ACADEC Art Section 4


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ACADEC Art Section 4

  1. 1. Art Section IV:Europe Envisions the Empire<br />Angelica Aguilera<br />Devora Lopez<br />Valerie Ybarra<br />Aileen Yum-Chan<br />
  2. 2. Benjamin West<br /><ul><li>1738-1820
  3. 3. Springfield, Pennsylvania
  4. 4. Adult life was spent in England
  5. 5. Prolific painter of portraits and historical events</li></li></ul><li>His life…<br /><ul><li>He had a natural talent for drawing
  6. 6. Established a strong reputation in his teenage years
  7. 7. Late 1750’s William Smith noticed him
  8. 8. Gave him the opportunities he needed:
  9. 9. Wealthy patrons helped West travel to Rome, Venice, and Florence before he settled in London in 1763
  10. 10. He exhibited his work at the Royal Academy in 1764
  11. 11. Was noticed by critics and King George III
  12. 12. Named court painter
  13. 13. Also the president of the institution from 1792-1805, 1806-1820
  14. 14. He influenced many artists who traveled to Europe from North America.</li></li></ul><li>The Death of General Wolfe (1770)<br /><ul><li>The final moments of the life of James Wolfe who died in 1759
  15. 15. His characters were dressed in modern clothes in Wolfe’s lifetime, not the timeless drapery inspired by ancient art
  16. 16. Laid ground work for William Penn’s Treaty with the Indians (1771-1772)</li></li></ul><li>William Penn<br /><ul><li>(1644-1718)
  17. 17. Founder of Pennsylvania
  18. 18. Fair, heroic, promoter of freedom, and leader in positive relations with Europeans and Native Americans
  19. 19. Born to prosperous parents in London
  20. 20. Attached to the Anglican church
  21. 21. Agnostic towards: Catholics, puritans, Quakers, etc,.
  22. 22. He was dedicated to Quakers
  23. 23. Relationship with family was in jeopardy
  24. 24. Fathers death in 1670, moved him to promote religious freedom
  25. 25. King of England gave Penn proprietary grant in 1681 as a payment for a debt owed to his father
  26. 26. Sylvania – forests
  27. 27. Pennsylvania </li></li></ul><li>Penn’s treaty<br /><ul><li>Depicts relationship between Penn and native Americans.
  28. 28. The creation of a treaty dealing with land for goods and a peace promise
  29. 29. No formal documentation
  30. 30. 1682-1683
  31. 31. Took place 100 years before it was painted
  32. 32. He imagined it from the legends
  33. 33. The men kneel and present cloth to Lenape chief, who is surrounded by his men
  34. 34. Outside of circle the men natives go about their life
  35. 35. Left side is Europeans, including Penn
  36. 36. Open arms</li></li></ul><li>William Penn<br /><ul><li>After the event, Penn returned to England and only briefly visited America
  37. 37. Thomas Penn commissioned the painting
  38. 38. Walking Purchase
  39. 39. The painting demonstrates how art can be politicized
  40. 40. Shows that native Americans and Europeans were unlike</li></li></ul><li>William Hodges<br /><ul><li>1744-97
  41. 41. London
  42. 42. Trained at young age
  43. 43. Richard Wilson, member of Royal Academy
  44. 44. James Cook, 1772
  45. 45. GB Royal Navy
  46. 46. First Voyage: 1768-1771
  47. 47. Cape Horn in South America
  48. 48. Second Voyage: 1772-1775, commanded HMS Revolution, companion, HMS Adventure
  49. 49. Returned to London in 1776
  50. 50. Popular because public wanted to see far-off lands
  51. 51. India, 1780-1784
  52. 52. Governor- General Warren Hastings and the East India Company
  53. 53. 1793 published illustrations from his visit
  54. 54. 1786 He became a member of the Royal Academy
  55. 55. Full member 1794
  56. 56. The effects of War and The Consequences of Peace, on bond street in 1794-1795
  57. 57. Duke of York, was innapropriate, and had a failure in show
  58. 58. Tried to regain financial position
  59. 59. Failed, and died in 1797, speculation of suicide. </li></li></ul><li>HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ with Fishing Craft in Matavi Bay<br /><ul><li>Large landscape painting depicting a protected bay along Tahiti’s northern coast line
  60. 60. August 1773, based on Hodges documentary sketches of the location
  61. 61. Served as an accurate documentation of places and people he and members of Cook’s entourage observed during travels
  62. 62. Would have seemed distant and new to urban European viewers in the Eighteenth century
  63. 63. Represented a level of domination of a new land
  64. 64. Although England had not yet established itself as colonial power in the region, exploring and documenting were the first stages of the imperial campaign there.</li></li></ul><li>Slave Ship (Slavers throwing overboard the dead and dying, typhoon coming on)<br /><ul><li>Turner was highly accomplished; known for historical and landscaping paintings
  65. 65. his paintings reveal horrific image of a slave ship caught on a storm at sea, slaves are thrown overboard and are being devoured by fish and sharks
  66. 66. emotionally provocative landscape paintings
  67. 67. serves and compliments abolitionist literature by graphically depicting the murder of slaves
  68. 68. it is shown in The history of Abolition of the slave trade 1808
