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    Linux Linux Presentation Transcript

    • Linux
    • Key Notes
      • Introduction to Open Source.
      • What is Linux.
      • Linux Distros.
      • Which is Suitable for Me.
      • Linux Installation Process.
      • How to Use Linux.
      • Installing Useful Software.
      • Linux Shells (Advanced).
    • Open Source
      • Is a development methodology.
      • Means that people can share their programs source code with every one for free.
      • This type of software is available under terms of licenses such as GPL, LGPL, AGPL, ISC, MIT.
      • Each license puts some rules for the method of using their code.
      • Most famous one is the GPL license used with Linux.
    • Open Source & Linux
      • Unix was the Major used OS in most universities.
      • Unix started asking students to pay money for the usage and development of the system.
      • A professor developed Minix in order to replace Unix, which was used by Linus Torvalds.
      • Linus started to develop the Linux Kernel.
      • In the same time Ritchard Stallman started to develop GNU and constructed Free Software Foundation.
    • What is Linux?
      • Linux is a free open source operating system kernel built by a student to replace UNIX.
      • Linux is the system kernel where GNU is the tools that system use to operate.
      • It was developed in early 1990s but still developed until now.
      • Is the first choice for enterprise world and geeks.
      • Linux can run on many platforms(i386, x86/64, PPC, Amiga, SPARC, PS3, Super computers).
    • GNU/Linux Architecture
      • Linux has a monolithic kernel.
      • GNU/Linux uses the structure of layered model.
      Kernel Process control Networking Peripherals File System Unix Tools X Server (X window system)‏ Unix Shells
    • Linux Window Managers.
      • Window managers is a graphical software used to ease the use of the system.
      • Linux has many window managers (KDE, Gnome, xpde, xfce, fluxbox, twm, NextStep,....).
    • Screen shots for WMs
    • Linux Distros.
      • As Linux is open source so any one can develop his own version.
      • Linux distros varies in DWM, Applications provided with each.
      • Market imposed on us some distros as standard (Redhat, Debian, Slackware).
      • Most of current distros are based on Debian(Ubuntu) or Redhat (Fedora).
    • Fedora Desktop
    • Ubuntu Desktop
    • Which is Suitable for Me?
      • Redhat is good for enterprise work.
      • Debian is good for professional end-users.
      • Fedora is good for personal use and developing
      • Opensuse is good for training usage
      • Mandriva is very good for non technical user.
      • Slackware is intended for Advanced professional users.
      • Ubuntu is suitable for ALL !!!
    • Why Ubuntu?
      • Ubuntu is a free Linux distros
      • Ubuntu is based on Debian which is reliable and stable.
      • Ubuntu is the distribution with the biggest software repositories.
      • Ubuntu has a good hardware support for most available companies.
      • Ubuntu have a lot of variants (Kubuntu, Xubuntu, Edubuntu, Goubuntu, MIDI Ubuntu).
    • Ubuntu is Widely Used
    • Installing Ubuntu
      • Ubuntu comes on a live CD.
      • Live CD means that you can use the system from CD with out installing (boot only).
      • The system installation is as easy as installing a program (Only double click on icon).
      • The installation process is very fast and easy (faster and easier than installing windows).
      • Let's see how ???!!
    • First Welcome Screen
    • Choose your Language.
    • Choose your Location
    • Choose Keyboard Layout
    • Prepare Disk Space
    • Who are you?
    • Import Windows® Settings
    • Booting After Installition
    • Login Screen
    • Using Linux
      • Linux desktop is very easy to use like windows.
      • There are some important elements on desktop
        • Computer Disks: Places -> Computer.
        • Home Directory : Places -> Home Folder.
        • Configurations : System -> Preferences.
        • Administration : System -> Administration.
        • All Programs : Applications -> Choose Category.
      • Note that all this menus are found under Gnome only KDE is different.
    • Using Linux (File System)‏
      • Linux uses EXT2, EXT3 file systems and a swap partition to use as virtual memory.
      • Linux can mount FAT16/32 , NTFS , HFS Drives where windows can't mount EXT drive.
