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# Part II: Assembly Fundamentals

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### Part II: Assembly Fundamentals

1. 1. ASSEMBLY FUNDAMENTALS AHMED M. ABED TEACHING ASSISTANT – ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF GAZA AABED91@GMAIL.COM
2. 2. AGENDA • Fast Review • Basic Elements of Assembly
3. 3. INTRODUCTION
4. 4. BASIC ELEMENTS OF ASSEMBLY • Integer Constants • Integer Expression • Real Number Constants • Character Constants • String Constants • Reserved Words • Identifiers • Directives • Instructions
5. 5. INTEGER CONSTANTS • one or more digits, and an optional suffix character (called a radix) indicating the number‟s base [{+| −}] digits [radix] • If no radix is given, the integer constant is assumed to be decimal
6. 6. RADIX • Radix may be one of the following (uppercase or lowercase): Radix Type Radix Type H Hexadecimal R Real q/o Octal T Decimal D Decimal Y Binary B Binary
7. 7. INTEGER EXPRESSION • An integer expression is a mathematical expression involving integer values and arithmetic operators.
8. 8. REAL NUMBER CONSTANTS • Real number constants are represented as decimal reals or encoded (hexadecimal) reals. • A decimal real contains an optional sign followed by an integer • A decimal point, an optional integer that expresses a fraction, and an optional exponent
9. 9. CHARACTER AND STRING CONSTANTS • A character constant is a single character enclosed in single or double quotes. • „A‟ • “A” • A string constant is a sequence of characters (including spaces) enclosed in single or double quotes • „Hi All‟ • “Welcome”
10. 10. RESERVED WORDS • Reserved words have special meaning Assembly and can only be used in their correct context. • Instruction mnemonics (MOV, ADD, SUB) • Register names • Directives • Attributes, which provide size and usage information for variables and operands • Operators, used in constant expressions • Predefined symbols (@)
11. 11. IDENTIFIERS • An identifier is a programmer-chosen name. It might identify a variable, a constant, a procedure, or a code label.
12. 12. DIRECTIVES • A directive is a command embedded in the source code that is recognized and acted upon by the assembler. • Directives do not execute at runtime. • The .DATA directive identifies the area of a program containing variables • The .CODE directive identifies the area of a program containing executable instructions
13. 13. INSTRUCTIONS • An instruction is a statement that becomes executable when a program is assembled. • Instructions are translated by the assembler into machine language bytes. • Then loaded and executed by the CPU at runtime.
14. 14. INSTRUCTIONS • Instruction have four parts: • • • • Label (optional) Instruction mnemonic (required) Operand(s) (usually required) Comment (optional) [label:] mnemonic [operands] [;comment]
15. 15. INSTRUCTIONS - LABEL • A label is an identifier that acts as a place marker for instructions and data. • Data Labels A data label identifies the location of a variable, providing a convenient way to reference the variable in code. • count DWORD 100 • The assembler assigns a numeric address to each label
16. 16. INSTRUCTIONS - LABEL • Code Labels A label in the code area of a program (where instructions are located) must end with a colon (:) character. • Code labels are used as targets of jumping and looping instructions. • target: • mov ax,bx • ... • jmp target
17. 17. INSTRUCTION - INSTRUCTION MNEMONIC • An instruction mnemonic is a short word that identifies an instruction. Mnemonic Description MOV Move (assign) one value to another ADD Add two values SUB Subtract one value from another MUL Multiply two values JMP Jump to a new location CALL Call a procedure
18. 18. INSTRUCTION - OPERANDS • Assembly language instructions can have between zero and three operands. • Each of which can be a register, memory operand, constant expression, or input-output port.
19. 19. INSTRUCTION - OPERANDS • The INC instruction has one operand: inc eax ; add 1 to EAX • The MOV instruction has two operands: mov count,ebx ; move EBX to count
20. 20. INSTRUCTION - COMMENTS • Comments are an important way for the writer of a program to communicate information about the program‟s design to a person reading the source code. • The following information is typically included at the top of a program listing: • Description of the program‟s purpose • Names of persons who created and/or revised the program • Program creation and revision dates • Technical notes about the program‟s implementation
21. 21. INSTRUCTION - COMMENTS • Comments can be specified in two ways: • Single-line comments, beginning with a semicolon character (;). • Block comments, beginning with the COMMENT directive and a user-specified symbol COMMENT ! This line is a comment. This line is also a comment. !
22. 22. INSTRUCTION EXECUTION • Fetch: • The control unit fetches the next instruction from the instruction queue and increments the instruction pointer (IP). • Decode: • The control unit decodes the instruction‟s function to determine what the instruction will do. • Fetch operands: • If the instruction uses an input operand located in memory, the control unit uses a read operation to retrieve the operand and copy it into internal registers
23. 23. INSTRUCTION EXECUTION • Execute: • The ALU executes the instruction using the named registers and internal registers as operands and sends the output to named registers and/or memory • Store output operand: • If the output operand is in memory, the control unit uses a write operation to store the data.
24. 24. INSTRUCTION EXECUTION loop fetch next instruction advance the instruction pointer (IP) decode the instruction if memory operand needed, read value from memory execute the instruction if result is memory operand, write result to memory continue loop