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Palestine's Real Story - Occupited Palestine - the Arab Land

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This is the real story of occupied Palestine. History proves that Palestine is an Arab land/state from the beginning of history. …

This is the real story of occupied Palestine. History proves that Palestine is an Arab land/state from the beginning of history.

The Jews occupied palestine through Belfore declaration and forced out the original inhabitants who scattered all over the world after losing their ligitemate right in their land and to live peacefully on their own land.

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  • 1. In the Name of Allah The Most Gracious the Most Merciful
  • 2. Palestine Issue Concise History
  • 3. To the perfume of history.. The land of revelations To you Al-Burak travelled .. and the feelings long To Palestine… the land of struggle Present to Gaza
  • 4. Condemnation, denunciation, grief, tears, cursing, threat and other passionate forms of reactions which are used to while dealing with international causes have never left us but more ignorance, feign blindness and lack of understanding of this world and what is happening behind the curtains. We searched and looked for the best we could present to the western reader about the Palestinian cause, but found nothing better than recollection of the old strings of this issue far from the old history with an easy style, digestible and increases our understanding of this reality and drives us close to our predictions which we supported with some grate historical examples to complete the picture. Hope that this effort will be beneficial to you and change your opinion on who the is the criminal and who is the real
  • 5. History of the Palestinian Cause References Gallery Closing
  • 6. Calamity of 1948G Calamity of 1967 & after Jews Immigration to Palestine 1973 War & Disasters Era Iraqis, Persians, Romans in Palestine 1st Intifada (uprising) Palestine during Rightly Guided Caliphs’ Era The Peace Process Palestine during Umayyad Era 2nd Intifada 4- Palestine under The Jewish Occupation Who settled in Palestine First? Palestine during Abbasid Era 5- Intifada & Peace Crusaders Wars 1- Palestine Before Islam 2- Palestine in the Islamic Era. Islamic Liberation Movement Back to the Main Menu Salah Eddin Al-Ayoubi and after Palestine During Ottoman Era Sultan Abdul Hamid the 2nd Exit Revolutions & Resistance Movements 3- Palestine during the Ottoman Era and British Rule
  • 7. Who Settled in Palestine First? No one knows for sure who settled in Palestine first, but the first signals state that the first people inhibited Palestine land in the 14th century BCE were a group of tribes called Al-Natoufiyoun. Jericho In the 8th century BC, ruins showed that a city currently knwon as “Jericho” was there. Some researchers consider Jericho as the first city ever built in the world. Ruins do not show a city in the sense of the word but a beginning of a human settlement in the form of buildings and houses. Canaanites: The fist ruins discovered in Palestine belong to a nation called “Canaanites” and the “Amorites” who were tribes immigrated from the Arab Peninsula and settled in Palestine and Sham area “Palestine + Syria + Lebanon + Jordan”. Undisputed fact between the eastern and western historians. The Jews had no presence in Palestine until this time.
  • 8. Who Settled in Palestine First? The Jebusites: The Arab tribes immigrated from the Arab Peninsula to the north were numerous and scattered in Sham area, Biladulrafidayn “Iraq” and some moved to Egypt. The Canaanites settled in Palestine’s plain lands and some of whom were the “Jebusites” who settled in Jerusalem area. Other parts lived on mountains and were called “Phoenicians” and “Ammonites”. That is why Palestine is called by archaeologists as the land of Canaanites as attributed to the Canaanites. “Palest”: The origin of Palestine’s name is attributed to some of the people who also settled in Palestine in an area called “Palest”, south of Palestine, after they immigrated from islands in the Mediterranean sea. The were prevented from entering Egypt by Ramses who ordered them to go to “Palest” south of Palestine. This was mentioned in the historical books and the old testimonies mentioning “Palest”. This name was attributed to the people living in this are and they were called “Palestinians”. Over the years, the whole are called “Palestine”. But, these immigrants lived side by side with the Canaanites – the original inhabitants with far greater numbers and more civilized - and completely melted with them and had no history that is worth to be mentioned.
  • 9. Jubail Beirut Canaanite Land Damascus Sidon Sour Acre Palestine’s Map During Canaanites Era Hasour Haifa Biesan Dour Nablus Jaffa Madaba Jericho Gaza Jerusalem Bait Shams Hebron Al-Karak Sharouheen Ma’an Palestine During the Canaanites Era
  • 10. Jews’ Immigration to Palestine Immigration of Prophet Abraham and his descendants: According to history, Abraham “PBUH” immigrated from Iraq to Palestine and his sons Isaac and Ismael were born in Palestine as immigrants but not settlers. The holy Quran that Yousef the son of Jacob of Isaac “PBU them” was taken to Egypt as a servant but he was firmed up by God and become the Egyptian leader and requested his that his father and family members be brought to Egypt. Jacob and his whole family members left to Egypt which never left again. They settled in Egypt for good and never went back to Palestine. All historical references proved this undisputed fact in details. Jacobs’s descendants did not even complete one generation in Palestine. Therefore, the Jews claim that this land belongs to them just because Jacob lived there for some time * PBUH = May Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him
  • 11. Jews’ Immigration to Palestine Immigration of Prophet Moses “PBUH” : The 2nd Jews’ immigration was when prophet Moses “PBUH” immigrated with his people to Palestine to save them from Pharaoh. During this immigration they wander 40 years throughout the land after they disbelieve in Allah “God”. Then Allah sent them with “Joshua son of Nun PBUH” to Jordan. Joshua son of Nun went with his people to Jericho where they battled with Canaanites “city inhabitants” and conquered the city which they settled in until the death of Joshua son Nun. Thereafter, the Jews were scattered and Allah sent them his messengers whom they either slaughter or disobey. They went on as infidels, disbelievers and were accustomed to polytheism, immorality and sins which earned them the wrath of Allah “God” Almighty and punishment. Later on, the Amalekites (Canaanites) were able to conquer the city and applied to them all kinds of suffering and humiliation and took their sanctuaries and properties.
