∫ ∑ ∑’Ë   °“√∑”„Àâ ª √“»®“°‡™◊È Õ   5∫ ∑ ∑’Ë          5          °“√∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ          (Sterilization Technique)  ...
µ”√“          «— § ´’ π ·≈–             2550                                             °“√ √â“߇ √‘¡¿Ÿ¡‘§ÿâ¡°—π‚√§      ...
∫ ∑ ∑’Ë   °“√∑”„Àâ ª √“»®“°‡™◊È Õ   5µ“√“ß∑’Ë 5-1 Õÿ≥À¿Ÿ¡‘·≈–√–¬–‡«≈“ ”À√—∫°“√∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊Èե⫬«‘∏’Õ∫‰ÕπÈ”√âÕπ3       ...
µ”√“          «— § ´’ π ·≈–             2550                                           °“√ √â“߇ √‘¡¿Ÿ¡‘§ÿâ¡°—π‚√§      «‘...
∫ ∑ ∑’Ë     °“√∑”„Àâ ª √“»®“°‡™◊È Õ   5‡Õ° “√Õâ“ßÕ‘ß1. A reference outline for developing a national policy and plan of ac...
µ”√“       «— § ´’ π ·≈–             2550       °“√ √â“߇ √‘¡¿Ÿ¡‘§ÿâ¡°—π‚√§                  64
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Vac book 500620_5

357

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
357
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Vac book 500620_5

  1. 1. ∫ ∑ ∑’Ë °“√∑”„Àâ ª √“»®“°‡™◊È Õ 5∫ ∑ ∑’Ë 5 °“√∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ (Sterilization Technique) 59
  2. 2. µ”√“ «— § ´’ π ·≈– 2550 °“√ √â“߇ √‘¡¿Ÿ¡‘§ÿâ¡°—π‚√§ ∫∑∑’Ë 5 °“√∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ (Sterilization Technique) „π°√–∫«π°“√„Àâ∫√‘°“√©’¥«—§´’π·°àª√–™“™ππ—Èπ  ‘Ëß∑’˺Ÿâ„Àâ«—§´’πµâÕߧ”π÷ß∂÷ß·≈–√–¡—¥√–«—߇ªìπÕ¬à“߬‘Ëߧ◊Õ µâÕ߉¡à„À⺟â√—∫«—§´’π¡’§«“¡‡ ’ˬßÀ√◊Õ‡ªìπÕ—πµ√“¬®“°°“√√—∫«—§´’π ‚¥¬‡©æ“–‚√§µ‘¥‡™◊ÈÕµà“ßʇæ◊ËÕ‡ªìπ°“√ªÑÕß°—𧫓¡‡ ’ˬßÀ√◊ÕÕ—πµ√“¬¥—ß°≈à“« ®÷ßµâÕß„À⧫“¡ ”§—≠„π‡√◊ËÕߢÕß°“√„Àâ«—§´’π¥â«¬‡∑§π‘§∑’˪√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ ·≈–§«√„™â‡¢Á¡·≈–°√–∫Õ°©’¥¬“™π‘¥∑’Ë„™â‡æ’¬ß§√—È߇¥’¬«·≈â«∑‘Èß «‘∏’°“√„Àâ«—§´’πÕ¬à“ߪ≈Õ¥¿—¬·≈–ª√“»®“°§«“¡‡ ’ˬߵàÕ°“√µ‘¥‡™◊ÈÕ¡’¥—ßπ’È 1 1. À“°„™â‡¢Á¡·≈–°√–∫Õ°©’¥¬“™π‘¥„™â§√—È߇¥’¬«·≈â«∑‘Èß - ®–µâÕß∫√√®ÿÕ¬Ÿà„π∫√√®ÿ¿—≥±å¢Õß∫√‘…—∑ºŸâº≈‘µ„π ¿“æ∑’˪√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ - ‡¡◊ËÕ·°–‡¢Á¡·≈–°√–∫Õ°©’¥¬“ÕÕ°®“°∫√√®ÿ¿—≥±å∑’˪√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ·≈â« §«√π”¡“„™â∑—π∑’ - ‡¡◊ËÕ„™â‡ √Á®„Àâ∑‘È߇¢Á¡≈ß„π°≈àÕß∑‘È߇¢Á¡À√◊Õ¢Õß¡’§¡Õ¬à“ß∂Ÿ°µâÕß (puncture-proof safety box) 2. À“°„™â‡¢Á¡·≈–°√–∫Õ°©’¥¬“™π‘¥∑’π”°≈—∫¡“„™â„À¡à®–µâÕß„™â«∏∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊Õµ“¡¡“µ√∞“π Ë ‘’ È¥—ßπ’È °“√∑”§«“¡ –Õ“¥‡¢Á¡·≈–°√–∫Õ°©’¥¬“ °àÕπ𔉪∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ‚¥¬«‘∏’¡“µ√∞“π °àÕπ∑’®–π”°√–∫Õ°©’¥¬“∑’„™â·≈⫉ª∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊ÕµâÕßπ”¡“∑”§«“¡ –Õ“¥°àÕπ‚¥¬°“√≈â“ßπÈ” Ë Ë È°—∫ ∫ŸàÀ√◊ÕÕ“®„™â “√‡§¡’∫“ßÕ¬à“ß∑”≈“¬‡™◊ÈÕ‚√§‡ ’¬°àÕπ ‡æ◊ËÕªÑÕß°—π°“√·æ√à°√–®“¬¢Õ߇™◊ÈÕ  “√‡§¡’∑’Ëπ‘¬¡„™â‰¥â·°à 0.5% hypochlorite ·≈–®“°°“√∑¥≈Õßæ∫«à“ °“√·™à‡¢Á¡·≈–°√–∫Õ°©’¥¬“„π hypochlorite π“π30 π“∑’  “¡“√∂∑”≈“¬‡™◊ÈÕ‚√§‰¥â 2 °“√∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ‚¥¬«‘∏’¡“µ√∞“π ∑”‰¥âÀ≈“¬«‘∏’ ¥—ßµàÕ‰ªπ’È - ‚¥¬«‘∏’µâ¡ (boiling) „π ∂“π∑’Ë∑’ˉ¡à¡’‡§√◊ËÕß autoclave À√◊Õ‡µ“Õ∫ „Àℙ⫑∏’µâ¡„ππÈ”°”≈—߇¥◊Õ¥π“π20 π“∑’ ´÷Ë߇À¡“– ”À√—∫‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õµà“ßÊ √«¡∑—È߇¢Á¡·≈–°√–∫Õ°©’¥¬“ - ‚¥¬«‘∏’Õ∫¥â«¬‰ÕπÈ”√âÕπ ‚¥¬„™â‡§√◊ËÕß autoclave „™âÕÿ≥À¿Ÿ¡‘·≈–√–¬–‡«≈“∑’˧ß√–¥—∫Õÿ≥À¿Ÿ¡‘‰«â¥—ßµ“√“ß∑’Ë 5-1 60
