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  • 1. ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à :‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– §”π”æ√–ª√“‚¡∑¬å ª“‚¡™⁄‚™ ( —πµ‘π—π∑å)ISBN 978-611-7049-09-5æ‘¡æå§√—Èß∑’Ë Ò ¡‘∂ÿπ“¬π ÚııÚ ®”π«π ı, ‡≈ࡠ祟®‘µé §”π’ȇ¡◊ËÕ‰¡à°’˪ï°àÕπ¥Ÿ®–‡ªì𧔷ª≈°æÕ ¡§«√ ·µà ¡—¬π’È ß«π≈‘¢ ‘∑∏‘Ï ç¥Ÿ®‘µé ¥Ÿ®–‡ªìπ§”∑’Ë·æ√àÀ≈“¬ „™â°—πÕ¬à“ß°«â“ߢ«“ß ‚¥¬‡©æ“–„πÀ¡ŸàºŸâ∑’ËÀπ—ß ◊Õ‡≈à¡π’È®—¥æ‘¡æ凪ìπ∏√√¡∫√√≥“°“√ Àâ“¡æ‘¡æå®”Àπà“¬·≈–Àâ“¡§—¥≈Õ°À√◊Õµ—¥µÕπ‰ª‡º¬·ºà∑“ß ◊ËÕ∑ÿ°™π‘¥ ‚¥¬‰¡à‰¥â√—∫Õπÿ≠“µ®“°ºŸâ‡¢’¬π  π„®ªØ‘∫—µ‘∏√√¡ ∑—Èßπ’È ‡π◊ËÕß¡“®“°°“√ ¥Ÿ®‘µ ¡’§«“¡‡À¡“– ¡°—∫ ¿“æ¢Õ§«“¡°√ÿ≥“ ·«¥≈âÕ¡¢Õß —ߧ¡‡¡◊Õß∑’˧π à«π„À≠àµâÕß∑”ß“π‚¥¬„™â§«“¡§‘¥ Õ’°∑—ÈßÕ¬à“π”¢âÕ§«“¡‰ªÕâ“ßՑ߇æ◊ËÕ°“√∂°‡∂’¬ß°—π À√◊Õ𔉪ª≈Õ¡ªπ‰«â „π∫∑ª√–æ—π∏å∏√√¡– ¬—߇ªìπ·π«∑“ß∑’ˇÕ◊ÈÕµàÕ°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘„π™’«‘µª√–®”«—π‰¥â‡ªìπÕ¬à“ߥ’´÷ËßÕÕ°πÕ°·π«∑“ß°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘∑’ˇπâ𧫓¡√Ÿâ ÷°µ—« ‡√’¬∫ßà“¬ ·≈–≈—¥ —Èπ ·µàª≠À“∑’µ“¡¡“ ”À√—∫ºŸ∑‡√‘¡ π„®µ“¡·π« ¥Ÿ®µ π’°§Õ ‰¡à∑√“∫ í Ë â Ë’ Ë ‘ ÈÁ◊¥”‡π‘π°“√º≈‘µ ¡Ÿ≈π‘∏‘∫â“πÕ“√’¬å www.baanaree.net ‚∑√. -ÚÚ˜˘-˜¯Û¯ ®–‡√‘Ë¡µâπ‡™àπ‰√? ®‘µ§◊ÕÕ–‰√? ‡Õ“Õ–‰√¥Ÿ? ¥ŸÕ¬à“߉√? œ≈œ ªí≠À“‡À≈à“π’È·ª≈‡ªìπ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ… À∑—¬∑‘æ¬å ‡∑«°ÿ≈ ®÷ß°≈“¬‡ªìπ§”∂“¡„À⺟â∑’ˇ√‘Ë¡ π„®À¬‘∫¬°¢÷Èπ¡“ Õ∫∂“¡°—πÕ¬Ÿà∫àÕ¬ÊÕÕ°·∫∫  ∫“¬– http://sabaya.multiply.comª°/¿“æª√–°Õ∫ ‡´¡‡∫â, ™â“ß, ‰´Õ‘Ϋ, ‡π° §≥–ºŸâ®—¥∑”®÷߉¥â°√“∫¢ÕÕπÿ≠“µæ√–ª√“‚¡∑¬å ª“‚¡™⁄‚™ 𔪰/√Ÿª‡≈à¡ ™â“ß, µÕ߇À≈◊Õßæ‘ Ÿ®πåÕ—°…√ πâÕßÀπŸ, º÷Èß, ‡° √“, ‡≈Á°, √∂, ®‘Í∫ ∫∑§«“¡ ‡√◊ËÕß ç·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡àé ·≈– ç·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ªéª√– “πß“π ®‘Í∫, ‡π° ¡“®—¥æ‘¡æå ‡æ◊ËÕ·®°‡ªìπ∏√√¡∑“π„Àâ°—∫ºŸâ∑’Ë π„®ªØ‘∫—µ‘∏√√¡µ“¡·π«∑“ßæ‘¡æå∑’Ë ∫√‘…—∑  ”π—°æ‘¡æå ÿ¿“ ®”°—¥ ‚∑√. -ÚÙÛı-¯ıÛ
  • 2. ¥Ÿ®‘µ ‡æ◊ËÕ‡ªìπ°“√µÕ∫¢âÕ ß —¬µà“ßÊ ·≈–‡æ◊ËÕ‡ªìπÀ≈—° ”À√—∫„™â„π°“√  “√∫—≠¥Ÿ®‘µ  ◊∫µàÕ‰ª Õπ÷Ëß∫∑§«“¡∑—Èß Õßπ’È æ√–ª√“‚¡∑¬å ª“‚¡™⁄‚™ ‰¥â‡¢’¬π‰«âµ—Èß·µà ¡—¬‡ªìπ¶√“«“  ‚¥¬„™âπ“¡ª“°°“„π¢≥–π—Èπ«à“ ç —πµ‘π—π∑åé ·≈–‡ªìπ ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à : ˜°“√‡¢’¬πÕà“π°—π„πÀ¡Ÿà≠“µ‘∏√√¡§ÿâπ‡§¬ ©–π—Èπ¿“…“·≈– ”π«π®÷ßÕ“® ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡–·ª≈°µ“‰ª®“°Àπ—ß ◊Õ¢Õß∑à“π„πªí®®ÿ∫—πÕ¬Ÿà∫â“ß ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª Ú˜ §≥–ºŸâ®—¥∑”¢Õ°√“∫¢Õ∫æ√–§ÿ≥ æ√–ª√“‚¡∑¬å ª“‚¡™⁄‚™ ‡ªìπ Ò. °“√ √â“ߧ«“¡‡¢â“„®¢Õ∫‡¢µ¢Õßæ√–æÿ∑∏»“ π“ ÛÒÕ¬à“ß Ÿß∑’Õπÿ≠“µ„À⮥摡æå∫∑§«“¡∑—ß Õ߇æ◊Õ·®°‡ªìπ∏√√¡∑“π„π§√—ßπ’È Ë — È Ë È Ú. ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ„π°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘∏√√¡ ÛÛ Û. °“√‡®√‘≠ µ‘ªíØ∞“π Ûı §≥–ºŸ®¥∑” â— Ù. °“√‡®√‘≠ µ‘ —¡ª™—≠≠–∑’ˉ¡à∂Ÿ°µâÕß Û˘
  • 3. ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à:‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– æ√–ª√“‚¡∑¬å ª“‚¡™⁄‚™ ( —πµ‘π—π∑å)