  69. 69. demonstrates Turner's support of the abolitionist movement and the 1840 international anti-slavery convention</li></li></ul><li>Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks<br /><ul><li>Author: James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903)
  70. 70. North American-born artist who made his career in Europe
  71. 71. Born in Massachusetts; Most of his life abroad
  72. 72. Father an engineer
  73. 73. Loved the arts in England; West Point Military
  74. 74. Not successful, but very creative
  75. 75. Worked as a cartographer in Europe St. Petersburg
  76. 76. Moved to Paris-studio of Charles Gleyre (French Impressionist Painters); befriended Gustave Courbet
  77. 77. Rembrandt van Rijn-highly emotional, evocative works
  78. 78. “art for art’s sake”-create beauty
  79. 79. Titles based on music
  80. 80. Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket made Whistler infamous-”flinging a pot of paint in the public’s face”
  81. 81. Incorporated artists from the Far East, unlike Impressionists artists in France with Japanese art
  82. 82. Admired Japanese art (porcelain)</li></li></ul><li>The Painting<br /><ul><li>Woman surrounded by Chinese objects-Whistler’s collection
  83. 83. Joanna Hiffernan-mistress; modeled for many of his works ( Symphony in White, No. 1, and No. 2); relationship with friend
  84. 84. Relaxed, casual pose
  85. 85. Chinese brocade robe; floral motif in peach and rose
  86. 86. Philadelphia Museum of Art- Purple and Rose
  87. 87. Imagines herself as a painter
  88. 88. Imitates Chinese courtly fashion
  89. 89. Dominate colors are beige and brown; vivid tones of Hiffernan’s robe and blue and white porcelain are accentuated
  90. 90. Patron of many shops that contained Chinese porcelains-Oxford and Sloan Street shop
  91. 91. Highly prized by upper and middle class</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Lange Leizen- pattern showing delicate, willowy Chinese ladies
  92. 92. Lange-Dutch for Long-Long Eliza
  93. 93. Six Marks-markings on the porcelains that were used to verify the authenticity
  94. 94. “Six Marks”- refers to a particular Chinese character; authentic signature
  95. 95. Interests in Imperialists countries were driven by demand imports, such as tea
  96. 96. Lange Leizen references this history-England has battled with Holland over tea exports from China
  97. 97. Regardless of his “arts for arts sake” idea; references to tea and British control of trade from China and India are important in understanding the British Empire</li></li></ul><li>A Lady receiving Visitors (The Reception)<br /><ul><li>John Frederick Lewis (1805-76)
  98. 98. Painted watercolors and oil paintings
  99. 99. Made a member of the Royal Academy in 1865
  100. 100. Depiction of the Middle East was very accurate
  101. 101. Son of an artist (Frederick Christian Lewis-engraver and a landscape painter)
  102. 102. Traveled and worked abroad
  103. 103. Contemporaries driven by the art scene in Paris; however, he was drawn back East
  104. 104. Traveled to Spain, Greece, Turkey, and then Egypt
  105. 105. Assumed the life of a wealthy Turkish man-experiences abroad inspired his artistic production</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Life in Cairo documented by William Makepeace Thackery- Notes of a Journey from Cornhill to Grand Cairo
  106. 106. Egypt ruled by Turks in the Ottoman Empire; taken the life of an Ottoman Pasha. AKA governor; “gone native”; photograph of him traveled to England
  107. 107. Gave the artist legitamacy in his art to be documentary rather than fictional
  108. 108. Made over 600 watercolor paintings and drawings-Cairo
  109. 109. London (1851)- these images would be basis for his bigger paintings
  110. 110. Showed intimate interiors of harems and mosques. Audience would never see them., except through Lewis
  111. 111. Entered into Western Orientalist construction of the East- influential for decades</li></li></ul><li>The Painting<br /><ul><li>Complex interior space with a high ceiling; chamber of the room where the lady of the house is seated
  112. 112. Sunlight flickers throughout the painting; reflection of the pool we can see the lady and her servant
  113. 113. Clothed in elegant fabrics
  114. 114. Servant looks at viewer; arrival of visitor; gazes off into space
  115. 115. Colors bright and vivid; illusion of space is convincing (one-point perspective)
  116. 116. He catches the relationship with many upper-class women and her servants
  117. 117. Gazelles were popular domestic pets in upper-class Egyptian homes-female beauty
  118. 118. Mandarah-domain of men; subverted the normal social order in a witty manner; the educated member would notice his “error”
  119. 119. make a statement of woman in the Ottoman empire? Important concern in Great Britain at the time; one of justification of Great Britain’s intervention in the region</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Egypt was a crucial pathway to the trade routes that provdided British access to India
  120. 120. British interests in India increased during the 19th century/ France sought to expand in this region Suez Canal- water access to important trade routes/ France had an advantageous position
  121. 121. Great Britain became the largest single shareholder in the canal
  122. 122. Because of high debts and bankruptcy, the Ottoman Empire gave control to the British in 1882.