      • Under File system there are some Directories:
        • /bin: contains UNIX tools and executable Shell tools
        • /boot: file needed to boot the system.
        • /etc: system configuration files.
        • /lib : system and applications libraries.
        • /media: mounted drives.
    • Installing Useful Software
      • Most of applications available for Linux are free and open source so it's easy to get.
      • Linux has repositories for programs (search & get).
      • Each Linux distribution has a software called package manager.
      • The two most famous packages formats are: .deb for Debian based system , .rpm for Redhat based systems.
    • How to Install Applications?
      • From Application menu go to Add/Remove.....
        • In the windows opened write program name or description in the search field.
        • choose your preferred programs.
        • Click “Apply” and wait for download and instillation.
        • Now the program is installed and ready to use.
      • To install application from shell.
        • sudo apt-get install packageName
        • Then wait for download and installation.
    • Windows Emulation
      • WINE is a windows emulator which is able to run windows software under Linux.
      • Wine can be downloaded via Add/Remove..
      • WINE can emulate windows (2.0, 3.0, 95, 98, NT, 2000, XP, Server 2003, Vista, Server 2008)‏
      • Wine Doors is a program that downloads some libraries for WINE to be compatible with most windows Apps.
      • Wine needs (MFC , VC++ runtime, VB runtime, IE6 libs, DX9c libs, .....).
    • Programming on Linux.
      • Linux has dozens of programming languages.
      • GNU Compilers Collection has compilers for:
        • Ada, C/C++, Fortran and Java.
      • The Linux kernel is compiled using GCC.
      • Perl, Python are installed on most distros.
      • Sun's JDK, JVM can be installed on Linux.
      • A lot of IDEs are available for Linux(Eclipse, Netbeans, Mono, KDevelop, Omnis Studio)‏
    • Installing Java & Netbeans
      • To install Sun Java write this commands:
        • sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre
        • sudo apt-get install sun-java6-bin
        • sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jdk
        • sudo apt-get install sun-java6-plugin
      • To install Netbeans download the Linux file then:
        • Double click the Icon and continue the setup.
        • ./netbeans6.x --javahome:JavaDirectoryPath
    • Installing MySQL & Oracle
      • MySQL server must be installed using package manager:
        • sudo apt-get install mysql-server-5.0
        • Query browser and other tools can be downloaded via Add/Remove from Applications menu.
      • Download the Oracle deb package from Oracle website then:
        • Double click on the icon.
        • Click on install package button and wait for setup to finish.
        • Go to /etc/init.d then write “chmod +x oracle-xe”
        • Then start script as root “sudo ./oracle-xe”
    • Linux Shells (UNIX shells)‏
      • Linux uses shells to interact with user in CLI mode (good for servers and administrators).
      • Shells can be accessed by GUI users via terminals.
      • Linux shell is similar to UNIX shell but with some additional commands.
      • Most popular Linux shell is Bash.
      • Bash supports scripts with a wide range of commands.
    • Linux Shell Commands
      • cp file1 file2 -> copy file1 to file2
      • rm fileName -> deletes the file.
      • mv file1 file2 -> rename file1 or moves it to another location.
      • cd directoryName -> change directory.
      • less fileName -> view file content
      • clear -> clear screen
      • man command -> view command Manual.
      • find fileName -> search for file.
    • Linux Shell Commands 2
      • ls -> list files in current directory.
      • ps -u UserName -> view all running process for userName.
      • kill PID -> kill process with a specific ID.
      • su -> change to root mode.
      • sudo “command” -> execute command in root mode.
      • chmod +x “file” -> change file mode to executable.
      • ./ -> execute script or file.
      • ifconfig -> view your network interface configurations.
      • history -> view history of command you entered.
      • reboot -> restart system , halt -> shutdown the system
    • Shell Configurations
      • The shell configurations file of the Bash shell is found under /home/UseName/.bashrc .
      • We can use this file to define new environment variables to the shell by adding the following line at the end of the file:
        • PATH=$PATH: /xx/yy/zz ;
        • export PATH
      • .bash_history -> contains your command history.
      • .bash_logout -> execute command when leaving shell.
    • Bye Bye Keep Using