, using direct means, or using indirect
means with intermediaries.
The channels of distribution are broadly divided into three types:-
Producer-Customer:The simplest and shortest channel in which no middlemen is
involved and producers directly sell their products to the consumers. It is fast and
economical. Under it, the producer performs all the marketing activities himself and
has full control over distribution. A producer may sell directly to consumers through
door-to-door salesmen, direct mail or through his own retail stores.
Producer-Retailer-Customer:This channel of distribution involves only one
middlemen called 'retailer'. This channel relieves the manufacturer from burden of
selling the goods himself and at the same time gives him control over the process of
Producer-Wholesaler-Retailer-Customer:This is the most common and traditional
channel of distribution. Under it, two middlemen are involved. This channel is suitable
for the producers who needed expert services and promotional support of wholesalers.
This is mostly used for the products with widely scattered market.
Franchising: the franchisor is a supplier who allows an operator, or a
franchisee, to use the supplier's trademark and distribute the supplier's
goods. In return, the operator pays the supplier a fee. The franchisee has to
follow the business concept and secure its know-how. There is a great deal of
standardization required. The place of service has to bear the franchisor's
signs, logos and trademark in a prominent place. The uniforms worn by the
staff of the franchisee have to be of a particular design and color. The service
has to be in accordance with the pattern followed by the franchisor in the
successful franchise operations. Thus, franchisees are not in full control of the
PROMOTION: The way you reach customers. By means of three
kind of agencies:
Advertising is a form of communication for marketing used to encourage,
persuade, or manipulate an audience (viewers, readers or listeners;
sometimes a specific group) to continue or take some new action. Most
commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect
to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is
Advertising messages are viewed via various media:
- Traditional media: newspapers, magazines, television commercials,
radio advertisement, outdoor advertisement (=wall paintings or
billboards), direct mail.
- New media: blogs, websites or text messages.
HOW TO CREATE AN AD:
-Know the customer. Even the cleverest ad won’t work if it doesn't
appeal to the target audience. Are you looking for a certain age
group? Do you want people with a set income level? Or maybe
you're looking for a population with a special interest? Whatever it
is, try to get a clear picture of who your dream consumer is and why
he or she would be interested in what you're advertising.
-Use a persuasive technique. There are tried and true methods that
advertisers rely on to make their ads stick. These include:
- Common sense
- Come up with a catchy, snappy slogan.1
- Find a way to connect the desires of consumers to what you're
advertising. Think of it this way: the ad should be a bridge between
what your dream consumer wants or needs and your product.
- Focus on the most appealing aspect of your product. Why should
people be interested in it? What sets it apart from other similar
products? What do you like best about it?
Here are the 15 tutorials for creating ads with a professional look. Most of them
with photoshop: http://www.onextrapixel.com/2010/06/04/how-to-make-a-
- Try to make sure your advertisement will age well. You don't want
people looking back at your ad in 10 years and being shocked at its
- Make sure all the relevant information is included. If your
consumer needs to know your location, phone number, or website (or
all three) in order to have access to your product, provide this
information somewhere in the ad. If you're advertising an event, include
the location, date, time and ticket price.
Publicity draws on several key themes
including birth, love, and death. These are
of particular interest because they are
themes in human lives which feature
heavily throughout life.
PR is the strategic management
function that helps an organization
communicate, establish and maintain
relation with the important audiences.
1- Brand name of the product
2- Brand positioning
3- Press release
7- Socialising acts.
BRAND: NAME OF THE PRODUCT AND LOGO
BRAND = The "name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that
identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers.
Many studies state that consumers need to feel secure by acting in loyalty
with a brand.
Different BRAND STRATEGIES:
-Corporate brand strategy: using an only name for all its products. This
strategy has the advantage of being cheap as promotional costs are reduced
and is recommended when a company commercialise similar products (dairy
products, pasta, etc). Disadvantage: the prestige of the company may be
affected by a failure in one of its product launches as costumers may lose the
trust they used to have in their manufacturer. Example: Sony or Pastas Gallo.
-Unique brand strategy: giving a specific brand for each product. In this case,
no one will be affected by the other ones’ failure, should it ever happen.
Example: the multinational Procter&Gamble manufactures several products
such as H&S shampoo or Ariel.
-Private brand strategy: a large distributor buys from a manufacturer in bulk
and puts its own name on the product. Advantages: more freedom and
flexibility in pricing; more control over product attributes and quality
higher margins (or lower selling price). Example: Carrefour.
In marketing, POSITIONING is
the process by which marketers
try to create an image or identity
in the minds of their target
market for its product, brand or
organization. This image or
concept is often used in several
ways during the ad campaign.
Disney: Family Fun
McDonalds: Food and Fun
A memorable phrase used in a commercial context as a repetitive
expression of an idea or purpose. Slogans are often used in
conjunction with company logos and in advertising campaigns.
They are claimed to be the most effective means of drawing attention
to one or more aspects of a product or brand.
Top brands change their slogans all the time, and you can do the
same if you feel you need to five years down the line. No slogan is
cast in stone.
SOME TIMPS FOR A GOOD SLOGAN:
- Make it Memorable. Make it easy to remember.
- Keep It Simple. A logo is only effective if your audience can
understand it quickly.
