Plagiarism - السطو العلمي

5,172 views
4,921 views

Published on

Respecting authorship through good academic practice is one of the key values of higher education.
احترام الملكية الفكرية هي قيمة اكاديمية محورية
Plagiarism is the term used to describe the misuse of authorship. It is a serious academic offence

Published in: Education
3 Comments
7 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,172
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
64
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
117
Comments
3
Likes
7
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Plagiarism - السطو العلمي

  1. 1. How to Avoid Plagiarism ‫النزاهة العلمية وتتجنب شبهة‬ ‫السطو العلمي‬ ‫مف اه يم أساس ية‬ DR. AHMED-REFAT REFAT TA I B A H U N I V E R S I T Y, K S A 1433 H Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  2. 2. ‫المخرجات التعليمية المستهدفة‬ ‫2‬ ‫بنهاية الدورة سوف تكون لدي المتدرب القدرة على :‬ ‫1-تعريف النزاهة العلمية و مصطلح السطو العلمي‬ ‫2- تمييز أنواع السطو العلمي و أسبابه‬‫3- ممارسة المهارات التي تمنع حدوث السطو العلمي مثل االقتباس الصحيحة‬ ‫و مهارات اعادة الصياغة و التلخيص‬ ‫5- صياغة النص العلمي بطريقة واضحة االسناد‬ ‫6- اختيار نمط ثبت المصـــادر المالئم للمجال العلمي‬ ‫7- معرفة ما هي المعلومات العامة التي ال تحتاج الي اسناد مرجعي‬ ‫8- التوجه االيجابي نحو قيمة النزاهة االكاديمية وتجنب االحتيال العلمي‬‫9- ممارسة الكشف عن السرقات العلمية باستخدام بعض البرامج باالنترنت .‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  3. 3. Basic Concepts ‫مفاهيم أساسية‬ Authorship Plagiarism Documentation Citation Referencing FraudDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  4. 4. ‫الملكية الفكرية و حق المؤلف‬ ‫4‬ ‫‪ Authorship refers to the production and‬‬ ‫‪ownership of ideas and intellectual material, such as‬‬ ‫.‪books, articles, images, etc‬‬‫حق المؤلف في ما أنتجه من أفكار و معلومات و ما‬ ‫نشره من أبحاث أو كتب أواية مواد علمية خاصة‬ ‫به مثل الصور و الجداول و الرسم البياني‬ ‫و الخرائط‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  5. 5. Authorship and Plagiarism 5 Respecting authorship through good academic practice is one of the key values of higher education. ‫احترام الملكية الفكرية هي قيمة اكاديمية محورية‬ Plagiarism is the term used to describe the misuse of authorship. It is a serious academic offenceDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  6. 6. 6 ‫تعريف‬ PlagiarismDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  7. 7. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plagiarize 7  To steal and pass off ( the ideas or words of another ) as one’s own ‫سرقة وادعاء ملكية افكار االخرين‬ Use ( another’s production) without crediting the source ‫استخدام االنتاج الفكري لآلخرين دون اسناد/ تصديق‬ ‫من المصدر‬ ‫قاموس مريام وبستر‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  8. 8. ‫جامعة كورنيل‬ 8 Plagiarism is the unacknowledged use of the words or ideas of others. It is the most common form of academic integrity violation at Cornell, comprising over 60% of all reported cases within the last three years. http://plagiarism.arts.cornell.edu/tutorial/index.cfmDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  9. 9. University of Maine at Farmington 9 Plagiarism is the presentation of words, ideas, images, or creative works withoutgiving proper credit to their originators. It is an academic crime—even when plagiarism is unintentional.  http://plagiarism.umf.maine.edu/Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  10. 10. ‫تعريف مبسط للسطو العلمي‬ 10 A Simple Definition of Plagiarism Presenting words or ideas taken from another source in a manner that will cause a reader to believe that those words or ideas are your own. : ‫التزييف العلمي‬ ‫هو تقديم نصوص أو أفكار مأخوذة من مصادر أخري بطريقة‬ !!! ‫تجعل المطلع عليها يعتقد أنها من انتاجك أنت‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  11. 11. http://www.almaany.com/ 11Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  12. 12. Documentation -Citation 12 Documentation/ citation is the general practice of acknowledging sources by clearly indicating what you have borrowed and giving the proper bibliographic information for each source ‫التوثيق‬ ‫هو عملية إلحاق النص بمصدره االصلي بصورة‬ ‫واضحة و إمداد القارئ بمعلومات كافية لتتبع المصدر‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  13. 