  • 4. ‡ªìπ°“√¬“°∑’ˇ√“®–‡ÀÁπ‰¥â«à“ ∏√√¡–‡ªìπ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’Ë ÿ¥ ‡æ√“–¿“æ≈—°…≥å¢Õß»“ π“ À√◊Õ¢Õß∏√√¡– ∑’ˇ√“√Ÿâ®—°π—Èπ ¥ŸÕ¬à“߉√°Á‰¡à∏√√¡¥“‡≈¬ ‡√‘Ë¡µ—Èß·µà¿“…“∑’Ë „™â ‡µÁ¡‰ª¥â«¬¿“…“∫“≈’ ¡’»—æ∑å∑’Ë¡’§«“¡À¡“¬‡©æ“–¡“°¡“¬ ·§à∑”§«“¡‡¢â“„®»—æ∑å°Á¬“°π—°Àπ“·≈â« æÕ√Ÿâ»—æ∑å·≈â«≈ß¡◊Õ»÷°…“µ”√“®√‘ßÊ °Áæ∫§«“¡¬“°Õ’° §◊Õ ∏√√¡–∑’Ëæ√–æÿ∑∏‡®â“∑√ß Õπ‰«â¡’¡“°‡À≈◊Õ‡°‘π ·≈–µ”√“∑’Ëæ√–√ÿàπÀ≈—ß≈ß¡“∑à“π‡¢’¬π‰«â °Á¡’Õ’°¡“°¡“¬ ∫“ß∑à“πæÕ„®∑’Ë®–≈ß¡◊ժؑ∫—µ‘ °Á¡’ªí≠À“Õ’°«à“  ”π—°ªØ‘∫—µ‘¡’¡“°¡“¬ ∑ÿ° ”π—°∫Õ°«à“ ·π«∑“ߢÕßµπ∂Ÿ°µ√ß∑’Ë ÿ¥µ“¡À≈—°¡À“ µ‘ªíØ∞“π ∫“ß∑’°Á∑—∫∂¡ ”π—°Õ◊ËπÀπàÕ¬Ê «à“  Õπ‰¡àµ√ß∑“ß8 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– 9
  • 5. §«“¡¬“°≈”∫“°π’È æ∫°—π∑ÿ°§π§√—∫ ∑”„À⺡µâÕßπ—Ëß∂“¡µπ‡Õß«à“ ‡ªìπ‰ª‰¥âÀ√◊Õ‰¡à ∑’ˇ√“®–»÷°…“∏√√¡‰¥âÕ¬à“ßßà“¬Ê ‚¥¬‰¡àµâÕß√Ÿâ»—æ∑å∫“≈’ Õ’°ª√–°“√Àπ÷Ëß À√◊Õ‰¡àµâÕßÕà“πÀπ—ß ◊Õ À√◊Õ‡¢â“ ”π—°ªØ‘∫—µ‘ „¥Ê ‡≈¬ æ√–ºŸâ¡’æ√–¿“§‡®â“∑√ß∂÷ßæ√âÕ¡¥â«¬§«“¡√Õ∫√Ÿâ  “¡“√∂Õ∏‘∫“¬∏√√¡Õ—π¬ÿà߬“°´—∫´âÕπ„Àâ¬π¬àÕ‡¢â“„®ßà“¬ à §«“¡®√‘ß∏√√¡–∑’Ëæ√–æÿ∑∏‡®â“ Õπ‰«â  “¡“√∂¢¬“¬§«“¡∏√√¡Õ—π¬àπ¬àÕ„Àâ°«â“ߢ«“ßæÕ‡À¡“–·°àºâøíß Ÿ ‡ªìπ‡√◊ËÕßßà“¬Ê ∏√√¡¥“Ê ∑√ߪ√“»®“°Õÿª √√§∑“ß¿“…“ ¥—ß∑’˺Ÿâ‰¥âøíß∏√√¡®“°æ√–‚Õ…∞å ¡—°®–Õÿ∑“π«à“ §◊Õ “¡“√∂ ◊ËÕ∏√√¡¥â«¬¿“…“∑’˺âø߇¢â“„®‰¥âßà“¬Ê Ÿ í 緮ࡷ®âßπ—°æ√–‡®â“¢â“ ‰¡à‡À¡◊ÕπºŸâ»÷°…“·≈– Õπ∏√√¡®”π«π¡“°„π√ÿàπÀ≈—ß ∏√√¡∑’Ë∑√ß· ¥ß‡À¡◊Õπ¥—߇ªî¥¢Õߧ«Ë”„ÀâÀß“¬é ∑’Ë∑”∏√√¡–´÷Ë߇ªìπ‡√◊ËÕß„°≈âµ—«·≈–· π∏√√¡¥“ ´÷Ëß°Á‰¡àπà“·ª≈°„®Õ–‰√π—° ∑’˺Ÿâøíß®–√Ÿâ ÷°‡™àππ—Èπ „Àâ°≈“¬‡ªìπ‡√◊ËÕ߬ÿà߬“°´—∫´âÕπ ·≈–‰°≈µ—«‡ ’¬‡À≈◊Õª√–¡“≥ °Á‡æ√“–ºŸâøí߇Õß ®π‡°‘𧫓¡®”‡ªìπ‡æ◊ËÕ§«“¡æâπ∑ÿ°¢å ‡°‘¥¡“°—∫∏√√¡ Õ¬Ÿà°—∫∏√√¡ ®πµ“¬‰ª°—∫∏√√¡ ·≈– —Ëß Õπ¥â«¬¿“…“∑’˺Ÿâø߉¡à “¡“√∂‡¢â“„®‰¥â‚¥¬ßà“¬ í ‡ªìπÕ¬à“ßπ’È¡“·µà‰Àπ·µà‰√·≈â« ‡æ’¬ß·µà¡Õ߉¡à‡ÀÁπ«à“ ∏√√¡‰¥â· ¥ßµ—«Õ¬Ÿà∑’ˉÀπ ‡¡◊ËÕæ√–æÿ∑∏‡®â“∑√ß™’È·π– °Á “¡“√∂√Ÿâ‡ÀÁπµ“¡‰¥â‚¥¬ßà“¬10 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– 11
  • 6. ·∑â®√‘ß·≈â« ∏√√¡‡ªìπ‡√◊ËÕß„°≈âµ—« „°≈â®π∂÷ߢπ“¥∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“‡ªìπ‡√◊ËÕ߇°’ˬ«°—∫µ—«‡√“‡Õß ·≈–¢Õ∫‡¢µ¢Õß∏√√¡–°Á¡’‡æ’¬ß𑥇¥’¬« §◊Õ∑”Õ¬à“߉√®÷ß®–‰¡à‡°‘¥§«“¡∑ÿ°¢å ∂â“®–»÷°…“∏√√¡– °Á»÷°…“≈߉ª‡≈¬«à“ 秫“¡∑ÿ°¢åÕ¬Ÿà∑’Ë ‰Àπ ‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ‰¥âÕ¬à“߉√ ·≈–¥—∫‰ª‰¥âÕ¬à“߉√é ·≈–§«“¡ ”‡√Á®¢Õß°“√»÷°…“∏√√¡– Õ¬Ÿà∑’˪ؑ∫—µ‘®π‡¢â“∂÷ߧ«“¡æâπ∑ÿ°¢å ‰¡à „™à‡æ◊ËÕ§«“¡√Õ∫√Ÿâ√° ¡Õß À√◊Õ‡æ◊ËÕ§«“¡ “¡“√∂ „π°“√Õ∏‘∫“¬·®°·®ß∏√√¡‰¥âÕ¬à“ß«‘®‘µ√æ‘ ¥“√12 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– 13
  • 7. ·∑â®√‘ß·≈â« §«“¡∑ÿ°¢å¢Õߧπ‡√“Õ¬Ÿà „𰓬„𮑵¢Õßµππ—Ëπ‡Õß  π“¡»÷°…“∏√√¡–¢Õ߇√“ ®÷ßÕ¬Ÿà∑’Ë°“¬∑’Ë®µπ’È·À≈– ‘ ‡¡◊ËÕ∑”„® ∫“¬Ê ·≈â« ≈Õßπ÷°∂÷ß√à“ß°“¬¢Õ߇√“ ·∑π∑’ˇ√“®–‡∑’ˬ«‡√’¬π√ŸâÕÕ°‰ª¿“¬πÕ° °Á„Àâ‡√“¬âÕπ‡¢â“¡“ π÷°∂÷ß„Àâ√Ÿâæ√âÕ¡∑—Èßµ—«‡≈¬°Á‰¥â »÷°…“Õ¬Ÿà „𰓬„𮑵¢Õ߇√“π’È·À≈– «‘∏’°“√°Á‰¡à¡’Õ–‰√¡“° ‡À¡◊Õπ‡√“°”≈—ߥŸÀÿàπ¬πµåÕ¬Ÿà —°µ—«Àπ÷Ëß ¢Õ‡æ’¬ß„ÀâÀ—¥ —߇°µ°“¬·≈–®‘µ¢Õ߇√“‡Õß„À⥒ ∑’Ë¡—π‡¥‘π‰¥â ‡§≈◊ËÕπ‰À«‰¥â ¢¬—∫ª“°‰¥â ‡√‘Ë¡µâπßà“¬Ê ®“°°“√ —߇°µ√à“ß°“¬°àÕπ°Á‰¥â °≈◊πÕ“À“√Õ—π‡ªìπ«—µ∂ÿ‡¢â“‰ª„π√à“ß°“¬ ¢—∫∂à“¬°“°Õ“À“√ÕÕ°®“°√à“ß°“¬ ¢—Èπ·√° ∑”„®„Àâ ∫“¬Ê Õ¬à“‡§√à߇§√’¬¥ Õ¬à“‰ª§‘¥«à“‡√“®–ªØ‘∫—µ‘∏√√¡ ·µà„À⧑¥‡æ’¬ß«à“ ∂Ⓡ√“‡ÀÁπÀÿàπ¬πµå∑’Ë™◊ËÕ«à“µ—«‡√“ ¡—π∑”‚πàπ∑”π’ˉª‡√◊ËÕ¬Ê ‡√“®– —߇°µ¥Ÿ√à“ß°“¬¢Õ߇√“‡Õ߇∑à“π—Èπ ‡√“‡ªìπ§π¥Ÿ‡©¬Ê ∂÷ß®ÿ¥Àπ÷Ëß°Á®–‡ÀÁπ·®âߪ√–®—°…å„®‡Õß«à“  —߇°µ·≈â«®–√Ÿâ‰¥â·§à‰Àπ°Á‰¡à‡ªìπ‰√ √à“ß°“¬π’ȉ¡à „™àµ—«‡√“ ¡—π‡ªìπ«—µ∂ÿ°âÕπÀπ÷Ë߇∑à“π—Èπ ‡Õ“·§à«à“®–‡ΩÑ“ —߇°µ„À≥â‡∑à“∑’Ë∑”‰¥â°ÁæÕ ¡’§«“¡‰¡àÀ¬ÿ¥π‘Ëß ‰¡à§ß∑’Ë ·¡â·µà«—µ∂ÿ∑’˪√–°Õ∫‡ªìπ‡®â“Àÿàπµ—«π’È °Á¬ß¡’§«“¡‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈߉À≈‡¢â“‰À≈ÕÕ°Õ¬Ÿàµ≈Õ¥‡«≈“ ‡™àπ —14 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– 15