-Be honest. A slogan only makes sense if your business can
deliver the promised service.
-Rhythm and Rhyme. Create rhythm and rhyme. It will help to
stick in the memories of those that read it or hear it.
-Key Benefits. Your slogan must contain a key benefit of the
product or service.
A LOGO is a symbolic, identifying mark that
conveys origin, identity, or ownership. The main
function is to elicit recognition. The object of a
logo is to communicate a desired thought or
feeling, and to generate a desired emotional
response. A thought-provoking logo design gives
you a psychological advantage over your
competition. Your logo is the core of your
corporate identity, defining and symbolizing the
character of your company or organization.
Iconic/Symbolic - Icons and symbols are uncomplicated images that are
emblematic of a particular company or product. They use imagery that
conveys a literal or abstract representation of your organization. Symbols
are less direct than straight text, leaving room for broader interpretation of
what the organization represents. It can be either concrete or abstract. In
order for a symbol to be a truly effective logo, it should conform to these
- Instantaneously recognizable.
- Clarity when reproduced in small sizes.
There are three basic types of logos
Logotype/Wordmark - A logotype, commonly
known in the design industry as a "word mark",
incorporates your company or brand name into a
uniquely styled type font treatment. Type fonts come in
thousands of possible variations, shapes, sizes, and
styles, each conveying a slightly different impression
upon your intended audience. Script fonts imply a sense
of formality and refinement. Thick fonts proclaim
strength and power, whereas slanted type fonts impart a
sense of motion or movement. Type font treatments can
also include hand-drawn letters, characters or symbols
that have been rendered in such a way as to intrigue the
eye and capture the interest. Of prime consideration
when selecting a logotype or wordmark is legibility and
ease of recognition, even when reduced to the size
required for printing your business cards.
Letter Form (Lettermark): fun with
letters, that’s essential the core of
letter form logos. They are really
common and can get really creative.
Not just different type fonts, but
actually using the letters to make the
logo compelling and interesting. It can
be as simple as one letter, or as
complex as a half a dozen letters.
Usually, most designers limit
themselves to 3 letters, but more than
that isn’t unheard of.
Combination Marks - Combination
Marks are graphics with both text and
a symbol/icon that signifies the brand
image that you wish to project for your
company or organization. There are
integrated and stand alone
combination marks. For instance,
Starbucks logo has the text with the
graphic integrated, whereas the AT&T
logo has the icon separate from the
For more information: http://www.logodesignsource.com/
Many companies organise social events for their clients and business
partners. That provides an excellent opportunity for business people to “meet
and greet” in an informal setting. These “meetings” focus on relationship-
building through small talk and introducing mutual friends. They are a good
chance to speak to the competition and find out more about one’s rivals.
Listen to the radio from the BBC on Business socialising.
Presenting at a trade fair
A good opportunity to meet customers, search for new ones and meet business
partners. It’s an excellent opportunity to “meet and greet” and stablishing a
relationship-building through small talk and introducing mutual friends.
Attending stand at a trade fair Visitor’s questions
May I help you? Could you tell me more about your company?
Let me introduce myself. I’m.. Do you offer..?
Let me give you my card. How can I reach you?
Can I ask what comany you’re with? Do you have some info I can take away?
Would you like to put your name on our mailing list? Excuse me, are these brochures to take away?
Just let me know if you need anything.
Photoc. Pàg. 54-55
Listening number 22.
1- Reception of the briefing (all the information from the customer).
2- Analysing the situation of the market, the concurrence and the target
market of the product.
3- Brainstorming to find the concept of the ad.
4- Development of the concept and preparation of all the versions (TV
ad, page on a magazine, online...).
5- Presentation of the different versions to the client.
6- Dispatch of the material to the media agency.
The objectives of any ad campaign follow the AIDA model:
Catch the audience’s Attention
Make them Interested
And state the Action the audience should take (e.g.Call now!)
-Use convincing adjectives: reliable, easy to use, luxurious, good value for
money, trustworthy, innovative, unusual, user friendly...
-Be honest: people don’t like being deceived.
-Emphasize what makes you different from the competition (price, delivery
services, after-sales service...)
-Offer trial periods or money-back guarantees which encourage your
customers to try a new product.
-Other tips: be repetitive; put yourself on your client’s shoes (focus on
benefits,etc); build rapport by saying you/your; use quotes from satisfied
clients or experts; call to action!.
Some examples of successful ads:
Advertisements should be in some way UNIQUE:
-Catchy slogan: A catchy slogan often adopts a figure of speech that makes it
easier to say, alludes to a concept beyond simple description and/or makes it more
memorable. Different kinds of figures of speech: rhyme, metaphor, personification,
hyperbole, play on words usually to create an ambiguous meaning, alliteration (the
same letter at the beginning of each word), etc. These figures of speech become a
kind of mind glues for the audience and allow the ad to stay in their mind even when
the ad is long gone.
1- Reception of the material
2- Analysing the situation of the market, the concurrence and the target
market of the product.
3- Analysing the audience chart and the most suitable media for the ad.
4- Analysing the cost of distributing the ad.
5- Presentation of the campaign to the client.
6- Buying the advertising slots by negotiating consecutive insertions.
7- Sending all the material to the media.
9- Controling te emission and analyising impact.