The phone in places distant from each other and exchange information between people and providing mechanisms to receive electric sound device. Study of the phone before the main principles of sound waves into electrical signals turning of mouth, after transmission of these signals away from the various sending methods, audible sound waves ear again, this time the translation of electrical signals. Then the first cities established phone networks between cities, each corner of the world through the international mechanisms with each other communications ,satellites, and the state has been transformed.
Telos Telephone ancient Greek word "remote" and phone "voice" was formed with the words. Phone to our language was French. In response to the phone away from the Turkish word for linguist speaks Nurullah Atac thought up the word. Do not use that word in this word, but people are asked to be Turkish, the word used for the new phone
Clearly transmits the first telephone conversations tool, developed by Charles Sumner Tainter and Alexander Graham Bells radiophone device. Two scientists , carried out on this device, the first successful experiment, February 15, 1880.Transmitter Washington, 13.Cadde w as placed in the top of the Franklin School . Tainter , by taking the handset, the hands began to speak: ‘ Mr Bell ... Mr. Bell ... If you can hear me, please come to the window shake your hat. A little later, Bell,14.Cadde came in the window of the lab. Had a hat in his hand. Paused for a moment, then began to shake his hat.
To talk over the phone as the first telegraph system, similar to the two connection shave been used. Most of the time, a connection of iron wire, other connection to the loss of soil mixed with more and heard several voices. Increased development of alloys of copper wire. Talk began to fall short of the number of links increases. In 1886, only a device that disables the sound of different frequencies (multiplex) was short-circuit. It is then placed in a long line of losses was resolved.
Telefonda en büyük adımlardan biri operatör kullanmaksızın yapılan otomatik konuşmalardır. 1891 yılında geliştirilen Strowger otomatik arayıcıyla araya operatör girmeden aboneler birbirine bağlanabilmiştir. Bu düzenek 1920 yılında Bell düzeneği olarak geliştirilmiştir. 18 Ekim 1892de Chicago ve New York arasında ilk uzun telefon hattı açıldı. 1948 yılından sonra ise transistörün aygıtının sahneye çıkmasıyla elektromanyetik röle sistemler yerini, elektronik devrelere bırakmıştır. Elektronik arayıcı sistem ilk olarak 1965 yılında ABDde servise konulmuştur.
The other major step taken on the phone, long distance, high- frequency radio broadcasts of exploitation of his speeches. Intervals of 150-300 km in the form of relay stations transmits conversations broad cast coax cables and air borne electromagnetic. The higher the number of channels increases the frequency of speech through a single connection. 3600 relay station between the two at the same time such a system is likely to make a speech.
This development was followed by speeches made by means of satellites. Phone conversations between continents be gan in 1915. The first conversation was with Paris between the United States Arlingon. Phone calls between continents-power radio transceivers used. The effect of the ionosphere was used in submarine cables to make it difficult to talk. The first underwater cable between phone calls, 185 kilometers away from Havana to Florida was in 1950. The result is satisfying same mechanism was established in 1956 between New York and London.
Continents via satellite phone conversations between the first began in 1960. Echo1s satellite phone connection between the board of the U.S. east coast and west coast I do this Telstar, Telstar and other satellites, followed by 2. Today, satellites , ships or aircraft, the introduction of automated telephone calls can be made . Satellites put into orbit in 1985, one of the space shuttle Discovery was able to talk at the same time allows 20 000.
First telephone contact with the Turks in the Ottoman Empire began to be implemented in 1908. And Beyoglu Kadıkoy stations opened in 1911. S order in the republics first automatic telephone exchange was established in Ankara in1926. Then started to appear in other provincial centers and telephone exchanges. After a short time telephone communication was established between all provinces through exchanges began. After the 1970s, his studies of PTT telephone, in Turkey, although late, began to expand rapidly.
Tahtakale international telephone exchange telephone exchange in Istanbul,Turkey. Contacts with other international telephone santralleriyla this plant by the year 1985 is under way. They are: Edirne (Bulgaria) line, Izmir (Greece) line, Antalya (Italy) line Iskenderun (Syria) pipeline, Diyarbakir (Iraq) line, Ankara (Russia) line. Then a subscriber will negotiate with Baghdad are engaged before the DiyarbakirDiyarbakir radyolinkiyle Tahtakale yle reaches Baghdad. In future years, the Turkishsatellites sent into space (Turk-Sat) is expected to increase international exchangelines (1994).