  3. 3. ∫ ∑ ∑’Ë °“√∑”„Àâ ª √“»®“°‡™◊È Õ 5µ“√“ß∑’Ë 5-1 Õÿ≥À¿Ÿ¡‘·≈–√–¬–‡«≈“ ”À√—∫°“√∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊Èե⫬«‘∏’Õ∫‰ÕπÈ”√âÕπ3 Õÿ≥À¿Ÿ¡‘ (˚´) ‡«≈“ (π“∑’) 121 15 126 10 134 3 «‘∏’Õ∫¥â«¬‰ÕπÈ”√âÕπ “¡“√∂∑”≈“¬‡™◊ÈÕ‰¥â∑—È߉«√—  ·∫§∑’‡√’¬ √“ √«¡∑—Èß ªÕ√å∑ÿ°™π‘¥ ‡ªìπ«‘∏’∑’ˇÀ¡“– ”À√—∫‡§√◊Õß¡◊Õ·æ∑¬å∑ “¡“√∂π”¡“„™â„À¡à‰¥â √«¡∑—߇¢Á¡·≈–°√–∫Õ°©’¥¬“™π‘¥∑’„™â‰¥âÀ≈“¬Ê §√—ß Ë Ë’ È Ë È∑—Èßπ’ȵâÕß∑¥ Õ∫ª√– ‘∑∏‘¿“æ¢Õß°“√Õ∫¥â«¬‰ÕπÈ”‡ªìπª√–®” ¥â«¬«‘∏’°“√µàÕ‰ªπ’È 4,5 1. °“√∑¥ Õ∫‚¥¬„™â·∂∫°√–¥“… (tape test) ‚¥¬µ‘¥·∂∫°√–¥“…π’ȉ«â∫πÀàÕ«— ¥ÿ∑ÿ°ÀàÕ ‡¡◊ËÕ∂Ÿ°§«“¡√âÕπ·∂∫°√–¥“…®–‡ª≈’Ë¬π ’‡ªìπ ’¥” °“√∑¥ Õ∫¥â«¬·∂∫°√–¥“…π’ȇªìπ‡æ’¬ß‡§√◊ËÕßÀ¡“¬· ¥ß«à“ÀàÕ«— ¥ÿπ—Èπ‰¥â∂Ÿ°π”‰ªÕ∫‰ÕπÈ”√âÕπ·≈â«À√◊Õ¬—߇∑à“π—Èπ ‰¡à‰¥â∫Õ°«à“‡™◊ÈÕ∂Ÿ°∑”≈“¬À¡¥À√◊Õ‰¡à 2. °“√∑¥ Õ∫¥â«¬«‘∏’ pack test ‡ªìπ°“√∑¥ Õ∫«à“‰ÕπÈ”√âÕπ‰¥â·∑√°´÷¡‡¢â“‰ª∑—Ë«∑ÿ°ÀàÕ«— ¥ÿ∑’Ë„ à‰«â„πµŸâÕ∫À√◊Õ‰¡à «‘∏’°“√§◊Õ„™â·∂∫°√–¥“…¥—ߢâÕ 1 ®”π«π 2 ·∂∫ µ‘¥∑·¬ß¡ÿ¡∫π·ºàπ°√–¥“…¢π“¥ 22 x 33 ´¡.«“ß°√–¥“…·ºàππ’ȉ«â°≈“ߺâ“∑’Ë´âÕπ°—πÀπ“ 27 ´¡. ·≈â«Ààպⓥâ“ππÕ°Õ’° 2 ™—Èπ π”ÀàÕºâ“π’È«“ß·∑√°‰«âµ√ß°≈“ߢÕßÀàÕÕ◊πÊ ∑’„ à„π autoclave ‡ √Á®·≈⫇ªî¥‡§√◊Õß„Àâ√Õπ 134˚´ π“π 3 π“∑’ ·≈â«¥Ÿ ∫π·∂∫°√–¥“… Ë Ë Ë â ’∂â“¡’ ’¥”‡∑à“°—πÀ¡¥ · ¥ß«à“§«“¡√âÕπ°√–®“¬‰¥â∑—Ë« ∂â“ ’∫π·∂∫°√–¥“…‡ª≈’ˬπ‰¡à‡∑à“°—π ¥”∫â“ßπÈ”µ“≈∫â“ß ‡À≈◊Õß∫â“ß ‰¡à‡ª≈’ˬπ ’∫â“ß · ¥ß«à“‰ÕπÈ”√âÕπ°√–®“¬‰¡à∑—Ë« ‡§√◊ËÕß autoclave ¡’§«“¡∫°æ√àÕßÀ√◊Õ«“ߢÕß∑’˵âÕß°“√Õ∫·πàπ‡°‘π‰ª «— ¥ÿ∑’˵âÕß°“√Õ∫Õ“®®–‰¡àª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ ´÷ËßµâÕß·°â‰¢µàÕ‰ª 3. °“√∑¥ Õ∫ª√– ‘∑∏‘º≈¢Õß°“√Õ∫‰ÕπÈ”√âÕπ‚¥¬„™â ªÕ√å (spore test) ‡π◊Õß®“° ªÕ√å¢Õß·∫§∑’‡√’¬ Ë∂Ÿ°∑”≈“¬¬“°∑’Ë ÿ¥ ∂â“ ªÕ√å∂Ÿ°∑”≈“¬ ‡™◊ÈÕÕ◊Ëπ®–∂Ÿ°∑”≈“¬À¡¥ ¥—ßπ—Èπ®÷ßπ” ªÕ√å¢Õ߇™◊ÈÕ Bacillusstearothermophilus (¡’®”Àπà“¬‚¥¬∫√√®ÿ„πÀ≈Õ¥‡≈Á°Ê) ¡“‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕß∑¥ Õ∫ª√– ‘∑∏‘º≈¢Õß°“√∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ ‚¥¬«“ßÀ≈Õ¥∫√√®ÿ ªÕ√剫â°≈“ßÀàÕ«— ¥ÿ∑’ËÕ∫‰ÕπÈ”√âÕπ ‡¡◊ËÕÕ∫‡ √Á®·≈â« π”À≈Õ¥∫√√®ÿ ªÕ√åπ’ÈÕÕ°¡“∫’∫‡∫“Ê „ÀâÀ≈Õ¥™—Èπ„π∑’Ë∫√√®ÿ ªÕ√å·µ°  ªÕ√å®–ÕÕ°¡“ —¡º— °—∫Õ“À“√‡≈’Ȭ߇™◊ÈÕ„πÀ≈Õ¥™—ÈππÕ° π”À≈Õ¥π’ȉªÕ∫ (incubate) ∑’ËÕÿ≥À¿Ÿ¡‘ 56˚´ π“π 24 ™—Ë«‚¡ß ·≈â«¥Ÿ ’¢ÕßÕ“À“√‡≈’Ȭ߇™◊ÈÕ∂Ⓣ¡à‡ª≈’Ë¬π ’„ÀâÕ∫µàÕÕ’° 48 ™—Ë«‚¡ß ¥Ÿ ’¢ÕßÕ“À“√‡≈’Ȭ߇™◊ÈÕ„πÀ≈Õ¥Õ’°§√—Èß ∂Ⓣ¡à‡ª≈’Ë¬π ’· ¥ß«à“ ªÕ√嵓¬À¡¥ ∂Ⓡª≈’ˬπ ’∑’Ë 24 ™—Ë«‚¡ß À√◊Õ 72 ™—Ë«‚¡ß · ¥ß«à“ ªÕ√嬗߉¡àµ“¬µâÕß·°â‰¢µàÕ‰ª §«√∑”°“√∑¥ Õ∫‡§√◊ËÕß autoclave ·µà≈–‡§√◊ËÕߥ⫬ ªÕ√åÕ¬à“ßπâÕ¬ —ª¥“Àå≈– 1 §√—Èß - ‚¥¬«‘∏’Õ∫·Àâß (dry heat) ‚¥¬„™â‡µ“Õ∫‰øøÑ“ (electric oven) À√◊Õ‡µ“Õ∫·°ä  Õ∫∑’ËÕÿ≥À¿Ÿ¡‘ 170˚´(340˚ø) ‡ªìπ‡«≈“ 2 ™—Ë«‚¡ß ·µà«‘∏’π’ȉ¡à‡À¡“– ”À√—∫‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ∑’Ë∑”¥â«¬æ≈“ µ‘°À√◊ÕÕÿª°√≥åÕ◊ËπÊ ∑’ˉ¡à “¡“√∂∑𧫓¡√âÕπ‰¥â∂÷ß 170˚´ °“√‡°Á∫√—°…“«— ¥ÿª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕÀ≈—ßÕ∫ µâÕ߇°Á∫„Àâ∂Ÿ°µâÕß·≈–„™â„π‡«≈“∑’Ë°”Àπ¥ °àÕπ„™â§«√µ√«®¥Ÿ«“°√–¥“… æ≈“ µ‘° À√◊Õºâ“∑’ÀÕπ—πÀ≈ÿ¥À√◊Õ™”√ÿ¥À√◊Õ‰¡à ∂â“™”√ÿ¥«— ¥ÿ¿“¬„πÕ“®®–¡’‡™◊Õªπ‡ªóÕπ‰¥â à Ë à È È ô 61
  4. 4. µ”√“ «— § ´’ π ·≈– 2550 °“√ √â“߇ √‘¡¿Ÿ¡‘§ÿâ¡°—π‚√§ «‘∏’°“√‡°Á∫√—°…“∑’Ë¥’ ¡’¥—ßπ’È 1. ‡°Á∫‰«â„πµŸâ∑’Ë¡’Ω“ªî¥¡‘¥™‘¥ ‰¡à¡’·¡≈ßÀ√◊Õ —µ«å‡≈Á¥≈Õ¥‡¢â“‰ª‰¥â 2. ‡°Á∫‰«â„π∑’Ë·Àâß Àà“ß®“°Õà“ß≈â“ß¡◊ÕÀ√◊Õ∫√‘‡«≥∑’ˇªï¬°™◊Èπ 3. «— ¥ÿ∑’ˇ°Á∫‰«â„πÀÕºŸâªÉ«¬ §«√®–‡°Á∫‰«â„πª√‘¡“≥æÕ‡À¡“– ‡™àπ æÕ„™â„π 1  —ª¥“Àå ‰¡à§«√‡°Á∫‰«â¡“°‡°‘π‰ª ‡æ√“– ‘Èπ‡ª≈◊Õß·≈–Õ“®®–¡’‡™◊ÈÕªπ‡ªóôÕπ‰¥â 4. «— ¥ÿª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ ”‡√Á®√Ÿª∑’ËÀàե⫬æ≈“ µ‘°À√◊Õ°√–¥“… ‡™àπ ‡¢Á¡ °√–∫Õ°©’¥¬“ §«√«“ß„À⇪ìπ√–‡∫’¬∫ ‰¡à§«√„™â¬“ß√—¥‰«â¥â«¬°—π‡æ√“–Õ“®∑”„Àâ«— ¥ÿÀàÕÀÿâ¡©’°¢“¥‰¥â 5. «— ¥ÿ∑ÀÕ·≈–∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊Õ„π ∂“π欓∫“≈ µâÕß„™â„π°”À𥇫≈“µ“¡«‘∏°“√ÀàÕ·≈–°“√‡°Á∫ ’Ë à È ’¥—ß· ¥ß„πµ“√“ß∑’Ë 5-2µ“√“ß∑’Ë 5-2 √–¬–‡«≈“‡°Á∫«— ¥ÿª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ «‘∏°“√ÀàÕ ’ √–¬–‡«≈“∑’˪√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ ‡°Á∫„πµŸ¡¥™‘¥ â ‘ ‡°Á∫πÕ°µŸâÀàպⓠ2 ™—Èπ ∏√√¡¥“ 7 «—π 2 «—πÀàպⓠ2 ™—Èπ 2 ∑∫ 7  —ª¥“Àå 3  —ª¥“Àå ¥—ßπ—Èπ ÀàÕ«— ¥ÿª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ∑ÿ°ÀàÕµâÕ߇¢’¬π«—𠇥◊Õπ ªï ∑’ˉ¥â√—∫°“√∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ ·≈–«—πÀ¡¥Õ“¬ÿ¥â«¬ ‡¡◊ËÕÀ¡¥Õ“¬ÿ·≈⫵âÕßÀàÕ„À¡à·≈â«π”‰ª∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕÕ’°§√—Èß°àÕπ„™â °“√∑”§«“¡ –Õ“¥¿“™π–∫√√®ÿ«§´’π°àÕπ‡ªî¥„™â — ¿“™π–∑’Ë„™â∫√√®ÿ«—§´’π ·∫à߉¥â‡ªìπ ™π‘¥¢«¥ (vial) ·≈–™π‘¥À≈Õ¥ (ampule) ´÷Ëß¡’«‘∏’°“√∑”§«“¡ –Õ“¥°àÕπ‡ªî¥„™â¥—ßπ’È - ™π‘¥¢«¥ °àÕπ°“√‡ªî¥¢«¥«—§´’𠧫√„™â ”≈’™ÿ∫·Õ≈°ÕŒÕ≈å 70% ‡™Á¥À≈“¬Ê §√—Èß ®π·πà„®«à“®ÿ° –Õ“¥ ·≈â«®÷ß„™âª“°§’∫∑’ –Õ“¥‡ªî¥Ω“·ºàπ‚≈À–«ß°≈¡µ√ß°≈“ß∫πΩ“¢«¥ÕÕ° „™â ”≈’™∫·Õ≈°ÕŒÕ≈å Ë ÿ70% ‡™Á¥∑’Ë®ÿ°¬“ß„Àâ –Õ“¥ ∑‘Èß„Àâ·Àâß ·≈–„™â‡¢Á¡©’¥¬“∑’˪√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ·∑ߺà“π®ÿ°¬“߇æ◊ËÕ¥Ÿ¥πÈ”¬“·≈â«®÷߇ª≈’ˬπ‡¢Á¡©’¥¬“Õ—π„À¡à‡æ◊ËÕ„™â©’¥µàÕ‰ª (Àâ“¡‡ ’¬∫‡¢Á¡¥Ÿ¥¬“∑‘Èߧâ“߉«â ‡æ√“–Õ“®¡’‡™◊ÈÕ®ÿ≈™’殓°Õ“°“»ªπ‡ªóôÕπ‰¥â) - ™π‘¥À≈Õ¥ §«√„™â ”≈’™ÿ∫·Õ≈°ÕŒÕ≈å 70% ‡™Á¥∑’˵–‰∫‡≈◊ËÕ¬∑—Èß Õߥâ“π „™â ”≈’™ÿ∫·Õ≈°ÕŒÕ≈å70% ™‘Èπ„À¡à‡™Á¥∑’Ë∫√‘‡«≥√Õ∫Ê §ÕÀ≈Õ¥«—§´’π ª≈àÕ¬„Àâ·Àâß ·≈â«„™âµ–‰∫‡≈◊ËÕ¬§ÕÀ≈Õ¥«—§´’π ®“°π—Èπ®÷ßÀ—°∑’§ÕÀ≈Õ¥«—§´’πÀ“°À≈Õ¥«—§´’π‡ªìπ™π‘¥∑’¡ ¢¥√Õ∫‡ªìπ«ß‰¡à®”‡ªìπµâÕß„™â‡≈◊Õ¬„Àℙ⠔≈’™∫·Õ≈°ÕŒÕ≈å Ë Ë ’’’ Ë ÿ70% ‡™Á¥√Õ∫∫√‘‡«≥π—Èπ·≈â«À—°‰¥â‡≈¬‡¡◊ËÕ·Õ≈°ÕŒÕ≈å·Àâß·≈â«·≈–„™â‡¢Á¡©’¥¬“∑’˪√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ¥Ÿ¥πÈ”¬“·≈â«®÷߇ª≈’ˬπ‡¢Á¡©’¥¬“Õ—π„À¡à‡æ◊ËÕ„™â©’¥µàÕ‰ª °“√∑”§«“¡ –Õ“¥∫√‘‡«≥∑’Ë©’¥«—§´’π ∑”§«“¡ –Õ“¥∫√‘‡«≥º‘«Àπ—ß∑’Ë®–©’¥«—§´’π¥â«¬ ”≈’™ÿ∫·Õ≈°ÕŒÕ≈å 70% ‡™Á¥„Àâ∑—Ë«·≈⫪≈àÕ¬„Àâ·Àâß°àÕπ∑”°“√©’¥∑ÿ°§√—Èß 62
  5. 5. ∫ ∑ ∑’Ë °“√∑”„Àâ ª √“»®“°‡™◊È Õ 5‡Õ° “√Õâ“ßÕ‘ß1. A reference outline for developing a national policy and plan of action for injection safety in national immunization programmes. Available from:URL:http://www.who.int/immunization_safety/publications/safe _injections/en/outline_national_policy_injection_safety_E.pdf2.  ¡À«—ß ¥à“π™—¬«‘®‘µ√, «√“¿√≥å æÿà¡ ÿ«√√≥. °“√≈â“ß °“√∑”≈“¬‡™◊ÈÕ ·≈–°“√∑”„Àâª√“»®“°‡™◊ÈÕ. „π:  ¡À«—ß ¥à“π™—¬«‘®‘µ√, ∫√√≥“∏‘°“√. ‚√§µ‘¥‡™◊ÈÕ„π‚√ß欓∫“≈. æ‘¡æå§√—Èß∑’Ë 3. °√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√: ∫√‘…—∑ ·Õ≈ ∑’ ‡æ√  ®”°—¥, 2544: 69-96.3. Maurer IM. Sterilization. In: Maurer IM, ed. Hospital Hygiene. 3rd ed. Bungay: The Chancer Press, 1985: 8-18.4. Martin MA, Wenzel RP. Sterilization, disinfection and disposal of infectious waste, In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases.4th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1995: 2579-87.5. Sterilization and physical disinfection. In: Ayliffe GAJ, Lowbury EJI, Geddes AM, Williams JD, eds. Control of Hospital Infection-A Practical Handbook. 3rd ed. London,: Chapman and Hall Medical, 1992: 47-64. 63
  6. 6. µ”√“ «— § ´’ π ·≈– 2550 °“√ √â“߇ √‘¡¿Ÿ¡‘§ÿâ¡°—π‚√§ 64

×