  • 12. Jews’ Immigration to Palestine Era of Prophet David “PBUH” They continued as such until the time of Canaanite king “Goliath” the ruler of Jerusalem. The Jews complained to their prophet about their situation and weakness. He answered them by saying that Allah has sent them “Taloot” as a king who has the coffin’s return miracle after it was taken by the Canaanites. They objected to that but yet obeyed after seeing the coffin descending from the sky with the angles. Not for long, they disbelieved, regressed and none of them, but few, accompanied Taloot in his war as mentioned in Surat Al-Baqarah in the holy Quran. Taloot and his few believing followers defeated the giant Canaanites with the help of Allah. David, prophet of Allah, emerged with his fight against Goliath who was killed by Daivd as mentioned in the Quran. David “PBUH” took over the reign, succeeded in unifying the Israelis again, eliminated wars and differences from among them and was able to defeat the Jebusites, establish the kingdom of Israel and picked Jerusalem as the capital of his kingdom.
  • 13. Jews’ Immigration to Palestine After the death of Suleiman son of David “PBUHs” in 935 B.C., the kingdom was divided into Judah in Jerusalem and the kingdom of Israel in Samaria. Wars and differences irrupted between the two kingdoms and both sought help from the kings of Egypt and Assyria against one another rending both kingdoms weak and helpless and losing control over the population which led to disturbances once again. Cessation of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel: In 920 B.C, Shoshenq the king of Egypt, invaded and conquered Judah which was ever since annexed to the kingdom of Egypt. In 721 B.C. the Assyrians invaded kingdoms of Judah and Israel and imposed tribute on them. The kingdom of Israel tried to rebel but the Assyrians subdued it and took most of its population as captives to Iraq.
  • 14. Phoenicia Damascus Acre Safad Jenin Tiberias Jalaad Jaffa Palestia Nablus Jericho Amman Gaza Jerusalem Hebron Al-Nakab Palestine map during David’s Era. Araba Sea Palestine map during David’s Era. Moab
  • 15. Iraqi Rule in Palestine! Nebuchadnezzar The Chaldean Nebuchadnezzar invaded Palestine in 597 B.C. and occupied Jerusalem, the Capital of Judah, took its king and most of his family members as prisoners of war to Iraq and appointed a new king in Jerusalem. In 586 B.C. the Jews remain attempted a rebellion against Babylon’s sultan in Palestine, Nebuchadnezzar invaded it again but this time he destroyed Jerusalem leaving Palestine Arab/Canaanites again under the rule of Iraq and receiving immigrants from Syria and the Arab Peninsula. Due to the Assyrians and the Chaldeans invasions to Palestine, the Jews state vanished after living 4 centuries (1000-586 B.C.) a period marked with wars, differences and disturbances. This period is the most important historical era since the Jews rely on it to prove their right to return to Palestine the so called promised land. “who gave them this promise?”
  • 16. The Persian Rule in Palestine Palestine Under the Persian Occupation King “Horus, the second” the Persian leader invaded and occupied Palestine in 539 B.C. After invading Babylon. Palestine remained under their rule for 2 centuries. During his reign, the Persian king allowed the Jews who were living in Babylon to return to Jerusalem while they were not allowed to do it during the Babylon rule. The Jews were dramatically increased in number at that time. Only few returned to Palestine as Babylon was then the capital of wealth and prosperity. The Jews preferred to stay in Babylon to mind their business. It is worth mentioning here, which interesting fact about them, that the Jews claim they are “God’s chosen people” and that Palestine is “their land” but when they have the chance to return! They did not! Now a days, despite all the Incentives and inducements provided by the Zionist entity in Palestine including the construction of settlements, free travel to Palestine..etc, still most of the Jews did not immigrate to the so called “Promise Land”.
  • 17. Greek Rule In Palestine Palestine under the Greek Rule The victory of Alexander the Great, known by scholars as “zulkarnain” who was mentioned in the holy Quran, against the Persians was the most important event in the 4th century B.C. as he occupied Syria, Gaza and Jerusalem and annexed them to its Greek empire in 332 B.C. after his death, his empire was divided among his army leaders. Palestine was under Ontajos who was defeated by the Ptolemies in Gaza in 321 B.C. Since then, it was under the rule of Ontajos the Third in 198 B.C. Since then, Palestine was marked with wars and unrest under the rule of many states such as the Maccabees and the Arab Nabataeans in 90 B.C. and reamin under the Nabataeans rule and their capital “Petra” until it was occupied by the Romans.
  • 18. The Roman Rule In Palestine Roman Occupation to Palestine: The Romans occupied Palestine and made it one of their Roman states then occupied by the Byzantines until the mid of the seventh century AD when the Arab Muslims concurred it and became part of the Arab state. During the Roman era, Jesus “peace b upon him” was born in Palestine but the Jews betrayed him and informed the Roman ruler about him in 37 AD accusing him of infidelity, and what happened later when Allah “God” saved Jesus by raising him to heaven and replaced him by his similar who was crucified and killed by the Roman soldiers. Jews Rebellion: The Jews tried to make use of the freedom of religion granted to them since their return to Jerusalem after the Babylonian captivity with an objective to establish a state for them, but the Roman ruler with the help of the Arab original inhabitants launched a war against them in 71 AD, occupied Jerusalem and killed a great number of them before they flew to Syria, Egypt and other places.
  • 19. The Roman Rule In Palestine Hadwian rule and suppression of the Jews : The least attempt to establish a Jewish state in Palestine was in 135 AD when a Jew rabbi led a disobedience. Hadwian attached them and occupied the Jewish area in Jerusalem, destroyed the area completely and built a new city and banned the Jews from entering it. After this incident, the Jews never tried to cause any disturbance until the twentieth century the mid of which Israel was formed after the lapse of over 2000 years since the destruction of their state in Palestine in 586 B.C. by Nebuchadnezzar. The Persians Expelled the Romans From Jerusalem: In 614 AD, the Persians invaded Palestine and were able to control it, expelled the Romans and looted Jerusalem. The Jews fought at the side of the Persians to avenge over the Christian Romans for what they did to them. It was a big massacre and a lot of people were killed during this invasion. The holy Quran mentioned the defeat of the Romans and promised that the Romans “people of a book like Muslims” will defeat the Persians again in (3-9 years) “Quran: Within three to nine years. To Allah belongs the command before and after. And that day the believers will rejoice (4), Surat Al-Room = Romans. This was a very strange news since the Persians were a great power at that time, and it happened. See next slide!