13. ‫ قائمة المصادر‬Reference 13 A reference is the bibliographic information that guides readers to your source. ‫المصادر هي كافة المعلومات الوثائقية التي‬ ‫ترشد القارئ للمصدر بكل دقة‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  14. 14. Bibliography 14 Bibliography A list of resources listed in author alphabetical order at the end of the document. The bibliography is made up of texts that have been referenced in-text (the full citation for these texts would normally appear in alphabetical order in the "References" list) and mentioned by author or cited in-text. The Bibliography also includes other resources that have been read but NOT cited in-text.Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  15. 15. Bibliography 15 A Bibliography is any list of references at the end of a text, whether cited or not. It includes texts you made use of, not only texts you referred to in your paper, but your own additional background reading, and any other articles you think the reader might need as background reading. http://www4.caes.hku.hk/acadgrammar/general/argu  e/citation/subtopics/sec7refsvsbibl.htmDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  16. 16. http://www.differencebetween.net/ 16 1.Bibliography is listing all the materials that have been consulted while writing an essay or a book. References, on the other hand, are those that have been referenced in your article or book. 2.Bibliography is not directly included in the text. References are those that are directly included in your actual text. 3.Both bibliography and references are arranged alphabetically. But a Reference list can also be arranged in Numeric style,Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  17. 17. ‫ التزييف‬Fraud 17Fraud means: Turning in someone elses writing as your own; Inventing statistics or sources that do not exist; Falsifying evidence.Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  18. 18. ‫الوقوع في تهمة السطو العلمي‬ 18 Improper or incomplete acknowledgement of a source of information is treated as intellectual theft. The proper name for this is ‘plagiarism’. ‫غالبا ما يقع الشخص في خطأ السطو العلمي عندما ال‬ ‫يقوم بإسناد االعمال الي مصدرها االساسي او يقوم‬ ‫يصياغة المراجع بطريقة غير مكتملة‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  19. 19. ‫اسباب الوقوع في شبهة السطو العلمي‬ ‫91‬ ‫‪ ‬تدني المهارات البحثية‬ ‫‪ ‬تدني المهارات اللغوية‬ ‫‪ ‬انخفاض الوعي بخطورة السطو العلمي‬ ‫‪ ‬عدم نضج ثقافة النزاهة العلمية‬ ‫‪ ‬السعى للحصول علي الدرجة العلمية و النجاح وتفضيل ذلك علي‬ ‫التعلم‬ ‫‪ ‬الخلط بين المفاهيم بخصوص المعلومات العامة و ما ينشر‬ ‫باالنترنت‬ ‫‪ ‬قلة الوعي بتقنيات االسناد و ثبت المصادر‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  20. 20. ‫أنواع السطو العلمي‬‫سطو مقصود ..…….….……‪ Intentional Plagiarism‬‬‫سطو غير مقصود ........ ‪ Non-intentional Plagiarism‬‬‫سطو واضح وبكثرة .…..…………… ‪ Major Plagiarism‬‬‫سطو بسيط ............................. ‪ Simple Plagiarism‬‬‫سطو عرضي بالصدفة ..……… ‪ Accidental Plagiarism‬‬‫سطو ذاتي……….……………………‪ Self Plagiarism‬‬ ‫أيا ً كان نوع السطو فهو سطو و جريمة تمس‬ ‫النزاهة االكاديمية وال يعذر بالجهل أو عدم‬ ‫المعرفة‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  21. 21. ‫التحديات و المفارقات التي يواجهها الباحث‬ ‫12‬ ‫‪ ‬انشر ابحاث و افكار جديدة و تميز عن اآلخرين لكن‬ ‫اعتمد على ما سبق من األفكار و األعمال –القديمة -‬ ‫لآلخرين.‬ ‫‪ ‬استخدم تعبيراتك و كلماتك و اسلوبك ... لكن حافظ‬ ‫على سالمة و دقة الصياغة العلمية.‬ ‫‪ ‬اظهر رأيك ووجهة نظرك بوضوح في عملك ... لكن‬ ‫ابرز أيضا وجهات نظر االخرين‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  22. 22. ‫التحديات و المفارقات التي يواجهها الباحث‬ ‫22‬ ‫‪ ‬انجز عملك بكل دقة و تحري الموضوعية و اتباع نمط الكتابة‬ ‫العلمية .. لكن افعل ذلك في وقت قصير .‬ ‫علم نفسك و اكتسب المهارات اثناء كتابة بحثك .....بينما‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫الهدف هو الترقية و الحصول علي الدرجة العلمية‬ ‫‪ ‬تحمل ضغوط المشرف و جو المنافسة من الزمالء و‬ ‫الضغوط المادية و االسرية .. لكن انجز عملك متجرداً من‬ ‫كل هذه الضغوط‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  23. 