LEARNING & DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT “ BASIC AIRPORTS OPERATIONS COURSE ” AERODROME EMERGENCY PLAN ( KLIA ) by MUSTAFA KAMAL ALANG OTHMAN SENIOR MANAGER AVSEC / AFRS MALAYSIA AIRPORTS HOLDINGS BERHAD
Annex 14 - Aerodrome Chapter 9. Emergency and Other Services 9.1 Aerodrome Emergency Planning 9.1.1 An aerodrome emergency plan shall be established at an aerodrome, commensurate with the aircraft operations and other activities conducted at the aerodrome.
Aerodrome Emergency Plan The Airport Emergency Plan ( AEP ) encompasses contingency plans to achieve the coordinated actions to be taken by all agencies involved in response to emergencies at an airport. The AEP provide a clear chain of command and control established from the executive level to the field operators. The AEP is a living document and the requires actions and roles of the various key personnel and organizations may be reviewed from time to time
Glossary of term
Aerodrome Emergency Reference Point
The AERP is a mid-point of cross points drawn between threshold of runway 32 R / Runway 14 L Runway 32 L and centre point is at roundabout Satellite ‘A’.
The RVP is the closest direct access to an accident site where all emergency support vehicles will congregate to await escort to the crash / accident site. Two RVP’s have been established at KLIA namely:-
i. RVP 1 at gate ADU
Access to Runway 1 is via Gate ADU
ii. RVP 2 at Car Park VVIP Complex
Access to Runway 2 is via crash gate Runway 14 R
Glossary of term
A Crash Gate located at respective runway ends provides access to and from the airfield to the crash / accident site
Designated Isolated Aircraft parking Area
A designated area to route (if airborne) of isolated an aircraft subject to specific bomb warning or hijack incident. Two (2) IAPAs established at KLIA include:
Site 1 : Compass Swing Bay near Runway 2, 32 L
Site 2 : Taxiway Alpha between Intersection A1 and A2 Runway 1,14 L
Emergency action is required for an aircraft crash that has occurred:-
Within KLIA perimeter fencing ( ON KLIA )
Outside KLIA perimeter fencing and within 8 km radius from AERP, KLIA ( Off Airport )
Outside 8 km radius from the AERP KLIA ( Off Airport )
Aircraft Crash On Airport is declared when an aircraft has crashed on the runway or approach areas within 1 kilometer from the threshold or within the airport’s perimeter fencing.
Aircraft Accident Off Airport is declared when an aircraft accident has occurred outside the airport’s perimeter fencing and within 8 kilometer radius ( AFRS Response Area ) or outside 8 kilometer radius from the AERP KLIA ( Police Response Area )
Aircraft On Airport Response
Activation And Alerting Sequence
Activation of AFRS and AOC is done by ATC KLIA followed by alerting of all emergency support departments / agencies by AOC.
Rescue and Fire Fighting
AFRS provides immediate response in rescue & fire-fighting. Jabatan Bomba and Civil Defense reinforces by deployment of manpower and equipment.
Command and Control
AFRS Co is the commander of the rescue and fire-fighting operations and a senior AVSEC will assume overall command of the incident prior to arrival of Head of Police, KLIA
Aircrash On Airport Response
Casualty Management and Conveyance
Overall Medical Co-ordinator and Medical Field Co-ordinator are responsible for the activation of medical back-up and casualty management ( triage, first-aid, co-ordination and conveyance of casualties ) at the ADU and crash site.
Headcount of ‘Person-On-Board’
Police Field Co-ordinator / Medical Field Commander will be responsible for headcount at the Triage Area. Command Post will record the movement and report to the CCC
Crisis Control Centre
CCCs’ role will be to manage, provide an overview, guidance, media response and act as the overall controlling authority
Aircrash On Airport response
The Police will be responsible to co-ordinate / approve removal of dead bodies. Disaster Victim Identification Unit / forensic pathologists will carry-out the investigation and identification of the deceased.
Issuance of Press Releases
The first press statement should be released within one hour after incident. Subsequent statements should be released on half hour or hourly basis.