  • 20. The Roman Rule In Palestine The Romans Regain Jerusalem: The Romans did defeat the Persians “as the holy Quran mentioned” after exactly seven years and Muslims rejoiced “because the Romans had a book of revelation while the Persians did not”. Seven years after the defeat of the Romans, Hercules the Roman kind formed a huge army and invaded the Persians in Palestine and defeated them. The strange thing here is that the Jews took the side of the Romans now against the Persians who did not meet their promises to the Jews in the first battle against the Romans and did not give the Jews any wealth or power in Jerusalem and Palestine in general. This time they fought against the Persians after they were promised by the Romans to give them Jerusalem and Palestine if they help them. But the Roman priests – after they defeated the Persians – reminded the Romans of the massacres committed by the Persians and the Jews and how they killed the Christians and took their wealth and properties. The Christians now refused to let go the Jews and insisted that Hercules should kill them all. Hercules killed a lot of the Jews and the rest flew outside Palestine and none of them was left in Palestine, the holy land. From this incident we come to know the real character of the Jews who are crooks and traitors. They only seek wealth and interest and change their goals and loyalty accordingly.
  • 21. Coastal Phoenicia Sour Acre 2nd Palestine Qissariya 1st Palestine Jaffa Palestine During the Greece and Byzantine Era Jerusalem Beer Al-Sabei 3rd Palestine Petra Country of Ghassanid Ma’an Palestine During the Greece and Byzantine Era
  • 22. Palestine During the Righteously Guided Caliphs Jews Return to Palestine: After the Jews disrespected the treaties they signed with Muslims in Median Treacherously killing a Muslim, Umar Bin Al-Khattab, the Muslim Caliph expelled them from Median and the Arab Peninsula for good. They went to Sinai first, then Omar expelled them again and they went to Palestine where they started to gather again. The Jews always violated their agreements with Muslims until Omar expelled them. How can people trust them these days? Islamic Conquer of Palestine : Caliph Abu Bakr El-Siddiq “May Allah be pleased with him” sent several armies in 633 under the leadership of Amr Bin Al-A’as, Yazid Bin Abi Sufyan, Shurahbeel Bin Hasanah and Ubaida Bin Al-Jarah to conquer Bilad Elsham “Palestine, Syria, Jordan & Lebanon” . Yazid defeated the Romans in Wadi Arabah, south of the Dead Sea and followed them until Gaza in 634 A.D.
  • 23. Palestine During The Righteously Guided Caliphs’ Era Ajnadeen Battle: Amr Bin Al-A’as made many victories over the Romans in Ajnadin battle in 634AD. He conquered Fahal, Beesan, Lod and Jaffa. When Theodore, brother of the Roman Emperor Hercules took over the leadership of the Roman army, Abu Bakr El-Siddiq ordered Khalid Bin Al-Waleed to go from Iraq to Palestine. Al-Yarmouk Battle and the Defeat of the Romans: After Abu Bakr El-Siddiq’s death, Umar Bin Al-Khattab took over as the Caliph of Muslims. He order the Muslim armies in Palestine to continue the fight and conquer Palestine. He also ordered the Muslims armies to be unified in one. Khalid and army combatted with the Roman army in Yarmouk battle which formed a crucial state in Palestine's history where the Romans were defeated in Bilad Elsham and the Muslim army went to conquer Jerusalem which was occupied by the crusaders’ army.
  • 24. Palestine During The Righteously Guided Caliphs’ Era The Siege of Jerusalem: Contrary to the Jews, the Romans showed courage and persistence to defend Jerusalem against the Muslim army. The siege went on for long time and so difficult to the Muslims to keep the siege which continued for 4 months during which the Muslims cut all possible life saving support to the Romans in Jerusalem. The Patriarch requested from Muslims, through his messengers, to describe their Emir in Medinah. They described the Caliph Omar Bin Al-Khattab whose descriptions matched those in Christians’ scripture. Then the Patriarch requested to negotiate with army leader Abu Obeida. The Patriarch asked him: why do you want to conquer this holy city? Which if one intends to harm, God will destroy! Abu Obeida told him this an honored city from where our prophet ascended to the sky. It is the home of prophets and their graves remain here. We deserve it more than you do. We shall continue our fight until we conquer it as we did with other cities. The Patriarch asked: what do you want from us? Abu Obeida said one of three things: Islam, to pay a tribute or to fight. The Patriarch agreed to reconciliation on one condition that no one enters the city before Omar Bin Al-Khattab.
  • 25. Palestine During The Righteously Guided Caliphs’ Era Omar Bin Al-Khattab in Jerusalem: Patriarch Sophronius made a condition that Umar Bin Al-Khattab, the Caliph himself should receive Jerusalem “Elia previously” from the Patriarch. Omar came to Palestine thereafter after he notified by Abu Ubaida, and entered Palestine alone with a boy. Both were alternately riding the one camel they had. If Omar wanted, he could have been honored with luxurious convoys while entering Jerusalem but these things were not of importance to Omar. He wanted to give kings a lesson in modesty and humbleness. When Omar and his boy reached Jerusalem, it was the boy’s turn to ride the camel. The boy wanted the Caliph to be seen riding the camel when entering the city, but Omar insisted that it was the boy’s turn to ride and he himself should walk. When they entered the city, the boy riding and the Caliph waking , the Muslims shouted Allahu Akbar “God is the greatest” an expression uttered usually when rejoicing and when achieving something good. When the Caliph approached the army, he was wearing rough and cracked clothes. The Christians were looking over the walls of Jerusalem to this strange scene and wonder, is this the prince of all these armies?!
  • 26. Palestine During The Righteously Guided Caliphs’ Era Umar Bin Al-Khattab in Jerusalem: The Caliph Umar reached a muddy ditch and the boy attempted gain to have the Caliph ride the camel to save him from the mud and water. Omar ordered the boy to ride again and he did. Umar took the leash in his hand, took off his stockings and hanged them on his shoulders and led the camel through the ford. People were admirably looking at this scene. Abu Ubaida said: “O Ameer –ul-Mumineen, you do this?! Take your leather socks off and carry them on your shoulder, and take the reins of your she camel and walk her through the wet ditch?! It does not please me that the people of this country see you like this?” Umar said: “Oh! If only someone other than you Abu Ubaida had said this, I would have made an example of him for the Ummah of Muhammad – Peace be upon him! Indeed, we were the most insignificant of people and Allah honoured us with Islam. No matter how much we seek honour with other than what Allah has honoured us with, then Allah will make us the most insignificant of people.”