23. Information Sources 23 ‫مصادر المعلومات‬ What is a source? There are Two types of academic sources: Primary Sources ‫معلومات أولية‬ Secondary Sources ‫معلومات ثانوية‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  24. 24. Information Sources 24 Primary Sources The main text or work that you are discussing (e.g. a sonnet by William Shakespeare; an opera by Mozart); Actual data or research results (e.g. a scientific article presenting original findings; statistics); Historical documents (e.g. letters, pamphlets, political tracts, manifestoes)Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  25. 25. Information Sources 25 Secondary Sources Works that discuss your primary source (e.g. an article analyzing Shakespeare’s sonnets; a review of an opera performance; A textbook that synthesizes research in a particular field; A newspaper editorial expressing an opinion on a political manifesto.)Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  26. 26. Information Sources 26 Format of Secondary Sources Print media such as books, articles, encyclopedias, dictionaries, journals, and newspapers Audio-visual media such as film, TV, radio, sound recordings, artwork Research findings such as raw data, lab results, interviews, graphs, charts, and tables Internet sources such as websites, reference works, newspapers, electronic texts, hypertexts, newsgroups, listserves, and essays posted online Personal communication such as letters, e-mail, memos, class lectures, and conversationsDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  27. 27. Information Sources 27 All primary and secondary sources in whatever format must be properly documented wherever you use them in your work. ‫كل مصادر للمعلومات بكل صورها مما قمت باستخدامه‬ ‫سواء كان مصدراً أوليا ً أو ثانويا ً يجب عليك ثبته‬ ???!!!!! ‫و اسنادة وتوثيقه في عملك . و إال‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  28. 28. ‫فوائدثبت المصادر‬ ‫فوائد ثبت المصادر‬ 28 to respect and acknowledge the work of others to avoid cheating and copying to give your work credibility and reliability to follow academic writing conventions to allow the reader to source the information and be able to read further to make it very clear to the reader that you are not trying to pretend that the ideas are yours because the reader will have more confidence in your writing if they know where the information has been obtained because, by being thorough in your referencing, it implies that you have thoroughly checked the factsDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  29. 29. ‫ثبت المصادر في متن البحث و في نهايته‬ ‫92‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  30. 30. ‫الطرق األساسية لتجنب تهمة السطو العلمي‬ ‫03‬ ‫هناك ثالث طرق أساسية تجنبك تهمة السطو العلمي :‬ ‫*****************************‬ ‫1- االقتباس ‪Quotation‬‬‫2- إعادة الصياغة ‪Paraphrasing‬‬ ‫3- التلخيص ‪Summarization‬‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  31. 31. ‫?‪Paraphrase or Quotation‬‬ ‫13‬ ‫االخذ من أعمال اآلخرين يمكن أن يتم عن طريق :-‬ ‫1 - االقتباس المباشر ‪Direct Quotation‬‬ ‫نقل النص كما هو في االصل‬ ‫2- االقتباس غير المباشر = ‪Indirect Quotation‬‬ ‫وذلك بإعادة الصياغة ‪Paraphrasing‬‬ ‫أو التلخيص ‪Summarization‬‬ ‫لكن أيهما أفضل ؟؟‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  32. 32. ‫?‪Paraphrase or Quotation‬‬ ‫23‬ ‫لكن أيهما أفضل ؟‬ ‫غالبية االبحاث في مجال العلوم االنسانية و االجتماعية‬ ‫تفضل ”االقتباس“ المباشر‬ ‫أما االبحاث الطبية و التكنولوجية فييكثر بها استخدام‬ ‫”اعادة الصياغة“ و التلخيص‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  33. 33. 33 ً‫أوال‬ ‫االقتباس المباشر‬ Direct QuotationDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  34. 34. Direct Quotation – ‫1- االقتباس المباشر‬ 34 Word for word quotation (direct quote): VerbatimUsing an author’s language word for word‫االقتباس المباشر هو استخدام النص االصلي‬ . ‫كما هو بنفس كلماته‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  35. 35. ‫1- االقتباس المباشر – مواقع التفضيل‬ ‫53‬ ‫‪ ‬االقتباس المباشر يمثل أفضل وسيلة كما في االحوال التالية:‬ ‫عندما يكن من الصعب اعادة صياغة النص االصلي ) نص عبقري و‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫كلمات رصينة (.‬‫ان المؤلف االصلي قد استخدم كلمات و تعبيرات لها دالالت معينة لديه‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ان النص االصلي عبارة عن تعريف – أو قول مأثور.