www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20131Crisis and Emergency RiskCommunicatio...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20132ContentsDefinition and Goals of CERC...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20133Crisis & Emergency RiskCommunication ...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20134Rationale of CERC• Community may be s...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20135Successful CERC is baseduponAnticipat...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20136Goals of CERC• Inform and educate• Bu...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20137How Do We CommunicateAbout Risk in an...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20138CoreConcepts
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20139When people are stressed or concerned...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201311When people are stressed they typica...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201311Harmful Behaviors during crisesBy us...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201312Harmful Behaviors during crises Dem...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201313Potentially harmful practices to avo...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201314Good communication can reduce harmfu...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201315Basic Principles ofEffectiveRiskComm...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201316Always adhere to the six principles ...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201317CERC 6 principlesEffective Risk Comm...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201318CERC 6 principlesEffective Risk Comm...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201319Initial MessageMust_ Be short_ Be re...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201321Caring/Empathy Principle“When people...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201321Elements of successful communication
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201322The STARCC PrincipleYour public mess...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201323Your public message in a crisis must...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201324Message Map:What is meant by shelter...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201325Message Map for "West Nile Virus"
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201326Make the Facts Work in Your MessageC...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201327� Give action steps in positives, no...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201328Make basic information easier toreme...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201329Use personal pronouns for theorgani...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201331Promises/guarantees—only what youca...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201331Some UsefulTemplates
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/2013321- Mental Noise:The Rule of 3– Three...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/2013332- The 27/9/3 Template 3 Messages ...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201334Message Map for "West Nile Virus"
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/2013353-Primacy/Recency“When people are st...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201336mmunication4-Negative DominancePrinc...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201337(Negative Dominance)• Avoid absolute...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/2013385- I Don’t Know…….• Repeat the quest...
www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201339Thank You---------------------------...
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Risk and Crisis Communication CERC

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When people are stressed or concerned, they typically:…have difficulty of hearing, understanding, and remembering information …want to know that you care before they care what you know.

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Risk and Crisis Communication CERC