  • 27. Palestine During The Righteously Guided Caliphs’ Era The PLO’s negotiators with their nice suits and armies of guards and servants should learn this lesson. They should know that Glory of Islam is coming. We have seen the Christians take holiday on Sundays and the Jews on Saturdays during negotiations while the Muslim negotiators!!!! Continue even on Fridays! When the Patriarch in Jerusalem sees this act of the Caliph, he was shocked, astonished and had a great admiration to Islam. He told his people, no one earth con confront these people, better to surrender. Thereafter, an agreement was signed saving the Christians lives, churches, crosses with one condition that the Jews should not live in Jerusalem. This was the “AlUhda Al-Umariyah” the Covenant of Umar Bin Al-Khattab given to the Christians in Jerusalem. Text is in the next page:
  • 28. Palestine During The Righteously Guided Caliphs’ Era In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate This is an assurance of peace and protection given by the servant of Allah Omar, Commander of the Believers to the people of Ilia' (Jerusalem). He gave them an assurance of protection for their lives, property, church and crosses as well as the sick and healthy and all its religious community. Their churches shall not be occupied, demolished nor taken away wholly or in part. None of their crosses nor property shall be seized. They shall not be coerced in their religion nor shall any of them be injured. None of the Jews shall reside with them in Ilia'. The people of Ilia shall pay Jizia tax (head tax on free non-Muslims living under Muslim rule) as inhabitants of cities do. They shall evict all Romans and thieves. He whoever gets out shall be guaranteed safety for his life and property until he reach his safe haven. He whoever stays shall be (also) safe, in which case he shall pay as much tax as the people of Ilia' do. Should any of the people of Ilia wish to move together with his property along with the Romans and to clear out of their churches and crosses, they shall be safe for their lives, churches and crosses, until they have reached then safe haven. He whoever chooses to stay he may do so and he shall pay as much tax as the people of Ilia' do. He whoever wishes to move along with the Roman, may do so, and whoever wishes to return back home to his kinsfolk, may do so. Nothing shall be taken from them, their crops have been harvested. To the contents of this convent here are given the Covenant of Allah, the guarantees of His Messenger, the Caliphs and the Believers, provided they (the people of Ilia') pay their due Jizia tax. Witnesses hereto are: Khalid Ibn al-Waleed Amr Ibn al-Ass Abdul-Rahman Ibn'Auf Mu'awiya Ibn abi-Sifian Made and executed in the year 15 AH.
  • 29. Tabaria Jordan Armies Qissariya Beesan Nablus Jaffa Jericho Ramla Palestine At The Beginning of The Islamic Era Palestine At The Beginning of The Islamic Era Ashkelon Jerusalem Gaza
  • 30. Palestine During The Righteously Guided Caliphs’ Era The Jews were prohibited from entering Jerusalem pursuant to a request made to Umar by the Christians who suffered from them. Umar agreed. The Covenant was witnessed by Khalid Bin Al-Waleed, Amr Bin Alas, Abdulrahman Bin Aawf and Muawiyah Bin Abi Sufyan. Since Then, the Arab tribes in Syria, Najd “KSA now” and Yemen gushed to Palestine which most of its citizens become Muslims and the Arabic language prevailed.
  • 31. Palestine During Bani Umayyah’s Era The Umayyah’s Era: Palestine during the Umayyad's Era was appended to Damascus which was ruled by Suleiman Bin Abdul Malik. The most prominent vestiges of that period is the Dome of the Rock which was built by Abdul Malik Bin Marwan in the place where prophet Mohammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ascended in his midnight journey to the seven heavens, the masjid Ul Al-Aqsa which was completed by Al-Waleed bin Abdul Malik and is still existing and Ramla city where Suleiman Bin Abdul Malik built his famous palace and the white masjid.
  • 32. Palestine During the Abbasid Era The Abbasid Era: After the collapse of the Umayyad's state, Palestine was appended to the Abbasids and was visited by Caliph Al-Mamoun and his son Al-Mehdi. During the Abbasids’ era, Arabisation was condensed and new generations new generations have arisen because of intermarriage between the Arabs and the locals. In 786G, Caliph Harourn Al-Rashid, may Allah have mercy on him, decided to allow the Roman empire in Bayzantium “Shulman” to renovate the churches in Jerusalem and to send masons and money to build churches as they wanted. Churches were built and then a decree was issued imposing protection on every Christian visiting Christian holy places in Jerusalem. Then Muslim soldiers became protectors of Christian visitors until they leave home safe.
  • 33. Palestine During the Abbasid Era Had history ever knew greater conquerors than Arab Muslims? Look at this generosity, forgiveness, magnanimity and high manners in dealing with Christians. Did the Crusaders met these high manners with similar actions? Did they knew the meaning of giving favor back? Facts proved to the contrary. Therefore, it is strange to have people now a days who still trust the Jews! More strange is to have Christians trusting the Jews who say bad about Mary, peace be upon her. They also curse upon Jesus, peace be upon him and call him liar and disbeliever. How can they trust them after all this. We (Muslims) respect and honor Jesus peace be upon him?
  • 34. Palestine During the Abbasid Era The Tulunids During the third Hejra century and as a result of As a result of the weakness of the Abbasid state's grip on many parts of Palestine, the Tulunids were able to obtain political independence from the Abbasid State and controled Lebanon, Syria, Egypt and Palestine. Among their famous monuments during their era was the fortification of the port of Acre. Soon peace prevailed between the Tulunids and the Abbasids in 271 AD. The Carmatians: The historians consider the fourth Hijri century the century of political unrest, since the Carmatians outflowing from the Arabian Gulf invaded bilad Elshalm and occupied Palestine after inflicting great damages and killing. Thereafter, Palestine was successively ruled by the Akhchids, Seljuks and the Fatimid (Obaidis ), and this century was a real century of chaos.
