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Democratic vision of public education
 

Democratic vision of public education

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    Democratic vision of public education Democratic vision of public education Presentation Transcript

    • Democratic Vision of Public EducationA promise of a better tomorrow to the students of todayINTRODUCTION
    • In Their Own Words - The Past
      What greater or better gift can we offer the republic than to teach and instruct our youth?
      Cicero
      Every government degenerates when trusted to the rulers of the people alone. The people themselves are its only safe depositories. And to render even them safe, their minds must be improved to a certain degree….An amendment of our constitution must her come in aid of public education.
      Thomas Jefferson
      It has ever been my hobby-horse to see rising in America an empire of liberty, and a prospect of two or three hundred millions of freemen, without one noble or one king among them. You say it is impossible. If I should agree with you in this, I would still say, let us try the experiment, and preserve our equality as long as we can. A better system of education for the common people might preserve them long from such artificial inequalities as are prejudicial to society, by confounding the natural distinctions of right and wrong, virtue and vice.
      John Adams
      As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this, to the extent of the difference, is no democracy
      Abraham Lincoln
      Education is not a product: mark, diploma, job, money in that order; it is a process, a never ending one
      Bel Kaufmann
    • In Their Own Words - Present
      For we have a choice in this country. We can accept a politics that breeds division, and conflict, and cynicism...But if we do…nothing will change. So let us summon a new spirit of patriotism, of service and responsibility, where each of us resolves to pitch in and work harder and look after not only ourselves but each other.
      Barack Obama
      What makes democracy work is civic engagement. This is a habit, a practice, a set of skills, and a way of life that we must nurture from an early age and foster in everything we do as citizens ourselves, both in politics and outside it. In the schools, from an early age, let students learn the art of politics and the responsibilities of self-government and collective organization. Student government can be a valuable training ground for democracy, but it must evolve with a set of values and ideals that nurture commitment to the public good, foster open and respectful debate, and cultivate responsibility.
      Larry Diamond
      NCLB was a back-door maneuver “that will let the private sector take over education, something the Republicans have wanted for years –
      James Jeffords (Chair of Senate Committee on Education 1997-2001)
      Left Republican Party when the party refused to fully fund NCLB
      Many in Bush’s Department of Education saw NCLB as a Trojan horse for the choice agenda – a way to expose the failure of public education and ‘blow it up a bit’ There were a number of people pushing hard for market forces and privatization.
      Susan Neuman – One of Several Architects of NCLB
      (Asst. Secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education 2001-2003)
      Retrieved from: http://www.time.com
    • A Revolutionary Idea -
      DEMOCRACY - a government in which the supreme power is vested in the common people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving free elections; the absence of heredityor arbitrary class distinctions or privileges
      A nation created by and governed by its people
      The notion that all citizens should be educated in order to contribute to the greater good of the country and to hold politicians accountable to the people they represented.
      All citizens should be education in order to provide them a true sense of their rights, duties, and obligations, [and] a just knowledge of rational liberty intended to prepare students for active roles in public life
    • The Free, but not so DEMOCRATIC VISION
      CAPITALISM - an economic system characterized by PRIVATE or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition.
      FREE-MARKET - an economic market or system in which prices are based on competition among private businesses and not controlled by a government
      Capitalism is at once far too rational, trusting in nothing that it cannot weigh and measure, and far too little as well, accumulating wealth as an end in itself.
      Terry Eagleton, Harper's, March 2005
    • A Timeline of Public Education S-Curves – Tony Townsend (2009)
      Based on the concept that all ideas are accepted at various levels over a long period of time
      Movement Gains or Loses Momentum
      S-Curve 5 ?
      S-Curve 4
      MEASURE OF ADVANCEMENT
      Breakthrough –
      Grow and Prosper Together or Break and Fail
      S-Curve 3
      S-Curve 2
      S-Curve 1
      TIME – DAYS, MONTHS, YEARS
    • S-Curve 1:
      Lasted approximately 4000 years.