  123. 123. Painting: 1873, French had constructed the Suez Canal; British interest in the region was extremely high; not yet, “poised” to take control of Egypt</li></li></ul><li>Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters<br /><ul><li>Asia
  124. 124. In his piece, Shonibare quotes The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters
  125. 125. Francisco Goya (1746-1828), a Spanish painter and printmaker, created this famous print in the late 18th century
  126. 126. The Sleep of Reason is one of a set of 80etchings in a folio called Los Caprichos, meaning The Caprices or The Follies
  127. 127. Goya produced this particular etching between 1796 and 1798
  128. 128. The etching depicts a man asleep on a desk, his head in his arms
  129. 129. The man could either be the artist himself or a representation of the creative mind
  130. 130. The desk on which the man rests displays the writing “the sleep of reason produces monsters”
  131. 131. Threatening owls and bats surround the man
  132. 132. These creatures symbolize ignorance and superstition
  133. 133. One owl, standing on the table, pokes the main figure with a pen as if to wake him
  134. 134. A lynx, alert and watchful, lies behind the figure’s chair</li></li></ul><li>Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters: Design<br /><ul><li>Shonibarecreated almost an exact replica of Goya’s print
  135. 135. Differences: Large scale, full color photographs and looks 3D, Shonibare’schoice of clothing for his main figure (Dutch wax cloth), the inscription on the desk is altered (“The sleep of reason produces monsters in Asia?”)
  136. 136. The varying ages, ethnicities, and continents all reference the complex and far-reaching networks as well as influences of the British Empire
  137. 137. Shonibare’swork leaves the viewer with a plethora of unanswered questions
  138. 138. Instead, the artist leaves the unresolved issues as a responsibility for the viewer to question history and find the answers </li></li></ul><li>Vital Stats <br /><ul><li>Artist: YinkaShonibare, MBE
  139. 139. Medium: C-print mounted on aluminum
  140. 140. Size: 72 x 49.5 in
  141. 141. Date: 2008</li></li></ul><li>YinkaShonibare<br /><ul><li>born in London, 1962
  142. 142. grew up in Nigeria, but moved to England, currently lives in London
  143. 143. attended a boarding school in England; studied at Wimbledon College in London; Brym Shaw School of Art in London from 1984 to 1989; Goldsmiths College in London
  144. 144. earned a Master of Fine Arts degree
  145. 145. a contemporary, post-colonial artist who, in his art, addresses issues with cross-cultural identity and flaws in the British Empire
  146. 146. issues of cross-culturalism and imperialism
  147. 147. referenced historical Western art pieces</li></li></ul><li>YinkaShonibare<br /><ul><li>When he was 19, however, Shonibare suffered paralysis from transverse myelitis, an inflammation of the spinal cord
  148. 148. Afterward he became associated with the group called Young British Artists (YBAs); exhibited their work in a 1997 show called Sensation
  149. 149. 2004: a nomination for the prestigious Turner Prize; one British artist under 50 years of
  150. 150. 2005: Shonibare received one of England’s greatest honors: he was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire (rank just below knights, are honored for their military, social, or cultural contribution)
  151. 151. Exhibitions in the Museum of Contemporary Art (2008), the Brooklyn Museum (2009), and the National Museum for African Art (2009-2010</li></li></ul><li>The End!<br />