Removal of Crashed Aircraft
Removals is subject to release by DCA Chief Inspector of Accidents. Recovery operations shall involved the Facilitation Committee which shall co-ordinate support for Aircraft Recovery Team at site
ALERTING SEQUENCE – AIRCRAFT CRASH KLIA ATC ROYAL MALAYSIAN POLICE-KLIA NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL SMART SOS / AVSEC HEALTH AIRLINE / HANDLING AGENT CIVIL DEFENCE IMMIGRATION CUSTOM PETRONAS/SHELL AFRS STATION 1 CRASH CCC AFR STATION 2 AOC
MAJOR INCIDENT MANAGEMENT PLAN DCA-ATC AIRPORT FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICES AIRPORT OPERATIONS CENTRE
Aircrash Off Airport Response
Activation and Alerting Sequence
ATC will activate AFRS response if the aircraft crashed within 8 kilometer radius from AERP . ATC will notify PDRM if any civil aircraft crashed outside the 8 kilometers radius from AERP, KLIA.
Rescue and Fire-Fighting
AFRS will response to the crash site if it is within 8 kilometers radius from AERP, KLIA but if the site is far from the airport, AFRS may response based on humanitarian ground after consultation with ATC and Airport Management.
Command and Control
In an instance, the crash site is outside the 8 kilometers radius, Jabatan Bomba will command the rescue and fire-fighting operations and a Senior Police Officer will assume the overall command of the incident
Aircraft Ground Incident Aircraft Ground Incident is declared for an aircraft on the Ground suspected to be involved in an accident which May Endanger the safety of the aircraft or its passengers. If Aircraft Ground Incident is upgraded to Aircraft Crash, Activation and alerting as per Aircraft Crash On KLIA procedures.
Aircraft Ground Incident
Aircraft damaged due to handling landing.
Aircraft’s tyre burst on landing.
parked aircraft damaged due to accident or collision with apron vehicle.
Parked aircraft damaged due to extreme weather condition e.g strong wind.
Aircraft immobilized on runway or taxiway.
Severe fuel spillage from aircraft.
A bomb or suspect article is found on an aircraft on the ground.
Full Emergency Full Emergency ( FE ) is declared when an aircraft approaching the airport is known or suspected to be in difficulty and there is an imminent danger of an accident. Upon declaration of FE , airport operational units and support organizations / agencies is to mobilize available resources for immediate response at the designated rendezvous point
Full Emergency Response
AFRS will turn out a full aircraft attendance and deployed at any predetermined standby positions along the runway.
If the aircraft crashed or exploded, carry out full Aircraft Crash On Airport procedures.
If aircraft landed, with approval from ATC , AFRS vehicles will follow the aircraft on the runway, taxiway and to the stop position.
ATC may cancelled the Full Emergency after the aircraft has landed safety and all appliances to return to base.
AFRS to notify Jabatan Bomba on the termination of the Full Emergency status by ATC.
Local Standby Local Standby is declared when an aircraft is known or suspected to have developed some defect, but which would not normally involve any difficulty in affecting its landing. Local Standby when initiated will involve response from airport operational units only. The objective is to alert from airport organizations to make necessary preparation for immediate response in the event of an accident occurring during the landing of the aircraft.
Bomb Threat Bomb threat is declared when the safety of an aircraft or building is endangered by a bomb or any other explosive device. If a bomb or suspected explosive device has been found, but NOT on an aircraft, take necessary actions as stipulated in the Act OF Aggression Ground
Bomb Threat Response
Bomb Threat information or warning can be received whilst aircraft is airborne or on ground. If a bomb or suspect article is found on an aircraft on the ground, the procedures to be followed is described under Aircraft Ground Incident.
If a bomb, suspect explosive article or bombing occurs at terminal building, refer to ACT OF Aggression Ground procedures
Bomb Threat Incident
For foreign airlines, AOC will initiate Bomb Threat procedures and notify members of the Airport Evaluation Committee (AEC ), respective airline and ATC. If the threat is directed at MAS aircraft, AOC to relay information to MAS Flight Management Centre
A threat may be classified as a Hoax (Non-Specific) or Genuine (Specific Threat ) based on the AEC threat assessment method. MAS Assessment Team categorize Bomb Threat as Specific PTI or Non- Specific.
