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  • 1. Linux
  • 2. Key Notes
    • Introduction to Open Source.
    • What is Linux.
    • Linux Distros.
    • Which is Suitable for Me.
    • Linux Installation Process.
    • How to Use Linux.
    • Installing Useful Software.
    • Linux Shells (Advanced).
  • 3. Open Source
    • Is a development methodology.
    • Means that people can share their programs source code with every one for free.
    • This type of software is available under terms of licenses such as GPL, LGPL, AGPL, ISC, MIT.
    • Each license puts some rules for the method of using their code.
    • Most famous one is the GPL license used with Linux.
  • 4. Open Source & Linux
    • Unix was the Major used OS in most universities.
    • Unix started asking students to pay money for the usage and development of the system.
    • A professor developed Minix in order to replace Unix, which was used by Linus Torvalds.
    • Linus started to develop the Linux Kernel.
    • In the same time Ritchard Stallman started to develop GNU and constructed Free Software Foundation.
  • 5. What is Linux?
    • Linux is a free open source operating system kernel built by a student to replace UNIX.
    • Linux is the system kernel where GNU is the tools that system use to operate.
    • It was developed in early 1990s but still developed until now.
    • Is the first choice for enterprise world and geeks.
    • Linux can run on many platforms(i386, x86/64, PPC, Amiga, SPARC, PS3, Super computers).
  • 6. GNU/Linux Architecture
    • Linux has a monolithic kernel.
    • GNU/Linux uses the structure of layered model.
    Kernel Process control Networking Peripherals File System Unix Tools X Server (X window system)‏ Unix Shells
  • 7. Linux Window Managers.
    • Window managers is a graphical software used to ease the use of the system.
    • Linux has many window managers (KDE, Gnome, xpde, xfce, fluxbox, twm, NextStep,....).
  • 8. Screen shots for WMs
  • 9. Linux Distros.
    • As Linux is open source so any one can develop his own version.
    • Linux distros varies in DWM, Applications provided with each.
    • Market imposed on us some distros as standard (Redhat, Debian, Slackware).
    • Most of current distros are based on Debian(Ubuntu) or Redhat (Fedora).
  • 10. Fedora Desktop
  • 11. Ubuntu Desktop
  • 12. Which is Suitable for Me?
    • Redhat is good for enterprise work.
    • Debian is good for professional end-users.
    • Fedora is good for personal use and developing
    • Opensuse is good for training usage
    • Mandriva is very good for non technical user.
    • Slackware is intended for Advanced professional users.
    • Ubuntu is suitable for ALL !!!
  • 13. Why Ubuntu?
    • Ubuntu is a free Linux distros
    • Ubuntu is based on Debian which is reliable and stable.
    • Ubuntu is the distribution with the biggest software repositories.
    • Ubuntu has a good hardware support for most available companies.
    • Ubuntu have a lot of variants (Kubuntu, Xubuntu, Edubuntu, Goubuntu, MIDI Ubuntu).
  • 14. Ubuntu is Widely Used
  • 15. Installing Ubuntu
    • Ubuntu comes on a live CD.
    • Live CD means that you can use the system from CD with out installing (boot only).
    • The system installation is as easy as installing a program (Only double click on icon).
    • The installation process is very fast and easy (faster and easier than installing windows).
    • Let's see how ???!!
  • 16. First Welcome Screen
  • 17. Choose your Language.
  • 18. Choose your Location
  • 19. Choose Keyboard Layout
  • 20. Prepare Disk Space
  • 21. Who are you?
  • 22. Import Windows® Settings
  • 23. Booting After Installition
  • 24. Login Screen
  • 25. Using Linux
    • Linux desktop is very easy to use like windows.
    • There are some important elements on desktop
      • Computer Disks: Places -> Computer.
      • Home Directory : Places -> Home Folder.
      • Configurations : System -> Preferences.
      • Administration : System -> Administration.
      • All Programs : Applications -> Choose Category.
    • Note that all this menus are found under Gnome only KDE is different.
  • 26. Using Linux (File System)‏
    • Linux uses EXT2, EXT3 file systems and a swap partition to use as virtual memory.
    • Linux can mount FAT16/32 , NTFS , HFS Drives where windows can't mount EXT drive.