  • 8. À“¬„®‡¢â“·≈â«°ÁÀ“¬„®ÕÕ° °‘πÕ“À“√·≈–πÈ”·≈â«¢—∫∂à“¬ÕÕ° ‰¡à „™à ‘Ëß∑’ˇªìπ°âÕπ∏“µÿ∑’˧ß∑’Ë∂“«√ §«“¡¬÷¥∂◊ե⫬§«“¡À≈ߺ‘¥«à“ °“¬‡ªìπ‡√“ ‡™àπ ‡¡◊ËÕ‡√“‡ÀÁπÀÿàπ¬πµåµ—«π’ȇ§≈◊ËÕπ‰À«‰ª¡“ °Á®–∫√√‡∑“‡∫“∫“ß≈߉¥â ·≈â«°Á®–‡ÀÁπÕ’°«à“ ‰¡àπ“π°Á®–‡ÀÁ𧫓¡‡¡◊ËÕ¬ª«¥ ¬—ß¡’∏√√¡™“µ‘∑’ˇªìπºŸâ√Ÿâ√à“ß°“¬ Õ“»—¬Õ¬Ÿà„π√à“ß°“¬π’ȇÕß §«“¡À‘«°√–À“¬ À√◊Õ§«“¡∑ÿ°¢åÕ¬à“ßπ—ÈπÕ¬à“ßπ’È ·∑√°‡¢â“¡“‡ªìπ√–¬–Ê æÕ§«“¡∑ÿ°¢åπ—Èπºà“π‰ª∑’Àπ÷Ëß ‡¡◊ËÕ‡ÀÁπ™—¥·≈â««à“ °Á®–√Ÿâ ÷° ∫“¬‰ªÕ’°™à«ßÀπ÷Ëß (√Ÿâ ÷°‡ªìπ ÿ¢) °“¬π’ȇªìπ·§à°âÕπ∏“µÿ ‰¡à§ß∑’Ë ‰¡à„™àµ—«‡√“ ‡™àπ °√–À“¬πÈ” ‡°‘¥‡ªì𧫓¡∑ÿ°¢å¢÷Èπ æÕ‰¥â¥◊Ë¡πÈ” §√“«π’È°Á≈Õß¡“ —߇°µ ‘Ëß∑’Ë´àÕπ‡√âπÕ¬Ÿà „π√à“ß°“¬π’ȵàÕ‰ª §«“¡∑ÿ°¢å‡æ√“–§«“¡°√–À“¬πÈ”°Á¥∫‰ª — ‡ªìπ°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ‡√◊ËÕߢÕ߇√“‡Õß„Àâ≈–‡Õ’¬¥¬‘Ëߢ÷Èπ‰ªÕ’° À√◊Õπ—Ëßπ“πÊ ‡°‘¥§«“¡ª«¥‡¡◊ËÕ¬ √Ÿâ ÷°‡ªìπ∑ÿ°¢å æÕ¢¬—∫µ—«‡ ’¬ °ÁÀ“¬ª«¥‡¡◊ËÕ¬ √Ÿâ ÷°«à“∑ÿ°¢åÀ“¬‰ª  ‘Ëß∑’Ë·ΩßÕ¬Ÿà „π√à“ß°“¬∑’ˇÀÁπ‰¥âßà“¬Ê (√Ÿâ ÷°‡ªìπ ÿ¢) §◊Õ§«“¡√Ÿâ ÷°‡ªìπ ÿ¢∫â“ß ‡ªìπ∑ÿ°¢å∫â“ß ‡©¬Ê ∫â“ß16 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– 17
  • 9. ∫“ߧ√“«¡’§«“¡‡®Á∫‰¢â‰¥âªÉ«¬ ·≈–∑’Ë ”§—≠ ‡®â“§«“¡√Ÿâ ÷°‡À≈à“π—Èπ °Á®–√Ÿâ§«“¡∑ÿ°¢å∑“ß°“¬‰¥âµàÕ‡π◊ËÕ߬“«π“π¢÷Èπ °Á‡ªìπ ‘Ëß∑’Ë°”≈—ß∂Ÿ°√Ÿâ∂°¥ŸÕ¬Ÿà ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫√à“ß°“¬π—Èπ‡Õß Ÿ ‡™àπ ‡°‘¥ª«¥øí𵑥µàÕ°—ππ“πÊ ‡ªìπ«—πÊ ∂—¥®“°π—Èπ ‡√“¡“‡√’¬π√Ÿâ‡√◊ËÕß√“«¢Õßµ—«‡Õß„Àâ≈–‡Õ’¬¥¡“°¢÷Èπ ∂ⓧլ —߇°µ √Ÿâ§«“¡∑ÿ°¢å∑’ˇ°‘¥¢÷Èππ—Èπ °Á®–‡ÀÁπ™—¥«à“ §◊Õ§Õ¬ —߇°µ„À⥒«“ ‡«≈“∑’ˇ°‘¥§«“¡∑ÿ°¢å¢÷Èππ—Èπ à §«“¡ª«¥π—Èπ‡ªìπ ‘Ëß∑’Ë·∑√°Õ¬Ÿà°—∫‡Àß◊Õ°·≈–øíπ ®‘µ„®¢Õ߇√“¡—π®–‡°‘¥§«“¡Àßÿ¥Àß‘¥√”§“≠„®µ“¡¡“¥â«¬ ·µàµ—«‡Àß◊Õ°·≈–øíπ ¡—π‰¡à‰¥â‡®Á∫ª«¥¥â«¬‡≈¬ ‡™àπ À‘«¢â“«·≈â«®–‚¡‚Àßà“¬ ‡Àπ◊ËÕ¬°Á‚¡‚Àßà“¬ °“¬‡À¡◊ÕπÀÿàπ¬πµå∑’ˉ¡à¡’§«“¡‡®Á∫ª«¥ ‡®Á∫‰¢â°Á‚¡‚Àßà“¬ ‡°‘¥§«“¡„§√à·≈⫉¡à‰¥â√—∫°“√µÕ∫ πÕß ‡æ’¬ß·µà¡’§«“¡‡®Á∫ª«¥ ‡ªìπÕ’° ‘ËßÀπ÷Ëß∑’Ë·ΩßÕ¬Ÿà „𰓬 °Á‚¡‚Àßà“¬ „Àâ‡√“À—¥√Ÿâ „Àâ‡∑à“∑—𧫓¡‚°√∏∑’ˇ°‘¥¢÷Èπ „π‡«≈“∑’ˇº™‘≠°—∫§«“¡∑ÿ°¢å ‡√“°Á®–√Ÿâ™—¥«à“ §«“¡√Ÿâ ÷° ÿ¢ √Ÿâ ÷°∑ÿ°¢å À√◊Õ√Ÿâ °‡©¬Ê ‰¡à„™à√à“ß°“¬ ÷ ·µà‡ªìπ ‘ËßÕ’° ‘ËßÀπ÷Ëß∑’Ë·∑√°Õ¬Ÿà„π√à“ß°“¬18 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– 19
  • 10. „π∑“ß°≈—∫°—π ‡¡◊ËÕ‡√“‰¥â‡ÀÁπ¢Õß «¬ß“¡ ‰¥â¬‘π‡ ’¬ß∑’Ë∂Ÿ°„® ‰¥â°≈‘ËπÀÕ¡∂Ÿ°„® ‰¥â≈‘È¡√ ∑’ËÕ√àÕ¬ ‰¥â√—∫ ‘Ëß —¡º— √à“ß°“¬∑’Ëπÿà¡π«≈ ¡’Õÿ≥À¿Ÿ¡‘æÕ‡À¡“– ‰¡à√âÕπÀ√◊ÕÀ𓫇°‘π‰ª ‰¥â§‘¥∂÷ß ‘Ëß∑’ËæÕ„® ‡√“°Á®–‡√‘Ë¡√Ÿâ«à“ §«“¡®√‘ß·≈â«Õ“√¡≥å∑ÿ°Õ¬à“ßπ—Èπ‰¡à§ß∑’Ë ‡√“®–‡°‘¥§«“¡√—°„§√àæ÷ßæÕ„®„π ‘Ëß∑’ˉ¥â‡ÀÁ𠇙àπ ‡¡◊ËÕ‚°√∏·≈–‡√“°Á√ŸâÕ¬Ÿà∑’˧«“¡‚°√∏π—Èπ ‰¥â¬‘π ‰¥â°≈‘Ëπ† ‰¥â√  ‰¥â —¡º—  ·≈–‰¥â§‘¥π÷°π—Èπ °Á®–‡ÀÁπ√–¥—∫¢Õߧ«“¡‚°√∏‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ßÕ¬Ÿàµ≈Õ¥‡«≈“ °Á„Àâ‡√“√Ÿâ‡∑à“∑—𧫓¡√—°„§√àæÕ„®∑’ˇ°‘¥¢÷Èππ—Èπ Õ¬Ÿà‰ªÊ §«“¡‚°√∏°Á¥—∫‰ª‡Õß æÕ‡√“√Ÿâ®—°§«“¡‚°√∏À√◊Õ§«“¡√—°„§√àæÕ„®·≈â« ·≈–‰¡à«à“§«“¡‚°√∏®–¥—∫À√◊Õ‰¡à°Áµ“¡ ‡√“°Á “¡“√∂√Ÿâ®—°°—∫Õ“√¡≥åÕ¬à“ßÕ◊ËπÊ ‰¥â¥â«¬ §«“¡‚°√∏°Á‡ªìπ·§à ‘Ëß∑’Ë∂Ÿ°√Ÿâ ‰¡à „™àµ—«‡√“ ‡™à𠧫“¡≈—߇≈ ß —¬ §«“¡Õ“¶“µæ¬“∫“∑ ‰¡à¡’‡√“Õ¬Ÿà „𧫓¡‚°√∏ §«“¡À¥ÀŸà„® §«“¡Õ‘®©“√‘…¬“ §«“¡§‘¥≈∫À≈ŸàºŸâÕ◊Ëπ ·¡âÕ“√¡≥åÕ◊ËπÊ °Á®–‡ÀÁπ„π≈—°…≥–‡¥’¬«°—∫§«“¡‚°√∏π’ȥ⫬ §«“¡ºàÕß„ Õ‘Ë¡‡Õ‘∫¢Õß®‘µ„® §«“¡ ß∫„𮑵„® œ≈œ ‡¡◊ËÕ‡√“‡√’¬π√ŸâÕ“√¡≥åÀ√◊Õ§«“¡√Ÿâ ÷°‡À≈à“π’È¡“°¢÷ÈπÊ20 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– 21