      Based on individual survival
      Formal Education Provided to Aristocracy
      Maintain Status and Control
      Leaders of Society Over Peasants
      Common Folk
      Only Education Provided by Parents
      Educated Only With The Information Needed to Survive
      Lasted into 1800’s (overlap with S-Curve 2)
    • S-Curve 2: 1800’s – 1950’s
      Lasted approximately 150 years
      Pressure From Growing ‘Middle Class’ to Educate It’s People. Focus shifts from individual to community
      Europe and Child Labor Laws
      Child Labor Laws in Europe Banned Use of Young Children For Labor
      Increase in ‘Unruly Children’ in Neighborhoods
      Need to Educate Children
      Industrialization…School as a Factory
      Children Needed to be Education for Employment
      Children Moved From Grade to Grade to Acquire Skills Necessary to Work in the Factories and/or Mines
    • S-Curve 2: 1800’s – 1950’s
      REVOLUTION in AMERICA
      Colonies Gained Independence
      Formed a Democratic Society
      System of universal public schooling, at the state expense, to perpetuate a better informed public and to promote the broader goals of free nation governed by the people
      Democratic Societies
      Formed during American Revolution
      View of Education: the vehicle for informing citizens of “a true sense of their rights, duties, and obligations, [and] a just knowledge of rational liberty intended to prepare students for active roles in public life” (Dotts, 2010)
    • S-Curve 2: 1800’s – 1950’s
      Common School Movement
      Horace Mann
      View of Education: develop a school system that “would diminish strife among a pluralistic people, supplant it with a common and universal patriotism, and instill respect for law and order” (Dotts, 2010, p. 190).
      What was valued at this time was a way to standardize knowledge to assimilate all citizens to be good Americans and adopt the dominant culture.
      First Attendance Laws Passed
      Factory model of Europe Implemented in the United States. Train citizens to enter the workforce
    • S-Curve 2: 1800’s – 1950’s
      Problems Arise
      Purpose to assimilate the masses into one dominate culture was bound to fail in a society based on an individual’s right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
      Public becomes suspicious of education, fearing it was a way to train and assimilate their children into the dominant culture and lower social class
      Growing disparity between the rich and poor.
      Force many parents to keep children home from school
      Enter work force to provide for the family
      Increase of segregation between race and social class
      Great Depression and World War II
      Pivotal moment in the history of the United States
      The United States emerges as a leading world power.
    • S-Curve 2: 1800’s – 1950’s
      A Nation Pulls Together for the Common Good
      Cold War Begins. Nation rallies to educate its people to stay ahead of the Soviet Union and prevent the spread of communism
      Sputnik (1957): Government responds by encouraging schools to improve the instruction of math and science. First sign of S-Curve 3: Govt. Involvement
      Other Notable Events/People
      John Hughes – Establishment of Parochial Education
      1839/1847 - Passage of Bilingual Education Laws (OH, LA)
      1918 – National Education Association publishes report calling for separate curricula for different students
      1920’s – More schools begin tracking students
      1930’s – Use of intelligence tests to place students
      1947 – Educational Testing Service is born
    • S-Curve 3: 1950’s – 2000
      Government Begins to Take an Active Roll in Public Education
      A Nation Pulls Together for the Common Good
      Civil Rights Movement and Brown v. Board of Education
      Separate but Equal Schools for Blacks and Whites was Unconstitutional
      Schools ordered to begin desegregating schools
      Protests and riots for and against desegregation
      Increase in number of private schools in response to ‘white flight’
      Passage of Laws Protecting the Disenfranchised
      Elementary and Secondary Education Act
      Americans with Disabilities Act
      Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
      No Child Left Behind
      Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
      Civil Rights Act of 1964
      Age Discrimination Act
      FERPA 1974
    • S-Curve 3: 1950’s – 2000
      A Nation at Risk
      Published in 1983
      Conservatives, among others, label public education as a failure and primary source of the decline of the United States in international comparisons of educational achievement Scores
      Educators attempt to explain the report merely highlighted areas where improvements could be made and should not be viewed as evidence of failing schools and that political involvement was the cause for the existence of the gap between high and low income families
      legislators jumped at the chance to use the reports as leverage toward removing democratic control of schooling, to support the use of vouchers, and to support the creation of privately run charter schools (Copeland, 2009).
