The Bone Marrow is the blood Factory May be exposed to damage or failure
Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes AA PNH MDS Acquired Constitutional Autoimmune Fanconi DC Diamond-Blackfan others Toxic, Irradiation, Infection Pure Red Cell Aplasia Agranulocytosis
With current BMT regimens, most patients with severe aplastic anemia have a 60-70% long-term survival rate.
Patients with severe aplastic anemia who receive antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) but do not receive BMT have a 41% response rate and a 1-year survival rate of 55%.4 The addition of androgens increases response rates to 70%, with a 1-year survival rate of 76%
Cyclosporine therapy at 200-400 mg/d (maintain serum trough levels at 100-250 ng/mL) has a reported 85% hematologic remission rate.
It may occur transiently, resulting from a viral infection such as with parvovirus B19.
Pure red cell aplasia also may be permanent, as a result of viral hepatitis.
Finally, it may be the result of lymphoproliferative diseases (eg, lymphomas, chronic lymphocytic leukemia) or collagen vascular diseases (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus, refractory anemia), or it may occur during pregnancy.
Agranulocytosis (direct toxicity or Immune mediated)