  • 35. Palestine During the Abbasid Era Religious reform movement Among the leading scholars who have led this reform movement is the reformer, Imam "al-Ghazali," who had a very important role in the revival of the Muslim nation, and therefore considered by many historians as the reviver of the Ummah. As the initiative is taken by "Abu Hamid al-Ghazali“, a large number of scholars followed his steps and began inciting people to break lose from their carelessness. They introduced expressions such as “Political Legitimacy” and “Muslim ruler” to the concepts of people and how the policy of the world and religion should be. Al-Ghazali may Allah have mercy on him attached the negligent scholars and requested them to address the whole nation an not only their own students and followers. He also blamed the scholars for stepping away from the Nation’s causes. He also criticized their fanaticism and backwardness and negligence of Islamic original principles and their clinking to secondary and less important matters while the Muslim nation is sinking, deteriorating and wearing out under the influence and pressure of the perverted factions who deviated from the true Islam. He also attacked Sultans and politicians for their interest in this material world and their own welfare and shunning a way from the matters concerning the nation and the Islamic religion. He started forming up the principle of social fairness and Islamic solidarity. This attitude was put to application for a full one hundred years until this movement gave its fruits, and a new generation of rulers were brought up such as Emad Eddin Zincky , Noor Edding Zincky and Salaheddin Al-Ayyoubi..
  • 36. Crusaders’ Wars Beginning of Crusaders’ Wars In 1088G, the Pope Urban II, declared the Crusaders’ wars to regain the holy land in Jerusalem and his support to Byzantium against the Seljuki attack. He started spreading rumors on how Muslims are harming Christian pilgrims going to Jerusalem and that Muslims assaulted Christian holy sanctities and profaned Jesus’s tomb. By this, he inflamed the emotions of the European Christians and calls started in France and Italy to invade Jerusalem. Two years later, the “Normans” in Europe were able to invade and occupy the Ireland of cicely which was ruled by Muslims. This was a great victory to the Europeans who felt that they were capable of invading Muslims on one hand, and was a prove on the weakness of the Muslim state on the other. The Fatimid (Obadiyas) in Morocco and other western part of the Arab land smelled the danger of such invasion and the Turkish Seljukes who were about to control the eastern part of Turkey and Iraq. Then, the Fatimid committed a great treason by writing to the Crusaders, allying with them and inviting them to occupy bilad El-Sham “Syria and Palestine” in stead of the Seljukes so that the can use them as a barrier facing the Turks and a barrier between them and the Seljukes. This was a great mistake when they sought the help of the Christians against their brother Muslims the Seljukes.
  • 37. Crusaders’ Wars Beginning of Crusaders’ Wars We could summarize the main reasons behind the Crusaders’ wars as follows: First: Religious enthusiasm and the call for the liberation of the Christian sanctities in Jerusalem. Second: The existence of a poor and needy strata in Europe who found a source of life in this fight, to enter the country of wealth after they were told that Muslim and land is wealthy and rich. Third: The intellectual orientation by the monks to the people inciting them to fight who extorted their sanctities. Fourth: Europe at that time suffered many political, social and economical problems including poverty, lack of raw materials, population explosion, disputes between their kings and their knights , and between he pope and the kings. Therefore, invading the east was the right solution for all of them.
  • 38. Crusades: Crusaders’ Wars The foreign occupation to Palestine is repeated again by the end of the eleventh Gregorian century. Moral infusion started by the Pope’s speech in 1095 where he requested from the population to liberate the Christ’s tomb and to liberate Jerusalem from Muslims. Peter the Hermit lead the first military campaigns which continued for two centuries and known as the Crusades because the used the Cross as their logo. The campaign moved towards the Orient but they were not organized and lacking military training because they were organized by the Pope and monks. Therefore, they had among them eighty thousand of women and children. when the campaign reached Byzantium which was ruled by the Orthodox Byzantine Emperor, while the campaigners were catholic, they could not conquer Byzantium but they rampaged around Constantinople, the Byzantine emperor concluded that he should get rid of them, so he equipped them with ships to go to Turkey and encouraged them to fight the Seljukes who were in constant wars with him. Seljukes were ready and standing by. They had a well organized and trained army. This campaign did not withsand their army and was crushed under the Turkish powerful army.
  • 39. Crusaders’ Wars Princes’ Campaign: In the next time, and when the Pope gained more power in Europe and became more respectable among the rulers and princes, he organized the princes’ campaign which constitute highly trained princes in addition to the state of the art weapons and equipment. When they reached Byzantium, the Byzantine emperor facilitated their entrance through the Bosphorus strait and fierce battles went through them and the Trukish Seljukes, but the Seljukes could not resist the tremendous numbers of soldiers, therefore “Konya” the capital of the Seljukes and the Seljukes were torn into five states after this defeat. The Campaign continued its advancement towards “Antakya” north of Sham “Syria”, and they put a siege on for some time. In the mean time, the Fatimid moved towards Palestine and conquered Jerusalem from the Seljukes making use of the situation and that Seljues are battling with the Crusaders, even they sent congratulations to the Christians for occupying “Konya” and encouraging them to conquer “Antakya” and sent a delegation to that end!!
  • 40. Crusaders’ Wars Princes’ Campaign: More Christian forces reached the area under the leadership of “Godivera Divuon” on the way to Antakya and joined the stationed army. He took part of the first campaign with him and moved towards “AlRaha” area and left behind the other part besieging Antakya. AlRaha area was north of Iraq and inhabited by Christians who wrote to the Christian army to liberate them from the Muslim rule. Godivera reached them fast and drove Muslims out of it and Al-Raha was the first city to be conquered by the Christians. Thereafter, Godivera continued his way towards Sham where he conquered Homs, Hama and reached Baalbek. After a six month long siege, fortress of Antakya was conquered by a sudden treason of a guard. After three days, a big army of the Abbasids lead by “Kerbogha” reached the fortress, besieged it and tightened his grip on Christians inside the fortress and did not permit them to leave it. They were great in number and went through hard times. It was said they the had eaten dogs out of starving and starting to collapse.
  • 41. Crusaders’ Wars Princes’ Campaign: In the meantime, the Christians’ leader resorted to a trick to raise the moral of his soldiers by pretending that he had a dream and saw Saint Andrew who directed him to the place “under a church in Antakya”, where he can find Jesus’s spear the holder of which could never be defeated. He spread the news among his followers. They dogged under the alleged church and found the spear which he himself found (possibly he berried it there). This inflamed the soldiers’ moral for war. A dispute arises between the Arabs and the Turks giving the chance to the Christians the chance to launch their attack and defeated the Abbasids.
