Risk Analysis in Occupational Health Setting

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Risk Analysis in Occupational Health Setting

  1. 1. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012Risk Management System In Occupational Health Setting ‫إدارة املخاطر‬ ‫يف جمال الصحة املهنية‬ Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat Prof. Occupational Medicine Tibsah University, KSA 2012 1
  2. 2. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012Basic Concepts and Definitions1- Hazard and RiskHazard  A source of potential harm  Anything that has the potential to cause harm  A factor or exposure that may adversely affect health.RiskRisk = The probability that an adverse event will occurRisk = The chance of something happening that will have an impact on objectives. Risk was measured in terms of Consequences and the Likelihood 2
  3. 3. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 20122 - Risk Management System " RMS"  RMS is an ongoing process of identifying, quantifying and ranking risks and their associated losses, and developing cost effective management strategies to eliminate or control the risks.Risk Evaluation = identifying risks, setting priorities commissioning and reviewing risk assessment . Risk Assessment = combination of Risk identification, risk analysis and risk evaluation 3
  4. 4. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012 Steps of Risk Management ProcessThe risk management process consists of aseries of steps that, when undertaken insequence, enable continual improvement indecision-making. 1. Establish the context 2. Identify hazards 3. Analyse risks that may result because of the hazard 4. Evaluate the risks 5. Treat the risks 6. Review and Monitor the risk 4
  5. 5. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012 5
  6. 6. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012Step 1 Establish the contextThe first step in managing risk is to gatherbackground information which relates to theorganization as a whole as well as the particular riskmanagement study. This establishes the contextwithin which OHS risks are managed. 6
  7. 7. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012Step 2 Hazard IdentificationRisk cannot be managed unless it is firstidentified.The aim of risk identification is to identifypossible risks that may affect, either negativelyor positively, the objectives of the organizationand the activity under analysis. .Identifying retrospective risksRetrospective risks are those that havepreviously occurred.There are many sources of information aboutretrospective risk. These include:• hazard or incident logs or registers• audit reports• customer complaints• accreditation documents and reports 7
  8. 8. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012• past staff or client surveys• newspapers or professional media, such asjournals or websites.Identifying prospective risksProspective risks are often harder to identify. Theseare things that have not yet happened, but mighthappen some time in the future.Identification should include all risks, whether or notthey are currently being managed.Methods for identifying prospective risks:• brainstorming with staff• researching the economic, political, legislative and operating environment• conducting interviews with relevant people and/or organisations• undertaking surveys of staff or clients .• flow charting a process 8
  9. 9. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012When  When a job is first undertaken  When a new piece of equipment is installed  When new or relevant information regarding health and safety becomes available from an authoritative source  When substantial changes are made to a system of work  When there has been an injury to a person undertaking a job or to a person near where a job is being performed  Following an accident that did not result in an injury or damage 9
  10. 10. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012  When there is evidence to suggest that a current risk assessment is no longer valid  When hazardous substances and/or dangerous goods are introduced into the workplace  As part of the design and construction of a new facility  Prior to conducting an experiment  As part of developing and designing a new subject, unit or course outline  Prior to conducting a field tripStep 3. Analyse the risksRisk analysis involves combining the possibleconsequences, or impact, of an event, with thelikelihood of that event occurring. The result is a‘level of risk’. That is: Risk = consequence x likelihood 11
  11. 11. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012Elements of risk analysisThe elements of risk analysis are as follows:1. Identify existing strategies and controls that act to minimise negative risk and enhance pportunities.2. Determine the consequences of a negative impact or an opportunity3. Determine the likelihood of a negative consequence or an opportunity.4. Estimate the level of risk by combiningconsequence and likelihood.5. Consider and identify any uncertainties in theestimates.Types of analysisThree categories or types of analysis can be used todetermine level of risk: • Qualitative • Semi-quantitative • Quantitative. 11
  12. 12. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012A- Qualitative risk analysisQualitative risk analysis is simple and easy tounderstand. Disadvantages include the fact that it issubjective and is based on insight, which can leadto the forming of bias and can degrade the validityof the results.Methods for qualitative risk analysis include:• brainstorming• evaluation using multi-disciplinary groups• specialist and expert judgement• structured interviews and/or questionnaires• word picture descriptors and risk categories. Items in risk analysisRisk = likelihood x consequence 12
  13. 13. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012 Likelihood 13
  14. 14. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012 14
  15. 15. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012 B- Consequences 15
  16. 16. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012Step 4. Evaluate the risksRisk evaluation involves comparing the level of risk found during the analysis process with previouslyestablished risk criteria, and deciding whether these risks require treatment. The result of a risk evaluation is a prioritised list of risks that require further action. This step is about deciding whether risks are acceptable or need treatment. 16
  17. 17. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012Methods of Risk Ranking1- A qualitative ( subjective ) method : Risk ranking Matrix.2- A semi quantitative method by using : Fine Risk Score Calculator3- A semi quantitative method by using : Risk NomogramRisk Ranking Matrix 17
  18. 18. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012 18
  19. 19. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012Risk acceptanceLow or tolerable risks may be accepted.‘Acceptable’ means the business chooses to‘accept’ that the risk exists, either because the riskis at a low level and the cost of treating the risk willoutweigh the benefit, or there is no reasonabletreatment that can be implemented. This is alsoknown as ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable).A risk may be accepted for the following reasons:• The cost of treatment far exceeds the benefit, sothat acceptance is the only option (appliesparticularly to lower ranked risks)• The level of the risk is so low that specifictreatment is not appropriate with availableresources• The opportunities presented outweigh the threatsto such a degree that the risk is justified• The risk is such that there is no treatmentavailable, for example the risk that the business maysuffer storm damage. 19
  20. 20. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012 Other Methods of Risk Ranking2- A semi quantitative method by using : Fine Risk Score Calculator 21
  21. 21. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 20123- A semi quantitative: Risk NomogramStep 5. Treat and control the risksRisk treatment involves identifying options fortreating or controlling risk, in order to either reduceor eliminate negative consequences, or to reducethe likelihood of an adverse occurrence. Risktreatment should also aim to enhance positiveoutcomes.It is often either not possible or cost-effective toimplement all treatment strategies. 21
  22. 22. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012 Hierarchy of control 22
  23. 23. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012Options for risk treatmentAvoid the riskOne method of dealing with risk is to avoid the riskby not proceeding with the activity likely to generatethe risk. Risk avoidance should only occur whencontrol measures do not exist or do not reduce therisk to an acceptable level.Change the likelihood of the occurrenceThis option enhances the likelihood of beneficialoutcomes and reduces the possibility of loss.Change the consequencesThis will increase the size of gains and reduce thesize of losses. This may include business continuityplans, and emergency and contingency plans. 23
  24. 24. Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat www.Slideshare.net/AhmedRefat Risk Management System, 2012Share the riskPart or most of a risk may be transferred to anotherparty so that they share responsibility.Mechanisms for risk transfer include contracts,insurance, partnerships and business alliances.Retain the riskAfter risks have been reduced or transferred,residual risk may be retained if it is at an acceptablelevel.Step 6- Monitor and reviewMonitor and review is an essential and integral stepin the risk management process.Risks need to be monitored periodically to ensurechanging circumstances do not alter the riskpriorities. Very few risks will remain static, thereforethe risk management process needs to be regularlyrepeated, so that new risks are captured in theprocess and effectively managed. 24

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