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Front/+HSign: Wikipedia
-HSign: Wikipedia
Slide4 eyepatch:
CoverTest: Google Pics [Unknown Source]
KappaSlide Plates:
LastSlideRibbons: FreePPTTemplates
All B/W eye pictures:

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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    • 1. Strabismus An ophthalmological disease where the two eyes of a human are not aligned evenly, as they should be Major Symptom One eye points toward an object normally, whereas the other eye points either - Inwards - Outwards - Upwards - Or downwards
    • 2. What is this, exactly?
      • Strabismus is, simply, a lack of coordination between the extraocular muscles. This causes the eyes to converge to different points in space, which may reduce the ability to perceive depth radically.
      Another Name for Strabismus?
    • 3. Strabismus  Lazy Eye?
      • No!
      Strabismus is a deviation from the normal alignment of the eyes.
    • 4. Lazy Eye
      • Also known as “amblyopia”, is a defect in vision in one eye caused by insufficient or abnormal neurological development. Ampblyopia can, often, be corrected with an eyepatch over 1 eye:
    • 5. Ocular Deviation Tests
      • To test for ocular deviation, optometrists, ophthalmologists, or orthoptists may use a. . .
      Cover Test
    • 6. Ocular Deviation Tests
      • To test for ocular deviation, optometrists, ophthalmologists, or orthoptists may use a. . .
      Cover Test
    • 7. Cover Tests
      • There are two types of cover tests:
      * Alternating Cover Test * Unilateral Cover Test An image of a cover test explains the name of the test:
    • 8. The Hirschberg Test
      • Another type of test, named after Julius Hirschberg, involves shining a light at a person’s eyes, and tracking the reflection of the light off the corneas. Based on where the light lands on the cornea, the examiner can detect if there is an exotropia (abnormal eye is turned out), esotropia (abnormal eye is turned in), hypertropia (abnormal eye higher than the normal one) or hypotropia (abnormal eye is lower than the normal one).
    • 9. The Hirschberg Test: Results Positive Hirschberg Sign Negative Hirschberg Sign
    • 10. Kappa
      • Does everyone have the same “amount” of this?
      No! What describes the “amount”? The angle kappa
    • 11. Examples of different Kappas
    • 12. Examples of different Kappas
    • 13. Examples of different Kappas
    • 14. Examples of different Kappas
    • 15. Numerical Analysis of Kappa
      • When one or both eyes are pointing in (towards the nose), the kappa angle is positive.
      • When an eye is pointing out (away from nose), the kappa angle is negative.
      • When the eyes are normal, the kappa angle is zero.
    • 16. Eyepatches for Strabismus?
      • Unlike amblyopia, the use of an eyepatch for someone with strabismus will, probably, not correct the kappa angle .
    • 17. Advanced Strabismus
      • Advanced strabismus may be treated with eyeglasses, vision therapy, prisms, and/or surgery. The decision of which one relies on the reason for the misalignment.
    • 18. Surgery
    • 19. Surgery
      • The goal of surgery is to correct the alignment of the two eyes – even them out. This is done by adjusting the length or changing the position of the extraocular eye muscles.
      • Surgery is one of the only ways to achieve proper cosmetic improvement.
    • 20.
      • This is why everyone of us needs a dedicated and sincere ophthalmologist like our dear Dr. Kanterman !
    • 21. Honor a physician with the honor due unto him for the uses which ye may have of him: for the Lord hath created him. - Ecclesiasticus 38:1 This is my humble tribute to a fine Doctor and wonderful human being Doctor Neil Kanterman .