  • 11. ∂÷ßµÕππ’È ‡√“®–√Ÿâ™—¥«à“ √à“ß°“¬°Á‡ªìπ·§àÀÿàπ¬πµåµ—«Àπ÷Ëß §«“¡√Ÿâ ÷° ÿ¢∑ÿ°¢å ·≈–Õ“√¡≥å∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬ °Á‡ªìπ ‘Ëß∑’Ë∂Ÿ°√Ÿâ ‰¡à „™àµ—«‡√“ ‡¡◊ËÕÀ—¥ —߇°µ‡√’¬π√Ÿâ®‘µ„®µπ‡Õß¡“°¢÷Èπ §√“«π’È°Á®–‡ÀÁπ°“√∑”ß“π¢Õß®‘µ„®‰¥â™—¥‡®π¢÷Èπ‡√◊ËÕ¬Ê ®π√Ÿâ§«“¡®√‘ß«à“ §«“¡∑ÿ°¢å‡ªìπ‡æ’¬ß ‘Ëß∑’Ë¡’‡Àµÿ∑”„À⇰‘¥¢÷Èπ‡ªìπ§√“«Ê ‡∑à“π—Èπ ‡√“®–æ∫æ≈—ßß“πÀ√◊Õ·√ߺ≈—°¥—π∫“ßÕ¬à“ß„π®‘µ„®¢Õ߇√“ ‡™àπ æÕ‡ÀÁπºŸâÀ≠‘ß «¬∂Ÿ°„® æÕ®‘µ„®‡°‘¥§«“¡√Ÿâ ÷°√—°„§√àæÕ„®·≈â« ¡—π®–‡°‘¥·√ߺ≈—°¥—𮑵„®¢Õ߇√“ „À⇧≈◊ËÕπÕÕ°‰ª¬÷¥‡°“–∑’˺ŸâÀ≠‘ߧππ—Èπ ∑”„Àâ‡√“≈◊¡¥Ÿµ—«‡Õß ‡ÀÁπ·µàºŸâÀ≠‘ߧππ—Èπ‡∑à“π—Èπ22 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– 23
  • 12. (‡√◊ËÕß®‘µ‡§≈◊ËÕπ‰ª‰¥âπ’Ë ∂Ⓡªìπ§π∑’ˇ√’¬πµ”√“Õ“®®–ßßÊ À—¥√Ÿâ∑—𮑵„®µπ‡Õß¡“°‡¢â“ ‰¡àπ“π°Á®–∑√“∫¥â«¬µπ‡Õß«à“ ·µà∂â“≈ß¡◊ժؑ∫—µ‘®√‘ß®–‡ÀÁπ«à“ §«“¡√—∫√Ÿâ¡—π‡§≈◊ËÕπ‰ª‰¥â®√‘ßÊ §«“¡∑ÿ°¢å‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ‰¥âÕ¬à“߉√ µ√ß°—∫∑’Ëæ√–æÿ∑∏‡®â“∑à“π查‡√◊ËÕß®‘µ‡∑’ˬ«‰ª‰¥â‰°≈ §«“¡æâπ∑ÿ°¢å‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ‰¥âÕ¬à“߉√ ‰¡à¡’§≈“¥‡§≈◊ËÕπ·¡â·µà§”‡¥’¬«)  ¿“æ∑’ˉ¡à∑ÿ°¢å‡ªìπÕ¬à“߉√ À√◊Õ‡¡◊ËÕ‡√“‡°‘¥§«“¡ ß —¬„π∏√√¡ «à“‡√“§«√ªØ‘∫—µ‘Õ¬à“߉√  ¿“殑µ„®¡—π®–æ—≤π“¢Õß¡—π‰ª‡Õß∑ÿ°Õ¬à“ß °Á®–‡ÀÁπ·√ߺ≈—°¥—π∑’Ë∫—ߧ—∫„Àâ‡√“§‘¥À“§”µÕ∫ ‰¡àµâÕ߉ª§‘¥‡√◊ËÕߨ“π ‡√◊ËÕß≠“≥ ®‘µ„®¢Õ߇√“‡§≈◊ËÕπ‡¢â“‰ªÕ¬Ÿà „π‚≈°¢Õߧ«“¡§‘¥ À√◊Õ‡√◊ËÕß¡√√§º≈π‘ææ“π„¥Ê ∑—Èß ‘Èπ µÕππ—Èπ ‡√“≈◊¡¥Ÿµ—«‡√“‡Õß ‡®â“Àÿàπ¬πµåπ—Èπ°Á¬ßÕ¬Ÿà ·µà‡√“≈◊¡π÷°∂÷ß¡—π°Á‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫«à“ — ∂÷ßµ√ßπ’È Õ“®®–查∏√√¡–‰¡à ‰¥â —°§” ¡—πÀ“¬‰ª®“°‚≈° §«“¡√Ÿâ ÷°µà“ßÊ „𮑵„®‡√“‡ªìπÕ¬à“߉√ ·ª≈»—æ∑å∫“≈’‰¡à ‰¥â —°µ—« ·µà®‘µ„®æâπ®“°§«“¡∑ÿ°¢å ‡√“°Á‰¡à√Ÿâ ‡æ√“–¡—«·µà§‘¥À“§”µÕ∫„π‡√◊ËÕß∑’Ë ß —¬Õ¬Ÿàπ—Ëπ‡Õß À√◊Õ¡’§«“¡∑ÿ°¢å °Á∑ÿ°¢å ‰¡à¡“°·≈–‰¡àπ“π24 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– 25
  • 13. º¡‡¢’¬π‡√◊ËÕßπ’È¢÷Èπ‡ªìπ¢ÕßΩ“° ”À√—∫ºŸâ‡√‘Ë¡ π„®®–»÷°…“∏√√¡– ‡æ◊ËÕ∫Õ°«à“ ∏√√¡–‡ªìπ‡√◊ËÕß∏√√¡¥“Ê ‡ªìπ‡√◊ËÕߢÕßµ—«‡√“‡Õß ·≈– “¡“√∂‡√’¬π√Ÿâ‰¥â‰¡à¬“°π—°¥â«¬µπ‡Õß Õ¬à“æ“°—π∑âÕ∂Õ¬‡ ’¬‡¡◊ËÕ‰¥â¬‘π§πÕ◊Ëπ查∏√√¡– ·≈⫇√“øí߇¢“‰¡à√Ÿâ‡√◊ËÕß ‡√“‰¡àµâÕß√ŸâÕ–‰√‡≈¬°Á‰¥â √Ÿâ·§à«à“ ∑”Õ¬à“߉√‡√“®–‰¡à∑ÿ°¢å°ÁæÕ·≈â« ‡æ√“–π—Ëπ§◊Õ„®§«“¡∑—ÈßÀ¡¥¢Õßæ√–æÿ∑∏»“ π“ ´÷Ëß®”‡ªìπ∑’˧πÊ Àπ÷Ëߧ«√®–‡√’¬π√Ÿâ ‰«â ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª26 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– 27
  • 14. ‡æ◊ËÕπ√à«¡∑ÿ°¢å®”π«π¡“° ‰ª»÷°…“°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘ ∫“ß∑à“πøíß·≈⫬—ß —∫ π ‰¡à‡¢â“„® À√◊Õ‰ª®”∏√√¡ ∏√√¡°—∫º¡ ·≈–º¡‰¥â‡ÀÁπªí≠À“∑’˵“¡¡“À≈“¬Õ¬à“ß ∑’˺¡µÕ∫§πÕ◊Ëπ‡Õ“‰ªªØ‘∫—µ‘∫â“ß ´÷Ë߇ªìπ§π≈–¢—ÈπµÕ𠇙àπ ∫“ß∑à“π°≈—««à“ æÕ‰¡à‰¥âÕ¬Ÿà „°≈⺡·≈â«®– À√◊Õ§π≈–®√‘µ º≈°Á‰¡àµà“ß®“°°“√‡Õ“¬“√—°…“‚√§¢Õß ∑”‰¡à‰¥â À√◊Õ∑”‰¡à∂Ÿ° ∂Ⓡªìπ§π°√ÿ߇∑æœ °Á¬—ßÕÿàπ„®«à“ §πÕ◊ Ë π ‰ª√— ∫ ª√–∑“π ®÷ ß Õ¬“°‡ÀÁ π ¿“æ√«¡¢Õß°“√ ®–æ∫º¡‰¥âÕ°‰¡à¬“°π—° ·µà§πµà“ߪ√–‡∑»À√◊Õµà“ß®—ßÀ«—¥ ’ ªØ‘∫—µ‘∏√√¡∑—ÈßÀ¡¥∑’˺¡·π–π” ‡æ◊ËÕ®–§≈’˧≈“¬§«“¡ ®–°—ß«≈°—π¡“°ÀπàÕ¬ ®÷ßÕ¬“°‰¥â§Ÿà¡◊Õ ”À√—∫°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘  —∫ πµ√ßπ’ȉ¥â∫â“ß Õ¬à“ßßà“¬Ê ·µà‡ªìπ√–∫∫ ‡æ◊ËÕ§«“¡Õÿàπ„®«à“ ®–„™â‡ªìπ ªí≠À“Õ’°ª√–°“√Àπ÷Ëß∑’˺¡∑√“∫°Á§◊Õ ‡æ◊ËÕπ∫“ß ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘µàÕ‰ª‰¥â‡¡◊ËÕ‰¡àæ∫º¡ ∑à“π∂°‡∂’¬ß°—π‡√◊ËÕß°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘∏√√¡ ‚¥¬π”§”·π–π” ¢Õߺ¡∑’Ë ‰¥â¬‘π¡“µà“ß°√√¡µà“ß«“√– ‰ª‡ªìπ¢âÕÕâ“ßÕ‘ß ‚µâ·¬âß°—π º¡®÷߇ÀÁπ«à“  ¡§«√ √ÿª „®§«“¡¬àÕ¢Õß°“√ ªØ‘∫—µ‘∏√√¡µ“¡∑’˺¡‰¥â·π–π”À¡Ÿà‡æ◊ËÕπ ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ‡ÀÁπ ¿“æ√«¡¢Õß°“√ªØ‘∫µÕ¬à“߇ªìπ√–∫∫ µ—ß·µà‡∫◊Õßµâπ‡ªìπ — ‘ È È ≈”¥—∫‰ª ‡æ◊ËÕ·°âªí≠À“¥—ß∑’Ë°≈à“«¡“·≈â«¢â“ßµâππ—Èπ «—π»ÿ°√å∑’Ë ˜ ¡°√“§¡ ÚıÙÛ / Òı:ÙÒ:ÛÚ π.28 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 29
  • 15. Ò. °“√ √â“ߧ«“¡‡¢â“„®¢Õ∫‡¢µ¢Õßæ√–æÿ∑∏»“ π“ ‡æ◊Õπ∑’¡æπ∞“𧫓¡‡¢â“„®‡°’¬«°—∫æ√–æÿ∑∏»“ π“¡“πâÕ¬ Ë Ë ’ È◊ Ë ®–‰¥â√—∫°“√ªŸæ◊È𧫓¡‡¢â“„®‡ ’¬°àÕπ«à“ æ√–æÿ∑∏»“ π“‰¡à „™à¬“ ·°â “√æ—¥‚√§§√Õ∫®—°√«“≈ ‰¡à „™à‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊ÕÕ¬à“߇¥’¬«„π°“√ ¥”√ß™’«‘µÕ¬Ÿà „π —ߧ¡ ¥—ßπ—Èπ‰¡à „™à«à“‡ªìππ—°‡√’¬π °Á‡≈‘°‡√’¬π ‡æ◊ËÕ ¡“»÷°…“æ√–æÿ∑∏»“ π“ ‡æ√“–§«“¡√Ÿ∑“ß‚≈°‡ªìπ ‘ß®”‡ªìπ ”À√—∫ â Ë °“√¥”√ß™’«‘µ„π∑“ß‚≈° ºŸâ»÷°…“æ√–æÿ∑∏»“ π“®”‡ªìπµâÕß√Õ∫√Ÿâ „π»“ µ√å “¢“Õ◊ËπÊ ¥â«¬ ·≈– Õ¬à“‡¢â“„®«à“ æ√–æÿ∑∏»“ π“‡ªìπ‡√◊ÕßÕ◊π πÕ°‡Àπ◊Õ Ë Ë ®“°°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ‡√◊ËÕߧ«“¡∑ÿ°¢å·≈–°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘‡æ◊ËÕ§«“¡æâπ∑ÿ°¢å (∑“ß„®) ‡∑à“π—Èπ æ√–æÿ∑∏»“ π“‰¡à‰¥â¡’‰«â‡æ◊ËÕµÕ∫ªí≠À“‡°’ˬ«°—∫ ‰ ¬»“ µ√å ‚™§≈“ß ‡®â“°√√¡π“¬‡«√ ™“µ‘‚πâ𙓵‘Àπâ“ º’ “߇∑«¥“ œ≈œ30 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 31
  • 16. Ú. ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ„π°“√ªØ‘∫—µ∏√√¡ ‘ ºŸ∑‡¢â“„®·≈â««à“æ√–æÿ∑∏»“ π“ Õπ‡√◊Õß∑ÿ°¢å·≈–°“√¥—∫∑ÿ°¢å â Ë’ Ë °Á®–‰¥â√—∫°“√·π–π”„Àâ√Ÿâ®—°‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ ”À√—∫°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘∏√√¡ ‰¥â·°à  µ‘ ·≈–  —¡ª™—≠≠– º¡¡—°®–欓¬“¡·π–π”„Àâæ«°‡√“√Ÿ∑π ‘ß∑’°”≈—ߪ√“°Ø°—∫ â — Ë Ë ®‘µ ‡™à𠧫“¡≈—߇≈ ß —¬ §«“¡Õ¬“° §«“¡°—ß«≈ §«“¡ ÿ¢ §«“¡ ∑ÿ°¢å œ≈œ ‡ªìπ°“√À—¥„Àâ¡’  µ‘ ´÷߇ªìπ‡§√◊Õß¡◊Õ√ŸÕ“√¡≥å∑°”≈—ߪ√“°Ø Ë Ë â Ë’ ·≈–‡ΩÑ“°√–µÿâπ‡µ◊Õπæ«°‡√“„Àâ∑”§«“¡√Ÿâµ—« ‰¡à‡º≈Õ ‰¡à«à“®–‡º≈Õ  àß®‘µ‰ª∑“ßµ“ ÀŸ ®¡Ÿ° ≈‘π °“¬ À√◊Õ„®  à«π¡“°°Á®–‡º≈Õ°—π∑“ßµ“ È °—∫∑“ß„® §◊ÕÀ≈߇¢â“‰ªÕ¬Ÿà „π‚≈°¢Õߧ«“¡§‘¥ °—∫‡º≈Õ‰ª‡æàß®âÕß Õ“√¡≥å ‡Õ“ µ‘®àÕ·πàπ‡¢â“‰ª∑’ËÕ“√¡≥å∑’Ë°”≈—ߪ√“°Ø °“√°√–µÿâ𠧫“¡‰¡à ‡ º≈Õ·≈–‰¡à ‡ º≈Õ‡æà ß °Á § ◊ Õ °“√欓¬“¡„Àâ æ «°‡√“¡’  —¡ª™—≠≠– §◊Õ§«“¡√Ÿâµ—«‰«â‡ ¡ÕÊ32 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 33
  • 17. Û. °“√‡®√‘≠ µ‘ªØ∞“π í ‡¡◊ËÕæ«°‡√“¡’‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊ÕÀ√◊ÕÕ“«ÿ∏„π°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘∏√√¡·≈â« ¢—ÈπµÕπµàÕ‰ªº¡®–·π–π”„Àâæ«°‡√“‡®√‘≠ µ‘ªíØ∞“π §◊Õ ¡’ µ‘  —¡ª™—≠≠–√–≈÷°√Ÿâ °“¬ ‡«∑π“ ®‘µ ·≈–/À√◊Õ ∏√√¡ µ“¡§«“¡∂π—¥ ¢Õß·µà≈–∫ÿ§§≈ ‡™àπ „Àâ√ŸâÕ‘√‘¬“∫∂ √Ÿâ§«“¡‡§≈◊ËÕπ‰À«√–À«à“ß°“√ ‡¥‘π®ß°√¡ √Ÿ≈¡À“¬„®‡¢â“ÕÕ° ‡∫◊Õßµâπ∂â“®‘µ¬—߉¡à¡°”≈—ß °Á„Àâ √Ÿâ‰ª â È ’ Õ¬à“ß ¡∂– §◊Õ ‡Õ“ µ‘®¥®àÕ ∫“¬Ê ≈ß„π°“¬∑’Ë∂Ÿ°√Ÿâπ—Èπ ‡¡◊ËÕ®‘µ¡’ °”≈—ߢ÷π·≈â« °Á„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“Õ‘√¬“∫∂ §«“¡‡§≈◊Õπ‰À«°“¬ À√◊Õ≈¡À“¬„® È ‘ Ë π—𠇪ìπ‡æ’¬ß ‘ß∑’∂°√Ÿâ ∂Ÿ°‡ÀÁπ ‰¡à„™à®µ ¡’§«“¡‰¡à‡∑’¬ß‡ªìπ∑ÿ°¢å ‡ªìπ È Ë ËŸ ‘ Ë Õπ—µµ“ ª√“°ØÕ¬ŸàµàÕÀπ⓵àÕµ“π—Ëπ‡Õß ‡¡◊ËÕ∑”‰¥âÕ¬à“ßπ—Èπ·≈â« ®‘µ®–¡’°”≈—ß µ‘ —¡ª™—≠≠–¡“°¢÷Èπ Õ’° À“°π“¡∏√√¡„¥ª√“°Ø°—∫®‘µ °Á “¡“√∂®–√Ÿâ‡∑à“∑—π‰¥â ‡™àπ‡°‘¥ §«“¡√Ÿâ ÷° ÿ¢ √Ÿâ ÷°∑ÿ°¢å ‡°‘¥°ÿ»≈ Õ°ÿ»≈µà“ßÊ °Á„Àâ√Ÿâ∑—ππ“¡∏√√¡π—Èπ „π≈—°…≥– ‘Ëß∑’Ë∂Ÿ°√Ÿâ ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫°“√√Ÿâ√Ÿªπ—Ëπ‡Õß34 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 35
  • 18. Õπ÷Ëß §π‰Àπ¡’°”≈—ß√Ÿâπ“¡∏√√¡‰¥â‡≈¬ º¡¡—°·π–„Àâ√Ÿâ „π¢—Èπ∑’Ë®‘µ‡ΩÑ“√–≈÷°√Ÿâ§«“¡‡ªìπ°≈“ßπ—Èπ ªí≠≠“™π®–‡°‘¥ π“¡∏√√¡‰ª‡≈¬ À√◊ÕºŸâ ‰¡à∂π—¥®–√–≈÷°√Ÿâπ“¡∏√√¡  ¡—§√„®®–√Ÿâ ‚√§ª√–®”µ—« Ú ª√–°“√‡ªìπ à«π¡“° §◊Õ √Ÿª∏√√¡Õ¬à“߇¥’¬«°Á‰¥â (Ò) ‡°‘¥§«“¡‡∫◊ËÕÀπà“¬ ·≈⫇≈‘°ªØ‘∫—µ‘ À√◊Õ ‡¡◊ËÕ®‘µ√Ÿâ√Ÿª∏√√¡À√◊Õπ“¡∏√√¡Õ¬à“ßµàÕ‡π◊ËÕß·≈â« æÕ¡’°”≈—ß (Ú) ‡°‘¥§«“¡≈—߇≈ ß —¬ «à“®–µâÕß∑”Õ–‰√µàÕ‰ªÕ’°À√◊Õ‰¡à  µ‘ª≠≠“¡“°¢÷π °Á®–‡ÀÁπ«à“ ‡¡◊Õ®‘µ‰ª√Ÿ√ª∏√√¡À√◊Õπ“¡∏√√¡µà“ßÊ í È Ë âŸ ·≈⫇≈‘°ªØ‘∫—µ‘‚¥¬°“√ √Ÿâ À—π¡“§‘¥§âπ§«â“À“§”µÕ∫¥â«¬°“√ §‘¥ ·≈â« ®‘µ®–¡’§«“¡¬‘π¥’ ¬‘π√⓬ À√◊Õ‡ªìπ°≈“ߢ÷Èπ¡“ º¡¡—°·π–π” ‡Õ“ À¡Ÿà‡æ◊ËÕπ „Àâ√–≈÷°√Ÿâ§«“¡¬‘π¥’ ¬‘π√⓬ À√◊Õ§«“¡‡ªìπ°≈“ßπ—Èπ ‡¡◊ËÕ ®‘µ√Ÿâ§«“¡¬‘π¥’ ¬‘π√⓬·≈â« °Á®–‡ÀÁ𧫓¡¬‘π¥’ ¬‘π√⓬π—Èπ‡°‘¥¥—∫ ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫√Ÿª∏√√¡·≈–π“¡∏√√¡∑—Èߪ«ßπ—Ëπ‡Õß ·≈â«®‘µª≈àÕ¬«“ß ·∑â®√‘߇¡◊ËÕ®‘µ‡¢â“‰ª√ŸâÕ¬Ÿà∑’˧«“¡‡ªìπ°≈“ß·≈â« °Á „Àâ√ŸâÕ¬Ÿà §«“¡¬‘π¥’¬‘π√⓬ ‡¢â“‰ª Ÿà§«“¡‡ªìπ°≈“ߢÕß®‘µ µÕπ·√° §«“¡ Õ¬à“ßπ—π ·≈â«®‘µ‡¢“®–æ—≤π“¢Õ߇¢“‰ª‡Õ߇¡◊Õ¡’°”≈—ߢÕß µ‘  ¡“∏‘ È Ë ‡ªìπ°≈“ßÊ ®–¡’ —ÈπÊ ·≈â«°Á¡’§«“¡¬‘π¥’ ¬‘π√⓬‡°‘¥¢÷ÈπÕ’° µàÕ¡“ ªí≠≠“  ¡∫Ÿ√≥凵Á¡∑’Ë ™”π‘™”π“≠¢÷Èπ ®‘µ®–‡ªìπ°≈“ß¡“°¢÷Èπµ“¡≈”¥—∫ °Á„À⺟âªØ‘∫—µ‘√ŸâÕ¬Ÿà π’ȇªìπ¢âÕ √ÿª·π«∑“ß°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª ∑’Ë¢ÕΩ“° ∑’˧«“¡‡ªìπ°≈“ߢÕß®‘µ ‡¡◊ËÕ®‘µ¡’°”≈—ߢ÷Èπ °Á®– “¡“√∂®”·π°¢—π∏å ‰«â „Àâ°—∫À¡Ÿà‡æ◊ËÕπ‡æ◊ËÕª√–°Õ∫°“√æ‘®“√≥“ªØ‘∫—µ‘µàÕ‰ª ≈–‡Õ’¬¥µàÕ‰ª®π‡¢â“∂÷ß „® ‰¥â36 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 37
  • 19. Ù. °“√‡®√‘≠ µ‘ —¡ª™—≠≠–∑’Ë ‰¡à∂Ÿ°µâÕß ®“°·π«∑“ßÕ—π‡¥’¬«°—π¢â“ßµâπ ‡¡◊ËÕ·µà≈–§π≈ß¡◊ժؑ∫—µ‘ ∏√√¡®√‘ßÊ °≈—∫ª√“°Øªí≠À“ª≈’°¬àÕ¬·µ°µà“ß°—π‡ªìπ®”π«π¡“° ªí≠À“À≈—°°Á¡“®“°°“√‡®√‘≠ µ‘ —¡ª™—≠≠–‰¡à∂Ÿ°µâÕß æ«°‡√“®”π«π¡“°„π¢≥–π’ È ¬‘ Ë ß ªØ‘ ∫ — µ ‘ ¬ ‘ Ë ß ‡°‘ ¥ §«“¡ §≈“¥‡§≈◊Õπ ¬‘ß¢¬—𠬑ßæ≈“¥‰ª‰°≈ ®ÿ¥∑’æ“°—πæ≈“¥¡“°„π™à«ßπ’È Ë Ë Ë Ë °Á§◊Õ ·∑π∑’Ë®– √Ÿâµ“¡§«“¡‡ªìπ®√‘ß æ«°‡√“°≈—∫‰ª √â“ßÕ“√¡≥å Õ—πÀπ÷Ëߢ÷Èπ¡“ ·≈â«æ“°—π‡¢â“‰ªµ‘¥Õ¬Ÿà„πÕ“√¡≥åÕ—ππ—È𠧫“¡º‘¥æ≈“¥π—Èπ‡°‘¥®“°∫“ߧπ√Ÿâ ÷°«à“µπøÿÑß´à“π¡“°‰ª ®÷߇ÀÁπ«à“®”‡ªìπµâÕßΩñ° ¡∂°√√¡∞“π‡ ’¬°àÕπ °“√Ωñ° ¡∂°√√¡∞“π π—π °Á°√–∑”Õ¬à“ߺ‘¥æ≈“¥ §◊Õ·∑π∑’®–°√–∑” —¡¡“ ¡“∏‘ °≈—∫‰ª∑” È Ë ¡‘®©“ ¡“∏‘Õπ‰¡àª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬§«“¡√Ÿµ« ‚¥¬°“√‡æà߇¢â“‰ª∑’Õ“√¡≥å — â — Ë Õ—π‡¥’¬« °≈àÕ¡®‘µ„À⇧≈◊Õπ‡§≈‘¡‡¢â“‰ª‡°“–Õ“√¡≥åÕπ‡¥’¬« ·∑π∑’®– Ë È — Ë ¡’ µ‘√–≈÷°√ŸÕ“√¡≥åÕπ‡¥’¬«‰ªÕ¬à“ß ∫“¬Ê ‚¥¬¡’§«“¡√Ÿµ« ‰¡à‡º≈Õ â — â — ‰¡à‡æàß ®‘µ·§à√–≈÷°√ŸâÕ“√¡≥åÕ—π‡¥’¬«Õ¬à“ß ∫“¬Ê ‡ªìπ∏√√¡‡Õ°38 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 39