‬ ‫‪‬‬‫عندما تريد وضع مصداقية اكثر و التركيز علي صاحب الرأي االصلي.‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫عندما تريد عرض النص االصلي في بؤرة الضوء ثم القيام بمناقشته‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫وعرض ما له وما عليه.‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  36. 36. ‫1- االقتباس المباشر – مواقع عدم التفضيل‬ ‫63‬ ‫االقتباس المباشر يكن غير مرغوب فيه بسبب:‬ ‫‪ ‬انه يقطع انسياب النص االصلي.‬ ‫‪ ‬انه اسلوب سهل و يمنع الباحث من اجادة فنون اخري للكتابة‬ ‫العلمية .‬ ‫‪ ‬االنتاج الفكري يجب ان يغلب عليه صوت الباحث و اسلوبه.‬ ‫‪ ‬يؤثر علي اتساق اسلوب الباحث بوضع ” كتل ” من الجمل‬‫لمؤلفون آخرون يتباين اسلوبهم في غالبية االوقات فيما بينهم‬ ‫و فيما بينهم و بين الباحث‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  37. 37. Direct Quotation – ‫1- االقتباس المباشر‬ 37 Direct quote means Word for word quotation Definition: Using an author’s language word for word (verbatim)Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  38. 38. ‫1- االقتباس المباشر – ‪Direct Quotation‬‬ ‫83‬ ‫كيف تتجنب شبهة السرقة عند‬ ‫استخدام اسلوب االقتباس:‬ ‫*******‬ ‫أربعة نصائح هامة !!!!‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  39. 39. Direct Quotation – ‫1- االقتباس المباشر‬ 39 Ways to avoid plagiarism ‫كيف تتجنب شبهة السرقة‬ Use quotation marks around: the author’s words. “....” ‫استخدم عالمات االقتباس‬  ‫ادخل جملة تشر بها للمصدر‬ · Use a signal or identifying phrase that tells who and ‫االصلي‬ what you are quoting. ‫ضع اشارة واضحة للمصدر في‬ · Add an intext (parenthetical) ‫المتن – بين قوسين‬ reference at the end of the passage. ‫اثبت المصدر بدقة في قائمة‬  ‫المصادر‬· Include a citation at the end of your paper (Works Cited ).Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  40. 40. ‫1- االقتباس المباشر – ‪Direct Quotation‬‬ ‫04‬ ‫مهارات هامة في اسلوب االقتباس‬ ‫‪ ‬انقل النص االصلي كما هو‬ ‫‪ ‬ال تغير في مكونات الجمل‬ ‫‪ ‬ال تستبدل الكلمات‬ ‫‪ ‬ال تغير في السياق و التسلسل‬ ‫‪ ‬ان اردت حذف بعض الجمل أو الكلمات أو اضافة شيئ ضع‬ ‫ذلك بداخل أقواس مربعة ]………[‬‫‪Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat‬‬
  41. 41. Direct Quotation – ‫1- االقتباس المباشر‬ 41 · ‫إستخدام العبارات اإلشارية الدالة علي صاحب‬ ‫النص األصلي المقتبس‬Use a signal or identifying phrase that tells who and what you are quoting.Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  42. 42. Quotations 42 Select quotations that • develop a step in your argument • present striking, memorable phrasing • provide a strong, specific example • introduce a claim open to interpretation • summarize an author’s main pointsDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  43. 43. Quotations 43 When selecting quotations, avoid • quoting details • padding a thin argument with unnecessary quotations • quoting commonly known information, e.g., “The Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941.” • quoting blocks of text that could be summarized or quoted more selectively • quoting information you could state in your own wordsDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  44. 44. Short Quotation 44 ‫اقتباس نص قصير‬ ( ‫) اقل من اربع اسطر كاملة‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  45. 45. Short Quotation 45 Subject: Joseph Campbell, educator and author, who is famous for his books on mythology Lucille French, writing in the magazine The Village Voice, wrote, “There is no one quite like Joseph Campbell. He knows the vast sweep of man’s panoramic past as few have ever known it” (24). Note that the above is double-spaced, just like your paper should be. Also note that the author is named in the student’s text. Finally, note that the quotation ends with the second set of quotation marks, followed by a space, then a parenthesis, then the page number the quote is from, then the other parenthesis, and THEN the period of the sentence.Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  46. 46.  