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LCA & C2C   Presentatie Douglas Mulhall & Katja Hansen - Epea 24 06 2010
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LCA & C2C Presentatie Douglas Mulhall & Katja Hansen - Epea 24 06 2010

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Life Cycle Analyses and Cradle to Cradle

Life Cycle Analyses and Cradle to Cradle


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  • 1. CRADLE TO CRADLE® AND LCA Douglas Mulhall June 24, 2010 ©Copyright EPEA 2010
  • 2. IS LCA HELPING TO FIND BIG SOLUTIONS ?
  • 3. LCA & C2C CAME FROM THE SAME PLACE; MEASURABLY IMPROVE “SUSTAINABILITY,” BUT TOOK DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS
  • 4. ORIGINS OF LCA “The three-component model for LCAs… evolved from some earlier work done in the area of environmental assessment and from work done by EPEA (1990).” A Technical Framework for Life Cycle Assessment, SETAC 1993
  • 5. DILUTING LCA INTENTIONS FROM “IMPROVEMENT” TO “INTERPRETATION” Original structure of LCA published in 1993 This is where the divergence began from the original intentions of LCA for “improvement” shown here to the present-day stage of “Interpretation.” This had the effect of diluting LCA from an optimization tool to a measurement tool. A Technical Framework for Life Cycle Assessment, SETAC 1993
  • 6. A BASIC DIFFERENCE LCA IS A MEASUREMENT TOOL. CRADLE TO CRADLE IS AN INNOVATION FRAMEWORK.
  • 7. THE CRADLE TO CRADLE® FRAMEWORK PHILOSOPHY Provides guidance & room for evolving thought. PRINCIPLES Consistent & measurable criteria for applying tools. TOOLS Quantifiable basis for applying principles.
  • 8. A BASIC DIFFERENCE CRADLE TO CRADLE IS USED TO SET AN OBJECTIVE AND ROADMAP WITH MEASURABLE MILESTONES TO GET THERE. LCA IS A MEASUREMENT TOOL.
  • 9. CRADLE TO CRADLE® GUIDING PRINCIPLES WASTE = FOOD = Everything is a nutrient for something else USE CURRENT SOLAR INCOME = Energy renewable in the time it is used SUPPORT DIVERSITY • Biodiversity • Conceptual Diversity • Cultural Diversity
  • 10. Biological Technical Metabolism Metabolism
  • 11. CRADLE TO GRAVE DESIGN PARADIGM. A LINEAR APPROACH.
  • 12. MOST LCA IS A „SNAPSHOT IN TIME“ TO EVALUATE ECO-EFFICIENCY REDUCTION, AVOIDANCE, MINIMIZATION, PREVENTION. ECO-EFFICIENCY
  • 13. AN EXAMPLE OF THE PROBLEM OF MEASURING A SNAPSHOT IN TIME ECO-EFFECTIVENESS ENORMOUS TOXIN RELEASE CLIMATE GAS EMISSIONS DESTRUCTION OF FORESTS THREAT TO WILDLIFE LOW ENERGY EFFICIENCY LCA MEASUREMENT OF AN ERUPTION ?
  • 14. THERE IS NO STANDARD LCA.
  • 15. OBJECTIVITY ? “Many researchers have criticized the amount of subjectivity allowed by the ISO standards, which could lead to less confidence in comparative LCA study results.” A survey of unresolved problems in life cycle assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess (2008) 13:290–300
  • 16. AFTER 20 YEARS MANY UNSOLVED BASIC PROBLEMS “LCA problems by phase Goal and scope definition Life cycle impact assessment Functional unit definition Impact category and methodology selection Boundary selection Spatial variation Social and economic impacts Local environmental uniqueness Alternative scenario considerations Dynamics of the environment Time horizons Life cycle inventory analysis Allocation Life cycle interpretation Negligible contribution (‘cutoff’) criteria Weighting and valuation Local technical uniqueness Uncertainty in the decision process All Data availability and quality” A survey of unresolved problems in life cycle assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess (2008) 13:290–300
  • 17. HOW WOULD LCA EVALUATE MULTIPLE INTERACTIONS OF THE PAPER CASCADE?
  • 18. HOW WOULD LCA ACCOUNT FOR MATERIALS GENERATIONS ?
  • 19. HOW TO DO LCA ON INTERACTION OF MULTIPLE SYSTEMS? Defined concrete additives Photovoltaic windows & skylights Dust control flooring Interior & exterior vegetation to Meeting rooms metabolize pollutants with natural light & fresh air Air and skin-safe Recyclable furniture interior textiles BIONORICA NEUMA RKT