  • 20. ‡¡◊ËÕ∑”¡‘®©“ ¡“∏‘ ®‘µ‡§≈◊ËÕπ‰ª‡°“–Õ“√¡≥å∑’Ë √â“ߢ÷Èπ¡“  “‡Àµÿ∑𰉥â„πµÕππ’∑ß Û ª√–°“√π’·À≈– ∑”„Àâæ«°‡√“ Ë’ ÷ È È— È æÕÀ¬ÿ¥°“√∑” ¡“∏‘Àπ¡“¥Ÿ®µ À√◊Õ‡®√‘≠ µ‘ªØ∞“π °Á‡Õ“®‘µ∑’‡°“– — ‘ í Ë ®”π«π¡“° À≈߉ª¬÷¥Õ“√¡≥åÕ—πÀπ÷Ë߉«â ·≈⫧‘¥«à“ “¡“√∂√Ÿâ®‘µ µ‘¥Õ“√¡≥åππ‡Õß ¡“„™â¥®µ ´÷ß®‘µ™π‘¥π’È„™â‡®√‘≠ µ‘ªØ∞“π‰¡à‰¥â®√‘ß È— Ÿ‘ Ë í √Ÿâ„®‰¥âÕ¬à“ß·®à¡™—¥ µÕππ’∫“ߧπæÕ®–·°â‰¢‰¥â∫“ß·≈â« ‡¡◊Õ‡√‘¡√Ÿ∑π È â Ë Ë â — ‡æ√“–°√–∑—Ëß®‘µµ‘¥Õ“√¡≥åÕ¬Ÿà°Á¡Õ߉¡à‡ÀÁ𧫓¡®√‘߇ ’¬·≈â« °“√∑’®µ‰ª √â“ß¿æ¢Õßπ—°ªØ‘∫µ¢π¡“ ·∑π∑’®–√Ÿ ß∑’°”≈—ߪ√“°Ø Ë‘ — ‘ È÷ Ë â Ë‘ Ë  “‡Àµÿ¢Õߧ«“¡º‘¥æ≈“¥∑’ˇªìπ°—π¡“°Õ’°Õ¬à“ßÀπ÷Ëß°Á§◊Õ µ“¡§«“¡‡ªìπ®√‘ß ·∑π∑’®–√ŸÕ“√¡≥剪µ“¡∏√√¡¥“ ßà“¬Ê  ∫“¬Ê æ«°‡√“®”π«π¡“° Ë â °≈—«®–‡º≈Õ °≈—«®–À≈ß¡“°‡°‘π‰ª ‚¥¬‡©æ“–Õ¬à“߬‘ß„π‡«≈“∑’æ∫ Ë Ë ¡’‡√◊Õߢ”Ê ‡√◊ÕßÀπ÷ß §◊ÕπâÕߧπÀπ÷ß®‘µµ‘¥Õ“√¡≥å¿“¬„πÕ¬Ÿà Ë Ë Ë Ë °—∫º¡ À√◊Õ„°≈â®–æ∫°—∫º¡ ®‘µ®–‡°‘¥°“√µ◊πµ—«¢÷π ‡°‘¥Õ“°“√‡°√Áß Ë È º¡°Á·π–π”«à“ „À⥟„Àâ√Ÿâ«à“°”≈—ßµ‘¥Õ¬Ÿà ∂â“√Ÿâ·≈â«®–‰¥â°≈—∫ÕÕ°¡“Õ¬Ÿà √–«—ßµ—«·® ‰¡àº‘¥Õ–‰√°—∫π—°«‘Ë߇«≈“‡¢â“‡ â𠵓√å∑ ¢â“ßπÕ° ·≈–·∑π∑’Ë®–‡æà߇¢â“‰ª¢â“ß„π„Àâ欓¬“¡√Ÿâµ—«ÕÕ°‰ª¬—ß  “‡ÀµÿÕ°ª√–°“√Àπ÷ß°Á§Õ °“√ªØ‘∫µ∏√√¡¥â«¬§«“¡Õ¬“° ’ Ë ◊ — ‘ ¿“¬πÕ° ÕÕ°‰ª —¡º—  ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡„À⥒ ®‘µ∑’˵‘¥Õ¬Ÿà¢â“ß„π®–‰¥âÀ≈ÿ¥ ‡™àπ Õ¬“°√Ÿ∏√√¡‡ÀÁπ∏√√¡‡√Á«Ê Õ¬“°‡ªìπ§π‡°àß ‡ªì𥓫‡¥àπ Õ¬“° â ÕÕ°¡“ πâÕߧππ—Èπøíß·≈â«°≈ÿâ¡„®¡“° ‡æ√“–§‘¥«à“º¡ Õπ„Àâ àß®‘µ ‰¥â√—∫°“√¬Õ¡√—∫·≈–§”™¡‡™¬®“°À¡Ÿà‡æ◊ËÕπ æÕÕ¬“°¡“° °ÁµâÕß ÕÕ°πÕ° ¬— ß ¥’ « à “  ß — ¬ ·≈â « ∂“¡º¡‡ ’ ¬ °à Õ π ‰¡à 𠔉ª‡≈à “ ∂«“¬ ç‡√àߧ«“¡‡æ’¬√é ·µà·∑π∑’®–‡®√‘≠ µ‘ ¡ª™—≠≠–Õ¬à“߇ªìπ∏√√¡™“µ‘ Ë — §√Ÿ∫“Õ“®“√¬å «à“º¡ Õπ„Àâ àß®‘µÕÕ°πÕ° ¡‘©–π—Èπ ∂â“∑à“πæ∫º¡ „ÀâµàÕ‡π◊ËÕßµ≈Õ¥‡«≈“ Õ—π‡ªì𧫓¡À¡“¬∑’Ë∂Ÿ°µâÕߢÕß°“√‡√àߧ«“¡ ∑à“π§ß∑ÿ∫º¡µ°°ÿØ‘‡≈¬ ‡æ’¬√ °≈—∫°≈“¬‡ªìπ°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘¥â«¬§«“¡À—°À“≠ ‡§√à߇§√’¬¥ ¥Ÿ º‘«πÕ°‡À¡◊Õπ®–¥’ ·µà®µ¿“¬„π‰¡à¡’§«“¡ ß∫ ÿ¢„¥Ê ‡≈¬ ‘40 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 41
  • 21. §«“¡®√‘ß°“√∑’À≈ß √â“ßÕ“√¡≥åÕÕ°¡“Õ—πÀπ÷ß ·≈⫵π‡Õß Ë Ë Õ¬“°√Ÿâ Õ¬“°‡ÀÁπ Õ¬“°‡ªìπ Õ¬“°‰¥â Õ¬“°‡¥àπ Õ¬“°¥—ß Õ¬“° ‡¢â“‰ªµ‘¥Õ¬Ÿà¿“¬„ππ—Èπ °Á‡ªìπ°“√ àß®‘µÕÕ°πÕ°·≈â« §◊ÕÕÕ°‰ª À≈ÿ¥æâπ ‚Õ°“ æ≈“¥°Á¡’ Ÿß ‡æ√“–®‘µ¡—°®– √â“ß∫“ß ‘Ëß∫“ßÕ¬à“ß πÕ°®“°√Ÿâ º¡æ¬“¬“¡·°â°“√ àß®‘µÕÕ°‰ª √â“ß¿æ‚¥¬‰¡à√Ÿâµ—«„Àâ ¢÷Èπ¡“ ·∑π∑’Ë®–√Ÿâ∑ÿ°Õ¬à“ßµ“¡§«“¡‡ªìπ®√‘ß ‰¡à‰¥âª√“√∂π“®–„ÀâÀ—¥ àß®‘µÕÕ°πÕ°·µàÕ¬à“ß„¥ ·≈â«°Á§«√ —߇°µ®‘µ„®µπ‡Õ߉«â∫â“ß À“°√Ÿâ ÷°«à“ ®‘µ„® ªí≠À“Õ’°Õ¬à“ßÀπ÷Ëß∑’Ëæ«°‡√“ à«ππâÕ¬‡ªìπ°—π ‰¥â·°à°“√ ‡°‘¥§«“¡Àπ—°∑’Ë·µ°µà“ßÀ√◊Õ·ª≈°·¬°®“°∏√√¡™“µ‘·«¥≈âÕ¡ À≈ßµ“¡Õ“°“√¢Õß®‘µ ‡™àπ À≈ß„ππ‘¡‘µ · ß  ’ ‡ ’¬ßµà“ßÊ À√◊Õ °Á· ¥ß«à“®‘µ‰ªÀ≈߬÷¥Õ–‰√‡¢â“„Àâ·≈â« ‡æ√“–‚¥¬∏√√¡™“µ‘¢Õß À≈ß„π°“√°√–µÿ°¢Õß√à“ß°“¬ œ≈œ æÕ‡°‘¥Õ“°“√¢÷π ∫“ߧπ°Á¬π¥’ È ‘  ‘Ëß¿“¬„π¿“¬πÕ°π—Èπ ¡—π‰¡à¡’πÈ”Àπ—°Õ–‰√‡≈¬ ∑’Ë¡’πÈ”Àπ—°¢÷Èπ¡“ ∫“ߧπ°Á¬π√⓬ µâÕߧլª≈Õ∫§Õ¬·π–„ÀâÀπ¡“ —߇°µ√Ÿ§«“¡¬‘π¥’ ‘ — â °Á‡æ√“–‡√“‰ª·∫°‰ª∂◊Õ‰«â‡∑à“π—Èπ‡Õß ≈Õß —߇°µ¥ŸµÕππ’È°Á‰¥â§√—∫ ¬‘π√⓬¢Õß®‘µ ®π®‘µ‡¢â“∂÷ߧ«“¡‡ªìπ°≈“߇Õß ·∑π°“√‰ª‡æàß„ à ≈Õß∑”„®„Àâ ∫“¬Ê  —߇°µ‰ª¬—ß ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡¿“¬πÕ° ‡™àπ Õ“§“√ Õ“°“√µà“ßÊ ‡À≈à“π—π ·≈–¡’√“§– ‚∑ – À√◊Õ‚¡À–§√Õ∫ß”‚¥¬‰¡à√µ« È âŸ — ∫â“π‡√◊Õπ ‚µä–‡°â“Õ’È µâπÀ¡“°√“°‰¡â ®–‡ÀÁπ«à“  ‘Ëß¿“¬πÕ°π—È𠂪√àß ‡∫“ ‰¡à¡’πÈ”Àπ—° ‡æ√“–‡√“‰¡à ‰¥â‡¢â“‰ª·∫°À“¡‡Õ“‰«â  à«π °“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘π—Èπ ∂â“®–ªÑÕß°—𧫓¡º‘¥æ≈“¥ °Á§«√®—∫À≈—° ®‘µ„®¢Õ߇√“π—Èπ ¡Õ߬âÕπ‡¢â“¡“®–‡ÀÁπ«à“¡—πÀπ—°¡“°∫â“ßπâÕ¬∫â“ß „Àâ·¡àπÊ «à“ ç‡√“ªØ‘∫µ‡æ◊Õ√Ÿ∑𰑇≈ µ—≥À“ ∑’§Õ¬·µà®–§√Õ∫ß” — ‘ Ë â — Ë ∂⓬÷¥¡“°°ÁÀπ—°¡“° ¬÷¥πâÕ¬°ÁÀπ—°πâÕ¬ ¡—π¬—ß·ª≈°·¬°ÕÕ°®“° ®‘µ„® ªØ‘∫—µ‘ ‰ª®π®‘µ©≈“¥ æâπ®“°Õ”π“®¢Õß°‘‡≈ µ—≥À“é ∏√√¡™“µ‘ ∏√√¡¥“  ‘Ëß∑’Ë·ª≈°·¬°π—Ëπ·À≈–§√—∫ §◊Õ à«π‡°‘π∑’ˇ√“ ‰¡à „™àªØ‘∫—µ‘‡æ◊ËÕ ‘ËßÕ◊Ëπ À“°ªØ‘∫—µ‘‚¥¬·Ωß ‘ËßÕ◊Ëπ‡¢â“‰ª ‡™à𠧫“¡ À≈ß √â“ߢ÷Èπ¡“‚¥¬√Ÿâ‰¡à‡∑à“∑—π¡“¬“¢Õß°‘‡≈ 42 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 43
  • 22. ‡¡◊ËÕ√Ÿâ·≈â« °Á —߇°µ®‘µµπ‡ÕßµàÕ‰ª«à“¡—π¬‘π¥’ ¬‘π√⓬µàÕ ‘ß∑’·ª≈°ª≈Õ¡‡¢â“¡“π—πÀ√◊Õ‰¡à ·≈â«°Á√‡√◊Õ¬‰ª Ë Ë È âŸ Ë ®π®‘µ‡ªìπ°≈“ßµàÕÕ“√¡≥å∑—Èߪ«ß ∏√√¡™“µ‘¿“¬„π°—∫ ∏√√¡™“µ‘¿“¬πÕ°°Á®–‡ ¡Õ°—π §◊Õ‰¡à¡’πÈ”Àπ—°„ÀâµâÕß ·∫°À“¡µàÕ‰ª æ√–»“ ¥“∑√ß Õπ«à“ ¢—π∏å∑—Èß ı ‡ªìπ¢ÕßÀπ—° ∫ÿ§§≈·∫°¢ÕßÀπ—°æ“‰ª ‡¢“¬àÕ¡‰¡àæ∫§«“¡ ÿ¢‡≈¬ §” Õπ¢Õßæ√–Õߧåπ𧔉Àπ°Á§”π—π ¢—π∏凪ìπ¢ÕßÀπ—° È— È ®√‘ßÊ  ”À√—∫∫“ߧπ∑’Ë¡’µ“∑’Ë®–¥ŸÕÕ°‰¥â44 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 45
  • 23. æ√–æÿ∑∏‡®â“∑à“π Õπ«à“ §«“¡‡°‘¥ §«“¡·°à §«“¡‡®Á∫‰¢â‰¥âªÉ«¬ §«“¡µ“¬°Á‡ªìπ∑ÿ°¢å πâÕ¬§ππ—°∑’Ëøíß∏√√¡–µ√ßπ’È·≈â«®–‡¢â“„®®√‘ßÊ  à«π„À≠àøíß·≈â«°Á®–‡¢â“„®‡ªìπ«à“ ‡√“‡°‘¥ ‡√“·°à ‡√“‡®Á∫ ‡√“µ“¬ ‡ªìπ∑ÿ°¢å ‰¡à¡’„§√‡¢â“„®®√‘ßÊ «à“§«“¡®√‘ß·≈â«  ¿“«–¢Õߧ«“¡‡°‘¥  ¿“«–¢Õߧ«“¡·°à  ¿“«–¢Õߧ«“¡‡®Á∫  ¿“«–¢Õߧ«“¡µ“¬ µà“ßÀ“°∑’ˇªìπ∑ÿ°¢å ‰¡à¡’ ‡√“ ∑’ˇªìπ∑ÿ°¢å ¡’‡æ’¬ß ¿“«–¢Õß√Ÿªπ“¡∑’Ë· ¥ß∂÷߉µ√≈—°…≥å ‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ µ—ÈßÕ¬Ÿà ·≈â«°Á¥—∫‰ª §«∫§ÿ¡‰¡à‰¥â ∫—ߧ—∫„ÀâÕ¬Ÿà „πÕ”π“®µ“¡„®ª√“√∂π“‰¡à‰¥â46 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 47
  • 24. ‡¡◊ËÕ‡¢â“„®º‘¥ ¡’§«“¡‡ÀÁπº‘¥«à“ ®“°‡¥‘¡∑’ˇÀÁπ·µà«à“ √Ÿªπ“¡/°“¬„®‡ªìπµ—«‡√“ ‡æ√“–¡’ ¡ÿ∑¬§◊Õµ—≥À“ ®÷ß∑”„À⇰‘¥∑ÿ°¢å — ‡¡◊ËÕ√Ÿªπ“¡·°à ‡®Á∫ µ“¬ °Á欓¬“¡¥‘Èπ√πÀπ’ ‡√“°Á®–·®à¡·®â߇¢â“„®«à“ ·µà¬‘Ëß欓¬“¡¥‘Èπ°Á¬‘Ëß∑ÿ°¢å ‡¡◊ËÕ¬‘Ëß∑ÿ°¢å°Á¬‘Ëߥ‘Èπ ‡æ√“–‡√“‰¡à√Ÿâ®—°∑ÿ°¢å§◊Õ√Ÿªπ“¡ ·∑π∑’Ë®–‡ÀÁ𧫓¡®√‘ß«à“ ‚¥¬‰ª ”§—≠º‘¥«à“√Ÿªπ“¡§◊Õµ—«‡√“ §«“¡∑ÿ°¢å¡’Õ¬Ÿà·µà ‰¡à¡’ºŸâ∑ÿ°¢å ®÷ß∑”„À⇰‘¥µ—≥À“Õ—π‡ªì𧫓¡Õ¬“° ‡¡◊ËÕ„¥∑’ˇ√“ªØ‘∫—µ‘∏√√¡ ∑’Ë®–„Àâµ—«‡√“æâπ∑ÿ°¢å·≈–¡’§«“¡ ÿ¢ ®π “¡“√∂‡ÀÁπ·µà ¿“«–≈â«πÊ ·≈–µ—≥À“π—Èπ‡Õß∑”„À⇰‘¥§«“¡∑ÿ°¢å∑“ß„® Õ—πª√“»®“° —µ«å ∫ÿ§§≈ µ—«µπ ‡√“‡¢“ ∑—∫´âÕπ¢÷Èπ¡“Õ’° ‡√“®–‡¢â“„®„πÕ√‘¬ —® Ù Õ¬à“ß·®à¡·®âß Õ√‘¬ —®π’ȇªìπ∏√√¡–∑’Ë≈÷°´÷Èß≈–‡Õ’¬¥‡ ’¬®√‘ß ‡æ√“–§«“¡‰¡à‡¢â“„®Õ√‘¬ —®  —µ«å∑ÈßÀ≈“¬®÷ßµâÕ߇«’¬π«à“¬µ“¬‡°‘¥ — Õ¬à“߉¡à¡’∑’Ë ‘Èπ ÿ¥48 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 49
  • 25. ·µàÀ“°√Ÿâ∑ÿ°¢å·®à¡·®âß ‡¡◊ËÕ„¥∑’ˇ√“‡ÀÁπ«à“¡—π‡ªìπ·µà‡æ’¬ß ¿“«–≈â«πÊ  ¡ÿ∑—¬°Á‡ªìπÕ—π∂Ÿ°≈–‚¥¬Õ—µ‚π¡—µ‘ ‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ µ—ÈßÕ¬Ÿà ·≈â«°Á¥—∫‰ª ·≈â«π‘‚√∏®–ª√“°ØµàÕÀπ⓵àÕµ“„π©—∫æ≈—𠇪ìπ∑ÿ°¢å ‰¡à¡µ«µπ ∫—ߧ—∫‰¡à‰¥â ’ — °“√√Ÿâ∑ÿ°¢å®π≈– ¡ÿ∑—¬·®âßπ‘‚√∏ ‡√“°Á®–‡°‘¥ ¿“«– —°·µà«à“¥Ÿ π’È·À≈–§◊ÕÕ√‘¬¡√√§  —°·µà«à“√Ÿâ  —°·µà«à“‡ÀÁπ Õ—π‡ªìπ∑“ß “¬‡¥’¬«∑’Ë®–𔉪 Ÿà ‰¡à‡°‘¥µ—≥À“„π ¿“«–π—ÈπÊ Õ’° §«“¡æâπ∑ÿ°¢å∂“«√‰¥â ( ¿“«–‡ªì𧫓¡√Ÿâ ÷° ‰¡à¡’§«“¡§‘¥π÷°„π ¿“«–π—Èπ) æ√–ª√“‚¡∑¬å ª“‚¡™⁄‚™50 ·¥à‡∏ÕºŸâ¡“„À¡à: ‡√◊ËÕ߇√’¬∫ßà“¬·≈–∏√√¡¥“∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“∏√√¡– ·π«∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘∏√√¡‚¥¬ —߇¢ª 51
  • 26. 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