A long quotation of more than 4 full lines, with author mentioned in your writing: Subject: The Brothers Grimm, publishers of fairy tales in 46 Germany in 1812 Peter Opie, author of The Classic Fairy Tales, recognized the important contribution made by the Grimm Brothers. He wrote: The Grimms were visionaries: the first substantial collectors to like folk tales for their own sake; the first to write the tales down in the way ordinary people told them. . . ; and the first to include the identity of the people who told the tale. The Grimms revived popular interest in the oral tradition at the same time that they instituted critical interest, beginning an interest in a previously unexamined literary past. (39) Notice how longer quotations are indented from the left margin of the page—tab twice (they are indented twice as much as your paragraphs are). Also note how they have no quotation marks around them. Finally, note that the period is at the end of the sentence, followed by two spaces and then your page number in parentheses. Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  47. 47. Paraphrasing : ‫ثانيا: إعادة الصياغة‬ 47 Definition: Putting an author’s ideas in your own words ‫اعادة صياغة الجزء المقتبس من اآلخرين‬ ‫بكلمات و تعبيرات يصنعها الباحث‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  48. 48. Paraphrasing 48 Paraphrases Paraphrasing is the rewriting of an author’s idea in your own words Paraphrase rather than quote when you want to present an author’s idea but the exact language is not significant. When you paraphrase, you must cite the source. You also must fully rewrite the original language and original sentence structureDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  49. 49. ‫2- إعادة الصياغة‬ 49 Ways to avoid plagiarism ‫طرق تجنب شبهة السطو‬ · Use a signal or identifying phrase that tells who and what you are paraphrasing ‫اكتب عبارة تدل على ان النص‬  · Use the same ideas as in the ‫المذكور هو اعادة صياغة ألفكار‬ original text ‫المؤلف األصلي‬ · Use your own words when phrasing. In most cases, avoid ‫التزم بنفس فكرة المؤلف االصلي‬  using any of the same wording that the author used unless you ‫استخدم كلماتك و تعبيراتك انت‬  put a key term in quotation marks. ‫وال تستخدم اية كلمة للمؤلف‬ · Add an intext (parenthetical) ‫االصلي‬ reference at the end of the paraphrase. ‫ضع المصدر في المتن‬  · Include a citation at the end of your paper (Works Cited). ‫اثبت المصدر في قائمة المراجع‬ Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  50. 50. Paraphrasing Skills ‫مهارات اعادة الصياغة‬ 50Paraphrasing Skills ‫مهارات اعادة الصياغة‬ Read the source carefully. It is essential that you understand it ‫أقرأ المصدر جيدا عدة مرات‬  fully. .‫حتي تفهمه‬ Identify the main point(s) and key words. ‫حدد االفكار الموجودة بالنص‬  Cover the original text and rewrite it in your own words. .‫االصلي‬ Check that you have included the main points and essential ‫ضع المصدر األصلي جانبا‬  information. Write the paraphrase in your own ‫اكتب ما فهميه بأسلوبك ثم راجعة‬  style. Consider each point; how could you rephrase it? ‫تأكد من تغطية كل النقاط‬  ‫تأكد من أنك لم تلخصة‬ Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  51. 51. Paraphrasing Skills ‫مهارات اعادة الصياغة‬ 51  Words: Use synonyms (words or expression which have a similar meaning) where appropriate. Key words that are specialised subject vocabulary do not need to be changed.  If you want to retain unique or specialist phrases, use quotation marks (“ “).  Change the grammar and sentence structure.  Break up a long sentence into two shorter ones or  combine two short sentences into one.  Change the voice (active/passive) or change word forms (e.g. nouns, adjectives).  Change the order in which information/ ideas are presented (as long as they still make sense in a different order).  Identify the attitude of the authors to their subject (i.e. certain, uncertain, critical etc) and make sure your paraphrase reflects this. Use the appropriate .Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  52. 52. Summarization 52 ً ‫ثالثا‬ ‫التلخيص‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  53. 53. Summarizing: 53 Summarizing: Definition: Condensing an author’s ideas to a more succinct statement ‫التلخيص هو وضع الفكرة و النص المقتبس في‬ ‫صورة مركزة مختصرة‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  54. 