Through an electrical circuit of events occurring during the course of a telephone conversation are listed as follows: Sound energy is converted to mechanical energy. Converted to mechanical energy to electrical energy. Electrical energy is transferred. On the opposite side the magnetic energy is converted to electrical energy. Magnetic energy is converted to mechanical energy. Sound energy into mechanical energy.
Propagation speed of the vibrations of the air vibrations of electrical conductors based on propagation velocity is higher than a few hundred thousand times (200- 300 thousand km / s, the order) with the speakers of the phone, despite the distance between them, have faced find feeling. The phone system serves three. Conversation between two subscriber provides their connection between the calling and subscribers, busy rotation, produces audio signals. These processes are non- automatic magneto phones are made by hand. The main parts of a telephone instrument are as follows: Audio receiver (microphone), Microphone current source, Audio transmitter (earphone), Calling and called up schemes, Open circuit closers, switches, Calling the dial.
Manual and automated telephone instruments connected to different power plants . Some of the parts in each of them located above. Sound in the phone handset converts sound to electrical energy and electrical energy. A key that opens the circuit device is removed from the automated phone handset is available on front and back numaratörü. Electrical circuit is established between the telephone exchange telephone handset lifted. Tone is heard from handset. Numbering, for example, number 6 is turned on and off six times the electrical circuit is closed . Circuits by means of the power plant is considered as a signal to open and close the electrical circuit.
May not be able to correspond in the form of speech. Local power plants placed in the distribution of computers by making a selection according to the type sent to the analog telephone signal, digital telephone, facsimile, telex, data processing forms of television leads to the terminals. Thus, next to the telephone conversations television, facsimile image and text, telex, computer operations are carried out in a very quick and high quality.
Communication lines: Communication (communication), the possibilities are numerous. They are: Maximum number Technology of speech Two-wire analog 1 radio signal line Analog radio relay link line 30 Digital radio relay link 1920 line Multi-arm coaxial cable line 7680 Fiber-optic cable lines 10.000 + Line of communications 20.000 speech satellites
Two-wire speech circuits are limited to distances, the number of casualties was so high and the channel is not used outside of the city distribution system . Communication systems are highly developed in terms of capacity and quality istifadeyle radio broadcasts. Telephone calls as well as the analog signal directly and also after translation of these analog signals into digital signals can be published. The analog signal is high for the level of the echo signal to noise problem and abandoned, the digital signal system was launched.
Digital signal systems, the analog signal is divided into slices by dividing palslara properly. These pulses then the transmitter antenna coded 0 , 1 is sent as digital broadcasting. Process can be made separately for each speech coding for speech pulses from an antenna into many thousands of concurrent users can be published. Recipient phone, thousands of stations that broadcast from the deco derre- analyzing the audio signal is converted into a logic circuit, passing through the central reaches subscribers. The coded pulses sent to the antenna coaxial cable, such as to broadcasti. Coaxial cable losses is drastically reduced. Faster than that of coaxial cable and high- capacity optical fiber cables with very low loss rate can also be used. Encoded digital signals are converted into optical signals are sent to the optical fiber system. Before the plant against the optical signals to electronic signals and then converted into an analog signal o dyo local central logic circuit is delivered to subscribers.
Two-wire communication system made a speech at the same time. However, 30- channel pulse code modulated digital radio link communications system available . Coax cable digital radio link communications system at least 30 megabits per second is capable of sending information at 1920 channels. In 1985, F. Which went into service in Germany 565 mbit per second capacity of such a system; a7680 speech at the same time, or in other words to convey information is available . Fiber-optic systems, 140 mbit / sec and higher capacities are on duty. High capacity fiber optic communication system, ease of installation, maintenance ,refuse , dispatching high- quality information is the top shelf of existing systems. In summary, the phone names of plants are: the electromechanical telephone exchange, an electronic telephone exchange system, automatic telephone exchange, long distance telephone switchboard, transit telephone exchange , telephone exchange semi-electronic , semiautomatic telephone switchboard, local(local) telephone exchange ... There are types, including (1994).
The most important benefit exercise correspond via the phone is done rapidly . Fiber- optic, coaxial cable and telephone calls made by reflecting electro magnetic means, satellites linking every corner of the world. Telephone systems, channel capacities are increasing every day. Make it practical for even more increases in the number of channels puts the phone. One of the important developments in tele communications, the emergence of wireless phone. Short wave radio receiver -talking on the phone makers the opportunity to move the regular telephone system has emerged linking. With this system, as well as seamless connectivity between regions, even in very long- haul journeys where you want the call immediately.