Chapter 8
Cell Reproduction and Inheritance
Duplicating Genetic Information
The Cell Cycle
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
Mitos...
Duplicating Genetic Information

Information about you is in the sequence of
nucleotides in the DNA molecule
In each of yo...
Duplicating Genetic Information

Chromatin can condense into a chromosome
Telomere

Centromere

Telomere
Duplicating Genetic Information

Humans have 46 chromosomes
Chromosomes are characterized by
length
Position of the centro...
Duplicating Genetic Information

So humans have 46 chromosomes
with 23 pairs.
You can see stained chromosomes and
these ca...
Duplicating Genetic Information
Duplicating Genetic Information
Duplicating Genetic Information
Duplicating Genetic Information
Humans
Have 46 Chromosomes
23 pairs
2n = 46
2 is the number of copies of each chromosome
n = the number of different chrom...
Let’s Try Some!
2n = 8
3n = 15
4n = 8
The Cell Cycle

The Cell Cycle
Phases include:
1. Interphase – Preparation phases for mitosis
2. Mitosis – Cell division o...
The Cell Cycle
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
Cancer and the Cell Cycle

A cancer cell has unregulated cell growth
Often, the cell cycle checkpoints do not exist.
What ...
Why Mitosis
Growth and Repair
Products are identical copies
Meiosis – a process that reduces the chromosome
number in such a way that the daughter nuclei only
receive one member of e...
Prophase I
Crossing over of non-sister chromatids
During prophase I, non-sister chromatids can
undergo synapsis, in which ...
Prophase I & Metaphase I
Independent assortment
As the chromosomes are pushed around during
prophase I, eventually lining ...
Meiosis I

Mitosis

Prophase I

Prophase

Pairing of chromosomes

No pairing

Metaphase I
Homologous chromosomes at
Metaph...
Meiosis II

Mitosis

Prophase II

Prophase

No pairing of chromosomes

No pairing

Metaphase II

Metaphase

Haploid # of c...
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Biomitosismeiosis

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Biomitosismeiosis

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Cell Reproduction and Inheritance Duplicating Genetic Information The Cell Cycle Cancer and the Cell Cycle Mitosis Meiosis When Cell Division is not perfect
  2. 2. Duplicating Genetic Information Information about you is in the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA molecule In each of your cells, there is about 2 meters of DNA per nucleus How does the DNA condense into such as small area? DNA histones chromatin
  3. 3. Duplicating Genetic Information Chromatin can condense into a chromosome Telomere Centromere Telomere
  4. 4. Duplicating Genetic Information Humans have 46 chromosomes Chromosomes are characterized by length Position of the centromere Banding pattern
  5. 5. Duplicating Genetic Information So humans have 46 chromosomes with 23 pairs. You can see stained chromosomes and these can be arranged in pairs. The picture of arranged chromosomes is called a karyotype.
  6. 6. Duplicating Genetic Information
  7. 7. Duplicating Genetic Information
  8. 8. Duplicating Genetic Information
  9. 9. Duplicating Genetic Information
  10. 10. Humans Have 46 Chromosomes 23 pairs 2n = 46 2 is the number of copies of each chromosome n = the number of different chromosomes 46 is the total number of chromosomes in the cell
  11. 11. Let’s Try Some! 2n = 8 3n = 15 4n = 8
  12. 12. The Cell Cycle The Cell Cycle Phases include: 1. Interphase – Preparation phases for mitosis 2. Mitosis – Cell division or splitting Interphase 1. G1 (Growth) 2. S 3. G2 (Growth)
  13. 13. The Cell Cycle
  14. 14. Cancer and the Cell Cycle
  15. 15. Cancer and the Cell Cycle A cancer cell has unregulated cell growth Often, the cell cycle checkpoints do not exist. What is cancer? Can you catch cancer? What are the treatments for cancer? What should I look for? http://www.cancer.org/ 1- 800 – 4 CANCER
  16. 16. Why Mitosis Growth and Repair Products are identical copies
  17. 17. Meiosis – a process that reduces the chromosome number in such a way that the daughter nuclei only receive one member of each homologous pair of chromosomes. Think of it as a double mitotic division with only a single S phase Phases of meiosis 1. Prophase I 6. Prophase II 2. Metaphase I 7. Metaphase II 3. Anaphase I 8. Anaphase II 4. Telophase I 9. Telophase II 5. Interkinesis
  18. 18. Prophase I Crossing over of non-sister chromatids During prophase I, non-sister chromatids can undergo synapsis, in which the chromatids line up side-by-side & exchange genetic information between them This allows new combination of genetic material which will become part of a new offspring
  19. 19. Prophase I & Metaphase I Independent assortment As the chromosomes are pushed around during prophase I, eventually lining up along the metaphase plate during metaphase I, their orientation is different from that of mitosis metaphase Instead of lining one on top of the other, the replicated chromosomes line up side by side according to their homologous characterstics
  20. 20. Meiosis I Mitosis Prophase I Prophase Pairing of chromosomes No pairing Metaphase I Homologous chromosomes at Metaphase plate Metaphase Duplicated chromosomes at metaphase plate Anaphase I Homologous chromosomes separate Anaphase Sister chromatids separate, becoming Daughter chromosomes Telophase I Telophase Daughter cells are haploid Daughter cells are diploid
  21. 21. Meiosis II Mitosis Prophase II Prophase No pairing of chromosomes No pairing Metaphase II Metaphase Haploid # of chromosomes at metaphase chromosomes at plate Diploid # of duplicated metaphase plate Anaphase II Sister chromatids separate, becoming daughter chromosomes Anaphase Sister chromatids separate, becoming daughter chromosomes Telophase I Telophase 4 haploid daughter cells Daughter cells are diploid

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