54. Summarizing: 54 Ways to avoid plagiarism: ‫طرق تجنب شبهة السرقة‬· Use a signal or identifying phrase that tells who and what you are ‫اكتب عبارة تدل على ان النص‬  summarizing. ‫المذكور هو ملخص مركز ألفكار‬· Use a quick description of the main points of the passage. ‫المؤلف األصلي‬· Use your own words and ‫التزم بنفس فكرة المؤلف االصلي‬  phrasing. In most cases, avoid using any of the same wording. ‫استخدم كلماتك و تعبيراتك انت وال‬ · Add an intext (parenthetical) reference at the end of the ‫تستخدم اية كلمة للمؤلف االصلي‬ summary.· Include a citation at the end of ‫ضع المصدر في المتن بعد الملخص‬  your paper (Works Cited). ‫اثبت امصدر في قائمة المراجع‬ Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  55. 55. How to Write Summaries 55 Read the passage carefully. Write one-sentence summaries of each stage of thought. Write a one- or two-sentence summary of the entire passage. Write the first draft of your summary. Check your summary against the original passage. Check to see that your summary is accurate and complete. Check to make sure that you are using your own words. Check for objectivity and revise any indication of personal opinion or critique. Revise your summary. In revising your summary, combine sentences and insert transitions where necessary to make your summary clear and coherent. Edit for grammatical correctness. Compare the length of the summary to the original. Summaries, as general rule, should be no longer than one-fourth of the original passage, although they could be much shorter, depending on your purpose in summarizing the original.Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  56. 56. 56 ‫المعلومات العامة‬ General Knowledge !! ‫ال حرج‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  57. 57. Common Knowledge: 57 Definition:A fact that is so well known that it can be found in numerous sources and therefore does not need to be cited . ‘Common knowledge’ is the term used to  describe established facts that are not  attributable to a particular person or authority. Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  58. 58. Common Knowledge? You do not need to cite a source for material considered common knowledge: General common knowledge Field-specific common knowledgeDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  59. 59. Common Knowledge - ‫المعارف العامة‬ 59General common knowledge ‫المعارف العامة‬ factual information considered to be in the public domain, ‫هي حقائق و معلومات وثوابت‬  such as: ‫ومفاهيم أجمع عليه الباحثون‬ Birth and death dates of well- known figures, and generally ‫و تعتبر في حم الملكية العامة‬ accepted dates of military, political, literary, and other ‫مثل: األحداث التاريخية البارزة‬  historical events. ‫المواقع الجغرافية و الشخصيات‬  In general, factual information contained in multiple standard ‫السياسية‬ reference works can usually be considered to be in the ‫المؤلفات االدبية و االعمال الفنية‬  public domain. ‫البارزة‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  60. 60. Common Knowledge - ‫المعارف العامة‬ 60 Field Specific common k. ‫المعارف العامة لمجال معين‬ is "common" only within a ‫ هي حقائق و معلومات وثوابت‬ particular field or specialty. It may include facts, ‫ومفاهيم تكن معلومة و مألوفة‬ theories, or methods that ‫لدي غالبية الباحثين في مجال‬ are familiar to readers within that discipline. ‫علمي مخصوص‬ You must be sure that this ‫ على أن تكون الكتابة موجهة هذه‬ information is so widely known within that field that .‫الفئة‬ it will be shared by your readers. ‫ مثل: النظريات و الحقائق و‬ . ‫الطرق و الوسائل المعينة‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  61. 61. Deciding if Something is "Common Knowledge 61 Generally speaking, you  If you think the information can regard something as youre presenting is something your common knowledge if readers will you find the same already know, or information something that a undocumented in person could easily at least five find in general credible sources. reference sources.Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  62. 62. When in doubt, cite! 62 There is a gray area of research citation that is typically referred to as “common knowledge.” Most style manuals will tell you that if you are including information in your writing that most people would be familiar with (e.g., the sky looks blue, Barak. Obama is President of the United States, the formula for water is H2O), then it does not need to be cited.Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  63. 63. When in doubt, cite! 63 But “common knowledge” can sometimes feel like a slippery slope: who are you to judge what information “most people” would know? If there is any confusion, A good rule of thumb is: when in doubt, cite. Or ask your professor or instructor.Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  64. 64. Common Knowledge 64 Common sense understandings, e.g. smoking causes cancerDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  65. 65. Common Knowledge 65 Well-known events from history or contemporary life,Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  66. 66. Common Knowledge 66 Terms widely used in the public arena, e.g. the generation gapDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  67. 67. Common Knowledge 67 Terms shared by scholars in specific disciplines, e.g. impressionism (art theory/art history) leadership styles (commerce/education) constructivism (education/teaching)Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  68. 68. Online Plagiarism Checkers 68Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  69. 69. http://www.duplichecker.com/ 69Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  70. 70. http://www.dustball.com/cs/plagiarism.checker/ 70Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  71. 71. http://www.duplichecker.com/index.asp 71Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  72. 72. 72Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  73. 73. 73 Citation and Referencing ‫اإلسناد و ثبت المصادر‬Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  74. 74. Disciplines and Citation Styles: 74 Biology: CSE: Council of Science Editors. Chemistry: ACS: American Chemical Society Earth Sciences: Geowriting: A Guide to Writing, Editing, and Printing in Earth Science English: MLA: Modern Language Association Engineering: IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Foreign Languages: MLA: Modern Language Association History: Chicago (formerly Turabian)Dr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  75. 75. Disciplines and Citation Styles: 75 Humanities: MLA: Modern Language Association Journalism: The Associated Press Stylebook, or The Authoritative Handbook for Writers, Editors, and News Directors Law and Legal Studies : The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation Linguistics: LSA: Linguistic Society of America Handbook Math: A Manual for Authors of Mathematical PapersDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  76. 76. Disciplines and Citation Styles: 76 Medicine: AMA: American Medical Association Manual of Style Physics: Style Manual for Guidelines in the Preparation of Papers Psychology: APA: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Political Science: The Style Manual for Political Science Social Sciences: APA: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Sociology: ASA: American Sociological Association Style GuideDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  77. 77. ‫ثبت المصادر اإلليكترونية‬ 77 Web Pages Wiki E-mail Blogs E-books E-journal Databases ‫عرض تقديمي مبسط‬ WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefatDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  78. 78. Cited Works 781. http://guides.library.ualberta.ca/content.php?pid=62200&sid= 4577552. http://plagiarism.arts.cornell.edu/tutorial/index.cfm3. http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc4. http://www.lib.sfu.ca/node/10453/take5. http://library.leeds.ac.uk/skills-plagiarism6. http://www.trinitydc.edu/policies/plagiarism/#honor7. http://ed.oc.edu/writersblock/avoidplag/media/a.htm8. https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/plagiarism/index.html#page=General9. http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pub/integrity/pages/plagiarism.htmlhtt p://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_plagiarism.html10. http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/Documentation.html11. http://www.ucdenver.edu/academics/colleges/CLAS/Centers/writin g/resources/Pages/citation.aspxDr. Ahmed Refat AG Refat
  79. 79. ‫شكرا‬ 79Thank You Ahmed-Refat

×