  • 42. Crusaders’ Wars Conquer of Jerusalem: By this defeat of the Abbasid, the way became open for the Christians to proceed to Jerusalem. They advanced to Jerusalem without encountering any resistance. They occupied Tripoli, Beirut and Sidon and besieged Jerusalem and tightened their grip on the city. In the meantime, new supplies including advanced equipment to destroy fortresses came from Europe. The siege continued for forty two days ended by the surrender of Jerusalem. The Massacre and the Violation: The Christians entered Jerusalem with brutality and began slaughtering people in the streets without discrimination. People took refuge in masjid Al-Aqsa until they exceeded in number one hundred thousand man, women and children. The Christian ruler ordered to kill them all without discrimination. After this massacre, the Christians divided Masjid Al-Aqsa into several parts, the main part as church, one as housing for the knights and the other part as warehouse for their ammunition and corridors as stables for their horses!
  • 43. Crusaders’ Wars A Word for Ages: A fair man should compare between this Christian oppression and Omar’s conquest of Jerusalem, and between the Islamic tolerance and forgiveness during the reign of Harun Al-Rashid with the churches and Christian pilgrims and this terrible violence against Muslims.
  • 44. Islamic Liberation Movement The First Attempts and Al Zanki: Muslims’ attempts to regain Palestine continued but soon defeated either by betrayals or by the weakness and feebleness of Muslim rulers until the emerge of Emad El Din Zanki, may Allah have mercy on him, the ruler of Mosul who announced two decisions to people: Muslim unity and Jihad. This had great effect in the hearts of Muslims who gathered in Mosul. He led them to Aleppo and destroyed its garrison and formed an army and sent it to Al-Raha which was conquered. Not soon before this bracelet broke by the betrayal of Damascus Muslim Ruler who allied with Jerusalem’s Christian ruler against Emad El Din Zanki who was assassinated by one of the Fatimid. After his death, his son Noor El Din Zanki took power and started a full social and economical reform prior to calling for Jihad. Thereafter, he called for Jihad and appointed courageous leaders. During this time, “Salah al-Din Al-Ayyoubi” was born.
  • 45. Islamic Liberation Movement The First Attempts and Al Zanki: The Muslim army went to Damascus to break the siege after its Muslim ruler sought help from Noor El-Din against the Christians. They conquered the city and kept its ruler in his position after giving promises to stay an ally against the Christians. Noor El Din went to Aleppo and Tripoli which were conquered too. Noor’s news spread east and west and the people rejoiced. European kings led campaigns to regain Damascus and end this Muslim revival but they failed. Thereafter, Noor El Din devoted himself to how to conquer Jerusalem. Again, Damascus’ ruler betrayed but not succeeded. Noor El Din himself led the army and conquered Damascus.
  • 46. Islamic Liberation Movement A Historical Value: Sincere reformatory efforts will not go in vain and will give fruits ever after a while. Imam Al-Ghazali and Imam Al-Tartoushi may Allah have mercy on them, had lit the fuse of reform but it did not give fruits until the lapse of one hundred years from that time. he reform should lead jihad. We find is obvious from the policy of Noor Al Din Zanki when he peferred to launch a social and economical reform and eliminate corruption across the country first and he declared jihad.
  • 47. Islamic Liberation Movement Great Battle of Harem: When Nour Al Din Zanki completed his military preparations, he rode to meet the Christians in the great battle of Harem in 1164G. Several Cursader kingdoms participated in this battle led by princes, but Noor Al Din won a great victory that rocked the heart of the Christianity in Europe. At this time, disputes arises between the Fatimid ministers in Egypt one of whom called “Schauer” sought help from Noor Al Din against the others. Noor Al Din did not hesitate to help in order to join Egypt to his rule. But, this Fatimid minister did not stay long before committing a treason against “Cerkoh” amry, the delegate of Noor Al Din, and sought help from the Christians against Cerkoh. Many changes happened in Egypt because of this traitor minister who was killed by Salah El Din Al Ayyoubi after he guaranteed the help of the Abbasid Caliph “Al A’ded” against the Fatimid cunning.
  • 48. Islamic Liberation Movement A Historical Value: Nothing was more harmful to Muslims than the treasons committed by Muslim rulers. They made all they could to stay in power, but even this power did not last for them. This is the Sunnah of Allah which never changes.
  • 49. Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi The Emerge of Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi: Cerkoh , the Caliph minister died in Egypt and was inherited by Salah El Din AlAyyoubi who was beloved by people for his good deeds and high manners. The Europeans smelled the danger threatening their existence in Palestine. They assaulted Egypt in an attempt to regain it, but Salah El Din’s wisdom with the help of Noor El Din Zanki had forced them to discontinue. Noor El Din moved from Sham against the Christian army and distracted them until Salah El Din completed his mission by withdrawal of the Christian armies. In the meantime, Salah El Din was launching attaches on Palestine in agreement with Noor El Din Zanki who was attacking them from the north. These assaults continue for a long time which exhausted the Christian armies.
  • 50. Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi Expansion of Salah Eldin’s Rule and the Cancellation of Fatimid Rule: In 1171G, the Abbasid Caliph Al-Aded, died and the actual rule became in the hand of Salah El Din who immediately took a courageous decision, after coordinating with Noor El Din, to cancel the Fatimid Caliphate. By cancelling the Fatimid Caliphate after two hundred years of reign in Egypt and Morocco and the replace of Fatimid courts, Salah El Din had full judicial and political powers in his hand in Egypt. Military preparations in Sham continued for the liberation of Palestine. Noor El Din sent an army to Hijaz and Yemen who surrendered to his rule. The Christians felt how big the Muslim front surrounding them becomes. In this time, Salah El Din escaped an assassination attempt by the Fatimid who were gathering in the southern part of Egypt and coordinating with their counterparts in Sham and with the Christians to attack Salah El Din. A big conspiracy was taking place against Salah El Din as exactly expected.
  • 51. Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi Noor El Din Zanki’s Death: In 1174G, the leader Noor El Din Zanki died, may Allah have on him. He was a greater that all those witnessed by this nation. Greater even than SalahE Din Al Ayyoubi himself. He knew that the battle was not a battle for power and rule, it was ideological. He knew that this battle is no between the people of Sham and Egypt and Christian occupiers , but rather a war on Islam. Noor and Emad El Din and Salah El Din were not Arabs, they were Muslim Turks who breasted the doctrines of Islam and consider the liberation of Palestine their only goal. One of Noor El Din’s principles to liberate all Palestine and part of it. Also, he believed that the nation cannot encounter its enemies without preparation and that it not possible for a weak and scattered nation to achieve victory. Of his main prerequisites that the nation cannot defend its self without unity. Therefore, he made an offer to Damascus ruler to stay in power on condition that he should help him against the Christians, but he betrayed him later on. So, Noor El Din was not planning to from a kingdom for himself. He was a ware of what he was doing and planning.