  • 20. HOW WOULD LCA EVALUATE COMPARATIVE MATERIALS SCARCITY ? Quelle: Gordon et. al. 2006 PNAS 103:1209-1214 & New Scientist 2007: figs base d on data from US Ge ological Surve y and UN statistics on global population
  • 21. (POLITICALLY) LIMITED RESERVES OF RESOURCES Gallium Indium Key element for Solar cells, computers, photoelectric cells screens laptops, flatscreens mobile LED´s, computers, etc. phones etc. price/kg: 2003: $60, 2006: >$1.000 New EU study: “Critical raw materials for the EU”.
  • 22. HOW WOULD LCA EVALUATE PRODUCT CONTRIBUTION TO TOPSOIL RESTORATION? Food production depends on soil. Loss of soil due to; Intensive over-farming Incineration & landfilling of nutrients Urbanization Soil takes tens of thousands of years to form.
  • 23. HOW WOULD LCA VALUE THESE “OBJECTIVE“ PARAMETERS ? RISKS OF NUCLEAR POWER GENERATORS •Risks of police state to protect nuclear fuel chain from terrorists •Risks of catastrophic meltdown •Nuclear plant water vapor as greenhouse gas instead of “zero emissions” •Promised costs vs. constant overruns of new facilities •Scarcity of fuel •Unsolved waste & failure of promised solutions •Trillions in historical subsidies for nuclear weapons
  • 24. HOW WOULD LCA EVALUATE A MULTI-YEAR ROADMAP ? Benefits GOALS WHERE CUSTOMERS AND SUPPLIERS REGARD THEMSELVES AS PARTNERS, AIMING FOR THE HIGHEST QUALITIES Time (10-15 years) Most of society is here
  • 25. HOW WOULD LCA EVALUATE MULTIPLE MILESTONES & FRONT RUNNER INNOVATION ? Quality Front-runner Contributes net cleaner air, water. innovations in every All materials defined beneficially. & Value building system. Net topsoil generator. for Stake- Total systems Produces more energy than used. integration. More biodiversity than before. holders Innovations in each C2C Material pathways & periods defined. category. Some Topsoil, biomass & species measurably positive. systems Energy used=energy produced. integration. Selective Contains quantifiable elements innovations Examples of C2C air, water, . biodiversity, or energy Minimal defined materials pathways. systems integration Time
  • 26. HOW WOULD LCA EVALUATE FINANCIAL ENABLING MECHANISMS? SHARE FINANCIAL BENEFITS AMONG STAKEHOLDERS - Energy - Water - Air - Greenhouse gas capture & reuse - Biodiversity
  • 27. LCA HAS FEWER TOOLS TO EVALUATE POSITIVE BENEFITS ECO-EFFECTIVENESS DEFINE, INCREASE, SUPPORT, OPTIMIZE ECO-EFFICIENCY
  • 28. LCA CAN BE IMPROVED TO HELP MEASURE BIG SOLUTIONS. BUT IT WILL NOT REPLACE AN OVERALL FRAMEWORK
  • 29. POSSIBLE LCA IMPROVEMENTS IN THE EXISTING FRAMEWORK START WITH SCOPING • STATE YOUR INTENTIONS • IDENTIFY INTENDED USE PATHWAY OF THE PRODUCT • IMPROVE DEFINITIONS
  • 30. SCOPING STAGE EXAMPLES OF CRITERIA 1. STATE YOUR INTENTIONS. Which principles do you plan to implement by when? C2C PRINCIPLE; EVERYTHING IS A NUTRIENT FOR SOMETHING ELSE 2. DEFINE MATERIALS AND THEIR INTENDED USE PATHWAYS Use materials; (a) whose contents are measurably defined in technical or biological pathways from manufacturing through use and recovery and (b) whose impacts are measurably beneficial for human health and the environment.
  • 31. ADD TO SCOPING. Statement of Intentions By 2020; 1. Paper is reused in defined cascades that maximize fiber reuse at every stage and is compatible with biological processes. 2. Preference to products that include a roadmap for how paper fiber reuse will be maximized. 3. Additives in paper, printing & recycling are compatible with biosphere processes and can be safely composted in industrial composting facilities or burned without filters. 4. Materials pooling and supply chain partnerships are defined at each stage of paper use. 5. Renewable energy is used to recycle 100 percent of paper.
  • 32. ADD TO SCOPING Biological Technical Metabolism Metabolism
  • 33. SOLVE DEFINITIONS BARRIERS Redefine "Recycled" content Redefine "Nitrogen" content Redefine Energy "recovery”
  • 34. UPCOMING PUBLICATIONS „CRADLE TO CRADLE CRITERIA FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT“ – DEFINITION OF A C2C BUILDING – CRITERIA BASED ON C2C PRINCIPLES – IMPLEMENTATION CRITERIA – MEASURING INTENTIONS, MILESTONES & ROADMAPS – DEFINING C2C ENERGY „C2C FEATURES IN BUILDING SYSTEMS“