    • Under File system there are some Directories:
      • /bin: contains UNIX tools and executable Shell tools
      • /boot: file needed to boot the system.
      • /etc: system configuration files.
      • /lib : system and applications libraries.
      • /media: mounted drives.
  • 27. Installing Useful Software
    • Most of applications available for Linux are free and open source so it's easy to get.
    • Linux has repositories for programs (search & get).
    • Each Linux distribution has a software called package manager.
    • The two most famous packages formats are: .deb for Debian based system , .rpm for Redhat based systems.
  • 28. How to Install Applications?
    • From Application menu go to Add/Remove.....
      • In the windows opened write program name or description in the search field.
      • choose your preferred programs.
      • Click “Apply” and wait for download and instillation.
      • Now the program is installed and ready to use.
    • To install application from shell.
      • sudo apt-get install packageName
      • Then wait for download and installation.
  • 29. Windows Emulation
    • WINE is a windows emulator which is able to run windows software under Linux.
    • Wine can be downloaded via Add/Remove..
    • WINE can emulate windows (2.0, 3.0, 95, 98, NT, 2000, XP, Server 2003, Vista, Server 2008)‏
    • Wine Doors is a program that downloads some libraries for WINE to be compatible with most windows Apps.
    • Wine needs (MFC , VC++ runtime, VB runtime, IE6 libs, DX9c libs, .....).
  • 30. Programming on Linux.
    • Linux has dozens of programming languages.
    • GNU Compilers Collection has compilers for:
      • Ada, C/C++, Fortran and Java.
    • The Linux kernel is compiled using GCC.
    • Perl, Python are installed on most distros.
    • Sun's JDK, JVM can be installed on Linux.
    • A lot of IDEs are available for Linux(Eclipse, Netbeans, Mono, KDevelop, Omnis Studio)‏
  • 31. Installing Java & Netbeans
    • To install Sun Java write this commands:
      • sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre
      • sudo apt-get install sun-java6-bin
      • sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jdk
      • sudo apt-get install sun-java6-plugin
    • To install Netbeans download the Linux file then:
      • Double click the Icon and continue the setup.
      • ./netbeans6.x --javahome:JavaDirectoryPath
  • 32. Installing MySQL & Oracle
    • MySQL server must be installed using package manager:
      • sudo apt-get install mysql-server-5.0
      • Query browser and other tools can be downloaded via Add/Remove from Applications menu.
    • Download the Oracle deb package from Oracle website then:
      • Double click on the icon.
      • Click on install package button and wait for setup to finish.
      • Go to /etc/init.d then write “chmod +x oracle-xe”
      • Then start script as root “sudo ./oracle-xe”
  • 33. Linux Shells (UNIX shells)‏
    • Linux uses shells to interact with user in CLI mode (good for servers and administrators).
    • Shells can be accessed by GUI users via terminals.
    • Linux shell is similar to UNIX shell but with some additional commands.
    • Most popular Linux shell is Bash.
    • Bash supports scripts with a wide range of commands.
  • 34. Linux Shell Commands
    • cp file1 file2 -> copy file1 to file2
    • rm fileName -> deletes the file.
    • mv file1 file2 -> rename file1 or moves it to another location.
    • cd directoryName -> change directory.
    • less fileName -> view file content
    • clear -> clear screen
    • man command -> view command Manual.
    • find fileName -> search for file.
  • 35. Linux Shell Commands 2
    • ls -> list files in current directory.
    • ps -u UserName -> view all running process for userName.
    • kill PID -> kill process with a specific ID.
    • su -> change to root mode.
    • sudo “command” -> execute command in root mode.
    • chmod +x “file” -> change file mode to executable.
    • ./ script.xyz -> execute script or file.
    • ifconfig -> view your network interface configurations.
    • history -> view history of command you entered.
    • reboot -> restart system , halt -> shutdown the system
  • 36. Shell Configurations
    • The shell configurations file of the Bash shell is found under /home/UseName/.bashrc .
    • We can use this file to define new environment variables to the shell by adding the following line at the end of the file:
      • PATH=$PATH: /xx/yy/zz ;
      • export PATH
    • .bash_history -> contains your command history.
    • .bash_logout -> execute command when leaving shell.
  • 37. Bye Bye Keep Using