  • 52. Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi Noor El Din Zanki’s Death: After the death of Noor El Din Zanki, many disturbances and disputes over who will be the next Caliph took place, but it did not take Salah El Din long before he could prepare an army to move from Egypt towards Sham. The Christians took advantage of this chance to face him. he went into a great battle against the Christians on part and against Al Zanki on the other. This fight continuef or 12 years until he was able to conquer Sham. Also, Salah order his brother who left him ruling Egypt in his absence, to immediately go out and meet the Fatimid big crowds . A great battle took place between the Sunni Muslims and the Ishmaelite, as a result of which, “Al Adel”, Salah El Din’s brother, achieved a great victory against the Fatimid and eradicated them for good. They never regain power thereafter.
  • 53. Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi Great Battle of Hattin: Salah El Din decided to encounter the Crusaders. At the beginning he was planning to attack them from the north and the south. He back warded from this plan due to the seriousness of the situation and instability in Sham. Therefore, he decided to form one strike force to attack the Crusaders. In the meantime, king of Al-Karak fortress “Arnat” attempted to distract Salah El Din from AlKarak fortress because he knew that Salah El Din is definitely coming to him. therefore, he started attacking Makah and Medina to distract the attention of Salah El Din. In the meantime, Salah was avoiding direct contact with the Christians because the right time has not come yet. But Arnat committed committed a killing mistake when he attacked a convoy of pilgrims which causes the anger of Salah El Din who also swore to kill Arnat by his own hands as revenge for the pilgrims – and was happened as he wanted. At that time, Salah entered into a truce with the Christians in Antakya to secure his way from that direction and to ensure no supplies could reach the Christians in case a mass war happened with them. A dispute happened between the Christians which Salah took advantage of by attacking them at night rendering them either dead or captured.
  • 54. Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi Great Battle of Hattin: The rest of the Christians felt great fear and gathered in Saffuriyya again acounting 63 thousand fighters under the command of Gai Los Janan. It was not the opinion of Salah El Din to encounter them in Saffuriyya since the geographical area is not in the favor of his exhausted army. He decided to select the battle field himself and attempted to lure them out of Saffuriyya using small forces but they did not respond. Thereupon, Salah El Din decided to change his plan by attacking Tiberias which is a strategic area for the Christians. Noting this movement of Salah El Din, the Christians disputed over staying in Saffuriyya or meeting Salah El Din. They decided to meet him in Tiberias to fight Salah El Din in a very rough road and in a very hot weather. At last, Salah El Din succeeded in fighting them with an army of 12 thousand fighters only against 63 thousand Christian fighters. Heavy and sever battle started and Salah El Din denied them access to water wells. He tightened his grip on them until they reached the point of hopelessness and their morals deteriorated, until victory achieved by Muslims when the Kings tent on the op of the mountain was destroyed.
  • 55. Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi Liberating Jerusalem: Salah El Din then led his forces towards Jerusalem conquering many places the Muslims failed to conquer over hundreds of years. But the Christians were still in Jerusalem and receiving aids and supplies. When they hear the news of Salah El Din, they entrenched in Jerusalem and elevated the fences of the fortresses. They thought death is better than giving up Jerusalem where their sanctities are located. Salah El Din strongly besieged them and started hitting the city’s walls with catapults. The Christians felt and weak and lost moral. The Christian leader sent a negotiator to Salah El Din requesting security in exchange of surrendering the city of Jerusalem. Salah El Din refused the offer at the beginning bearing in mind what the Christians did 90 years ago and horrible massacres they committed against Muslims in Jerusalem. But the Christian leader threatened of killing all the Muslim prisoners in the city, demolish Al-Aqsa Masjid and commit suicide. Salah El Din took this threat seriously and accepted peace.
  • 56. Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi Liberating Jerusalem: Salah El Din entered Jerusalem. Muslims cheered and Athan was raised for the first time after 91 years of long Christian occupation of Jerusalem. Salah El Din ordered the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Msjid be renovated and the renovation work started immediately. Some Muslims requested the demolish of the Church of the Resurrection, but he disapprovingly answered “Spared by Omar and I demolish it?”!. He was so forgiving with other religions. Joy reached all parts of Muslim world, celebrations went on for one complete month after the Muslims had lost hope of the return of Jerusalem.
  • 57. Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi Beneficial Info: We might today benefit from the past. Muslims today are on the verge of losing hope again in the liberation of Palestine as they were before Salah El Din, but Salah El Din could not have accepted cheap negotiations or giving up part of Jerusalem. He had patience and resorted to Jihad until Allah Subhanahu Wata’la rewarded him with victory. Jerusalem was occupied for 91 years yet, Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi did not lose hope to regain it. The Muslim nation today must have the same insistence and continue working towards this goal. Insistence and determination must continue until every part of soil of Palestine is returned to the Arab/Muslim rule.
  • 58. Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi Great Battle of Acre: A new Crusade campaign launched towards the East under the commandment of the European kings themselves. They besieged Acre for its strategic value. Salah El Din declared Jihad. The Abbasid Caliph attitude was so ridicule. When Salah El Din wrote to him requesting help and promising to give up his kingdom to the Caliph in exchange of standing up the defending Islam and Muslims against the Crusaders’ campaign, the Caliph blamed Salah for nicknaming him self as the “Al-Malik Al-Nasser”, the Defender King, which is the nick name of the Caliph. He did not like Salah to compete with him for this name and decided not to help him! Many attempts were taken by Salah El Din and the Christians to achieve victory in this siege. During this period, a delegation of the European Christian Kings reached after six months. Acre’s Muslim ruler negotiated with the Christian Kings without taking Salah El Din’s permission. He was disappointed by the Christian kings denying him security if he surrenders the city to them. He changed his mind and encouraged people for Jihad. The situation went complicated, the negotiations failed and the assault failed. After two years of siege and hunger inside Acre, the ruler of Acre requested negotiations again to save the lives of the people. The Christians found it to be wise to accept this offer after they were so exhausted. They wrote to Acre ruler accordingly.