      State Governors adopt National Education Goals to guide local, state, and national school improvement efforts. States that adopt the goals were promised additional funding from the federal government (money connected to obedience).
    • S-Curve 3: 1950’s – 2000
      School Choice Movement
      1990: Politics, Markets, and American Schools published. Provides support for school choice programs as authors John Chubb and Terry Moe claim “choice, all by itself, has the capacity to bring about a transformation in public education
      1990-91: Milwaukee School District begins Parental Choice Program providing vouchers to parents who wish to send their children to private schools
      1991: Minnesota passes statewide choice program. BY 2000, 16 other states have similar programs.
      1996: Ohio allows vouchers for religious schools
      Other Notable Events/People
      1994: Proposition 187 passed in California – denies children of undocumented immigrants an education. Later found unconstitutional
      1998: California passes Proposition 227 – eliminates state’s bilingual program and requires all instruction to be done in English
      2000: Arizona passes version of English-only laws
      2004: Washington DC Voucher Program begins
    • S-Curve 4: 2000 - Present
      Free-Market/Business Model of Education dominated by thoughts of accountability, a market-system of education: privatization and the dismantling of public education
      Proponents of school choice:
      Suggest that low-income students perform better in private schools and the competition forces schools to use resources more wisely.
      Competition and the business model of educating children will only improve the quality of all schools as administrators compete for students.
      Call for the removal of control from local school boards
      Blame teacher unions for poorly run schools
      Call for the establishment of privately run charter schools
      Seek to remove professionalism from educators
      Support the ability to choose a school where people enrolled have the same religious background, political beliefs, and/or social background. It would seem this practice is a giant step backward and only perpetuates the stratification among the citizens living in the United States of America (Laguardia and Pearl, 2009).
    • S-Curve 4: 2000 - Present
      Opponents of school choice:
      Data from private and charter schools are deceiving. Students enrolled in those schools are not as random as the schools would have the public believe.
      Students are selected for enrollment, and even if coming from a low-income home, typically have parents who are significantly more invested in the education of their children.
      Public schools are left with the rest, unable to limit the number of special education students and unable to create policies that can remove students who do not fulfill their obligations toward the expectations of the school (Ravitch, 2010).
      Charter schools reported as dumping poor performing students prior to state assessments (Kolodner, M., and Monahan, R. 2009, July 18). Retrieved from http://www.nydailynews.com
      Education based on competition encourages cheating
    • S-Curve 5: To Be Determined
      We are at a crossroads in the United States when it comes to the education of our children.
      The citizens of the United States are certainly confronted with a choice; however this choice is much greater than that of charter, private, or public.
      Will our country abandon public schooling altogether?
      Will we base education and the future of our country on the principles of competition: a system with clear winners and losers?
      The next S-curve must focus on the true principles of democracy once envisioned by our founders; however, it must also include the elements of social equity, rigor and relevance, and the concept where people improve themselves for the betterment of the others
    • S-Curve 5: To Be Determined
      Want success? Stop making children the objects we measure our effort against and instead, make children the subject of our efforts. In order to experience success for all we cannot:
      have a quality education only for the few who are rich and privileged
      see schools as factories or businesses
      expect the market to solve our problems.
      Education is a community experience. To be successful, people need to work together for the betterment of themselves, each other, and their community. Education of all must become a universal focus.
      All people must be provided a quality education – not only those who know how to work the system.
    • School Privatization?
      Please take the time to review our research.
      We are not against the idea of public, private, or charter schools.
      We are against placing the future of our nation in the hands of big business and competition
      We are against promoting competition in the area of education – the only losers are the students.
      We support government support of innovative programs developed through the spirit of collaboration between school settings (Public, Private, and Charter)