Command and Control
If threat is PTI / Specific, AVSEC will act as Bomb Threat Field C0- ordinator. If objects is identified positive Police Incident Officer will become Overall Commander of Security Operations. AODM is the Overall Co-ordinator for Bomb Threat procedures
Airport Evaluation Committee
GM MA (Sepang) - Chairman
Head of Police,KLIA
Senior Representative of Airline Operators Committee
Station Manager / Deputy / Threat Assessors of the Airline
Manager AVSEC - Secretary
MAS Assessment Team
MAS Chief Pilot ( Flight Safety and Standards ) / Alternate
Mas Security Manager (SM) / Alternate
Mas Line Maintenance Manager (LMM) / Alternate
Decision by any 3 members of the AEC which includes the Chairman and Airline representative is final.
Decision must be made within 15 minutes from the timed receipt of the information. Any decision by Threat assessors will be recorded and submitted as a Police Report.
Aircraft Hijack Aircraft Hijack is declared when it is known or suspected that an aircraft has been unlawfully seized whilst in the air or on the ground. Unlawful seizure of an aircraft is an act of air piracy and a violation of both Malaysian and International Law.
Aircraft Hijack Codeword
Malaysia has standard Codeword “Ops Rampas” in the case of an unlawful seizure of aircraft.
1). To condemn any forms of terrorism
2). To ensure safety of hostage and property
3). To ensure settlement by means of negotiation
4). To storm hijacked aircraft as a last resort
5). To ensure no concession or exchange of hostage
Command and Control Authority
A hierarchical command structure works through committee system as per NSC Directives No 18
Act OF Aggression On Ground Act Of Aggression On Ground is declared upon receiving information about bomb threat, armed or violence attacks at terminal, hostage taking and other acts of terrorism at the airport
Act Of Aggression
Threat assessors as indicated in Aircraft Ground Incident - Bomb Threat ( excluding DCA Director) but including the Manager of the premise which have targeted.
Class A - NFA
Class B - To Search and Evacuate
Class C - To Search Suspected Area with Only Partial Evacuation
Class D - To Evacuate Without Search
Bomb Threat Assessors are required to attend to the scene of incident
Structural Fire Structural Fire is declared when there is a fire at the airport terminal or nearby buildings which is liable to constitute a danger to aircraft and airport operations. AFRS will provides the initial response to structural fires until the arrival of Senior Jabatan Bomba Official who will assume overall command of the rescue and fire-fighting operations.
Dangerous Good Incident Dangerous Goods Accident / Incident is declared when it is known or suspected that dangerous good being carried on board an aircraft are damaged and caused leakage of fluid, acids, poisons, compressed gases or radioactive materials etc. which could result in fatal or serious injury to person or major property damage.
Dangerous Goods Incident
Class 1 - Explosives
Class 2 - Compressed Gases
Class 3 - Flammable Liquids
Class 4 - Flammable Solids
Class 5 - Oxidizing Substances
Class 6 - Poisonous (Toxic) & Infectious Substances
Class 7 - Radioactive Materials
Class 8 - Corrosives Materials
Class 9 - Others
Removal Of Crashed or Disabled Aircraft
Removal of Crashed or Disable Aircraft on the airport must be done in an expeditious manner as immobilized aircraft or debris resulting from an accidents may caused unacceptable obstruction to the operations of the airport.
Any disable aircraft or debris resulting from an accident should nor be removed or interfered until released by DCA Inspector of Aircraft Accident.
Only authorized persons shall have access to the incident site.
Media Handling & Press Release
Media Relations Room
The Media Relations Room main function is to make appropriate announcements via press release or conferencing to the press in concurrence with EOC and approved by CCC.
2. Emergency Operation Centre ( Airline / Handling Agent )
Airline / handling Agent will establish their respective EOC to inform next-of kin and families of passengers, to handle all inquiries by the public, to receive and collate information relating to casualties and uninjured survivors.
3. Family / Friends Reception Centre
The F / FRC is a facility where the next-of-kin / families of passengers involved in an emergency could go for information and assistance.
Media Handling & Press Release
Survivors Reception Centre
The main function of the SRC is to provide a private area where uninjured survivors from the Triage Area could be transferred to SRC for CIQ clearance (Customs, Immigration and Health) and handle the needs of the surviving passengers (eg. Refreshment, ticketing, medical follow-up, hotel accommodation etc) by the airline.
Family / friends Holding Area and Private Matching Area
The F / FHA operates in conjunction with F / FRC and SRC where arrangement for the relatives to meet the survivors are made at the PMA.