  1. 1. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20131Crisis and Emergency RiskCommunicationCERC‫التواصل‬‫المخاطر‬ ‫بشأن‬‫الطوارئ‬ ‫و‬ ‫االزمات‬ ‫أثناء‬Dr.Ahmed-Refat AG Refat04/2013
  2. 2. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20132ContentsDefinition and Goals of CERCPopulations Behaviors During CrisesThe 6 Principles of CERCUseful Templates
  3. 3. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20133Crisis & Emergency RiskCommunication –CERCCERC is a term used to cover both the urgency ofcrisis communication and the need to explain risksand benefits to the public and stakeholders.CERC is a process of immediate and crediblecommunication in real time during a crisisresponse.CERC is a science-based approach forcommunicating effectively during a crisis
  4. 4. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20134Rationale of CERC• Community may be scared, angry, and want answers• Community may be distrustful• Community may have difficulty processinginformation• Disaster situations change the rules ofcommunication.
  5. 5. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20135Successful CERC is baseduponAnticipation,Preparation& Practice
  6. 6. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20136Goals of CERC• Inform and educate• Build or regain trust• Achieve agreement/consensus• Elicit actions
  7. 7. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20137How Do We CommunicateAbout Risk in an Emergency?All risks are not accepted equally_ Voluntary vs. involuntary_ Controlled personally vs. controlled by others_ Familiar vs. exotic_ Natural vs. manmade_ Reversible vs. permanent_ Statistical vs. anecdotal_ Fairly vs. unfairly distributed_ Affecting adults vs. affecting children
  8. 8. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20138CoreConcepts
  9. 9. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/20139When people are stressed or concerned,they typically:• …have difficulty, hearing,understanding, and rememberinginformation• …want to know that you care beforethey care what you know.
  10. 10. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201311When people are stressed they typically:• …focus most on what they hear firstand last.• …they focus much more on negativeinformation than positive information.• …they process information at wellbelow their education level.• …they actively seek out additionalsources of credible information.
  11. 11. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201311Harmful Behaviors during crisesBy using CERC principles, your communication canwork to counter some of the harmful behaviors andperceptions that are common during a public healthcrisis.The potentially harmful individual, group, organizational,or community behaviors may include:
  12. 12. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201312Harmful Behaviors during crises Demands for unnecessary treatment Needless social and organizational disruption Disorganized and occasionally destructive groupbehavior Reliance on special relationships for favors andtreatment Increased drug, alcohol, and tobacco use Increased multiple unexplained physical symptoms Unreasonable trade and travel restrictions
  13. 13. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201313Potentially harmful practices to avoid include thefollowing: Mixed and conflicting messages from multiplesources Late release of critical information Overly reassuring and unrealistic communication Advice without a reality check Paternalistic approach to communication Unaddressed or uncorrected myths and rumors
  14. 14. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201314Good communication can reduce harmful humanbehavior. Trained communicators will do the following: Develop messages following CERC principles Reduce high levels of uncertainty Use an effective crisis communication plan Be the first source for information Express empathy and show concern Exhibit competence and expertise Remain honest and open Coordinate with other response officials
  15. 15. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201315Basic Principles ofEffectiveRiskCommunication
  16. 16. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201316Always adhere to the six principles ofCERC:1. Be First.2. Be Right.3. Be Credible.4. Express Empathy.5. Promote Action.6. Show Respect.
  17. 17. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201317CERC 6 principlesEffective Risk Communication1. Be First: Crises are time-sensitive. Communicatinginformation quickly is almost always important. Formembers of the public, the first source of informationoften becomes the preferred source.2. Be Right: Accuracy establishes credibility.Information can include what is known, what is notknown, and what is being done to fill in the gaps.3. Be Credible: Honesty and truthfulness should not becompromised during crises.
  18. 18. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201318CERC 6 principlesEffective Risk Communication-Conts4. Express Empathy: Crises create harm, and thesuffering should be acknowledged in words.Addressing what people are feeling, and thechallenges they face, builds trust and rapport.5. Promote Action: Giving people meaningful things todo calms anxiety, helps restore order, and promotes arestored sense of control.6. Show Respect: Respectful communication isparticularly important when people feel vulnerable.
  19. 19. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201319Initial MessageMust_ Be short_ Be relevant_ Give positive action steps_ Be repeatedMust Not_ Use jargon_ Be judgmental_ Make promises that can’t be kept_ Include humor
  20. 20. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201321Caring/Empathy Principle“When people are stressed andupset, they want to know thatyou care before they care whatyou know.”
  21. 21. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201321Elements of successful communication
  22. 22. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201322The STARCC PrincipleYour public messages in a crisis must be:SimpleTimelyAccurateRelevantCredibleConsistent
  23. 23. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201323Your public message in a crisis must beSimple—Frightened people don’t want to hear big wordsTimely—Frightened people want information NOWAccurate—Frightened people won’t get nuances, sogive it straightRelevant—Answer their questions and give actionstepsCredible—Empathy and openness are key to credibilityConsistent—The slightest change in the message isupsetting and dissected by all
  24. 24. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201324Message Map:What is meant by sheltering in place during aradiological emergency?Key Message 1: Sheltering in place is a protectiveaction which includes going indoors.Key Message 2: People may be asked to shelterin place rather than evacuate.Key Message 3: Staying indoors for a short timecan protect people from exposure to radiation.
  25. 25. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201325Message Map for "West Nile Virus"
  26. 26. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201326Make the Facts Work in Your MessageConsider the following when creating yourinitial communication to your audiences:�Present a short, concise, and focusedmessage. Get the bottom line out first. Intime, the public will want more information.� Cut to the chase—relevant informationonly at this time. Don’t start with a lot ofbackground information .
  27. 27. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201327� Give action steps in positives, notnegatives (e.g., “ In case of fire, use stairs,” “Stay calm,” arepositive messages. Negative messages are “Do not use elevator”and “Don’t panic.”) Use positives, not negatives.� Repeat the message—repetitionreflects credibility and durability. Correctinformation is correct each time you repeatit. Reach and frequency,� Create action steps in threes orrhyme, or create an acronym.
  28. 28. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201328Make basic information easier toremember, such as : “stop/drop and roll” “KISS—keep it simple, stupid.” Anthrax is a bacterium that is treated with antibiotics. Anthrax is not transmitted from person to person. Seek medical care if you believe you have symptomsof anthraxSymptoms of anthrax: fever, body aches, andbreathing problems.
  29. 29. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201329Use personal pronouns for theorganization. “We are committed to . . .”or “We understand the need for . . .”Avoid Technical jargon Cut theprofessional jargon and euphemisms;they imply insecurity and lack of honesty.Attacks—Attack the problem, not theperson or organization.
  30. 30. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201331Promises/guarantees—only what youcan deliver. Otherwise, promise toremain committed throughout theemergency response.Discussion of money —discussion ofthe magnitude of the problem should bein the context of the health and safety ofthe public or environment. Loss ofproperty is secondary.
  31. 31. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201331Some UsefulTemplates
  32. 32. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/2013321- Mental Noise:The Rule of 3– Three Key Messages– Repeat Messages Three Times– Key Messages Supported byThree Supporting Messagesor Three Credible Sources
  33. 33. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/2013332- The 27/9/3 Template 3 Messages 9 Seconds 27 Words
  34. 34. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201334Message Map for "West Nile Virus"
  35. 35. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/2013353-Primacy/Recency“When people are stressed and upset, they typicallyfocus most on that which is said first (primacy) andlast ( recency ).”• Low Stress Situations:Brain processes information based onlinear order (e.g., 1, 2, 3)• High Stress Situations:Brain processes information based onprimacy/recency (e.g., 1, 3, 2)
  36. 36. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201336mmunication4-Negative DominancePrinciple“When people are stressed andupset, they typically focus moreon the negative than on thepositive.”(?)
  37. 37. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201337(Negative Dominance)• Avoid absolutes (e.g., never, always)• Avoid Repeating Untrue Negatives orFalse Allegations• Balance bad news with positive,constructive messages.
  38. 38. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/2013385- I Don’t Know…….• Repeat the question (optional)• Say you don’t know/can’t answer/wish youcould answer• Give the reason you don’t know or can’tanswer the question• Indicate follow up• Bridge to what you can say about theissue
  39. 39. www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Communication in Crisis Dr.Ahmed-Refat 00/04/201339Thank You--------------------------------Cited References http://institutionalized/cerc/pdf/cerc_guide_basic.pdf http://emergency.cdc.gov/cerc/ http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/87/8/08-058149/
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