  • 59. Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi Great Battle of Acre: The Christians entered Acre and the Muslims faced again a break of covenants by the Christians who captured all Muslims without any respect to humanity or agreement. Richard the lionheart, ruler of England and leader of Christian army order all Muslim prisoners! In a very horrible massacre which denounced by European historians even. Richard continued his move towards Haifa and Qisariya and others. Salah El Din started negotiations to buy time until the other Muslim forces coming from different directions reach him. unfortunately, the Muslim army expected was defeated by the countless European army. The Crusaders continued towards Jerusalem. In the meantime, the Lod and Ramla. At this time, Salah El Din left everything and went to Jerusalem knowing that it is the first goal of the crusaders. Richard found Jerusalem far too strong for him to conquer and ordered his army to withdraw. Richard found him self in great confusion. Salah El Din always wins, so Richard felt has no choices. He got sick and Salah El Din sent him physicians and fruits until he got well, then negotiations between the two started.
  • 60. Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi Dangerous Battle of Acre: Richard insisted on taking Jerusalem while Salah El Din (may Allah have mercy on him) insisted that Jerusalem is for Muslims and that he will never let go to Richard no matter what. The negotiations discontinued and Jihad was declared. In the meantime, the news came from England stating that Richard’s brother has declared himself as King. The reign was more important to Richard than Jerusalem, therefore he decided to return to England immediately. Salah El Din moved his forces towards Jaffa and conquered it. Richard found himself in a deadlock because he could not continue the fight after Salah declared Jihad. He decided to negotiate again with Salah, to handover Jerusalem to Salah this time. Salah accepted the offer because it is his only chance. He signed the treaty believing that Jihad is better. The treaty was signed and styled “Ramla Peace Treaty”, but it was temporary for three years and three months only. As such, things settled down and people felt secured. Christians started to go Muslim land and Muslims could go to Christians’ land as a result of this truce. Salah El Din settled after Richard has left. Salah El Din died in 1193G after a 12 day sickness. May Allah have mercy on him.
  • 61. Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi Tearing of Al-Ayyoubi’s State: Not long before the Ayyoubi’s state was torn among Salah El Din’s sons who disputed over the reign. The Pope took this chance and prepared another Crusaders’ campaign led by the German Emperor “Fredrick” . Al-Kamel, the ruler of Egypt and Sham requested negotiations which ended by giving up Jerusalem and other cities to Fredrick provided that the Christians do not attack Egypt or Al-Kamel’s properties despite the small number of Fridrick’s forces (500 knights only), but Al-Kamel wanted to have the time to fight his brothers . Is there any bigger treason? Thereafter, more treasons, lacerates and division that took place in the Muslim Omah . Caliphs used to call for help from the Christians against his own Ayyoubi relatives and give up Jerusalem and else to the Christians and fights his own people for that. Jerusalem fall about three times in the hands of the Christians within these thirty years due to treasons committed by Caliphs against each other.
  • 62. A Map Showing Palestine under Mamluks Reign
  • 63. After Salah El Din Al-Ayyoubi Battle Goliath eye (Ayn Jaloot): During the Mamluks’ state, Saifuddin Qutuz and al-Zahir Baybars were able in the Battle Ayn Jaloot near Nazareth “Al-Nasserah”, to encounter the Mongols invasion which devastated big part of the Muslim world in 1259G. As such, this battle was one of the most important Islamic battles. Final Liberation: Khalil bin Qalawoon continued liberating the rest of the Palestinian cities which were held by the Crusaders until the whole country was fully liberated from the Crusaders in 1291G. Some of the Mamluks ruins which still exist are some of the buildings, schools and a bridge near the Lod. They also renovated the Dome of the Rock and the Ibrahimi Mosque.
  • 64. Palestine During the Ottoman Era Ottoman Era: Ottomans defeated the Mamluks in Marj Dabiq battle near Aleppo in 1516 and entered Palestine which was appended to the Ottoman rule for four centuries. After this victory, Sultan Saleem Al Awal paid attention to the Jews’ movements in Palestine and issued a decree “Law” in the same year prohibiting the Jews emigration to Sinai and to Palestine, because he felt they were trying to control the holy land again. He allowed them to reside anywhere they wish in the Ottoman land except Sinai and Palestine. Sultan Suleiman El Kanouni He came to power in the Ottoman Empire in 1537G and built Jerusalem walls and restored the Dome of the Rock, and continued to ban the Jews from settling in Sinai and Palestine as it was clear for the Ottoman leaders the Jews ambition to take Palestine. Therefore, they were keen to prohibit them from doing so, despite the fact that the Jews were oppressed and expelled from Spain and Europe, but the Ottomans allowed them to live in any land they wish except the holy land. This was the utmost tolerance and justice on the part of the Ottomans, but with full awareness of the Jews ancient plans to occupy Jerusalem.
  • 65. Palestine During the Ottoman Era Donmeh Jews: But, the Jews did not for long before the first Jews movement was established in 1665 by a Turkish Jew called “Sabatha Sebi” who declared the establishment of the Jew movement in Turkey. He started gathering the Jews and organized big demonstrations. The Sultan then ordered elimination of this movement. When their leader saw this, he ordered them to pretend Islam as their peers did in Europe. A new malignant Jewish movement emerges called “Donmeh Jews” whose members tried, with the help of the rich Jews, to penetrate the high level Ottoman posts.
  • 66. Palestine During the Ottoman Era The French Revoltion and the Napolionic Era and the Beginning of the Christian – Jews relationship: In 1789, the Christian religious reform movement spread in the name of Protestant movement, which is the doctrine dominating today in America and many European countries. This movement was founded by the priest "Martin Luther.“ This movement was founded b the Jews who struggled to spread it aiming towards concentrating the minds that the real religions is the old testament of the bible. The followers of this movement spread the word that they were preparing for Christ’s return. The movement was lead by Jews pretending Christianity and therefore called people to return to the Tarot since it is interested in the old Testament. They also spared the idea that the original inhabitants of Palestine are the Jews and that the Christians’ role is to help the Jews to return to Palestine, which idea greatly spread in Britain and America and a new Christian class emerges calling themselves “Zionist Christians”, and calling for the protestant movement ideas and consider these ideas as a major doctrine of Christianity religion – which of course not true -. This idea develop until it reaches its peak during the French Revolution against the monarc rule, which adopted this Protestant
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