Social Accounting Matrix for a village


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this slides tells us about how to prepare the social accounting matrix for a village. it also tells us about what is social accounting matrix.

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Social Accounting Matrix for a village

  1. 1. Meeting cum Workshop on SAM Department of Agricultural Economics, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore 21-22,October 2013 Project on: Assessment of Economic Impact of MGNREGA in Selected Two Villages of Karnataka State using Social Accounting Matrix Research Team: Faculty P. S. Srikantha Murthy Dr M.G. Chandrakanth & Dr M. R. Girish M. Sc. Students Gourav Kumar Vani H.R. Chikkathimmegowda
  2. 2. Objectives of the study 1. Developing an empirical village level Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for two villages in Karnataka, one in Tumkur district in Southern region and the other in Bijapur district in Northern region. SAM analysis of impacts of MGNREGA interventions, and investment multiplier effects in the selected villages. 2. Policy simulations using SAM to form alternate policy measures, and analysis of implications of MGNREGA on the synergies between safety nets and agricultural and rural development interventions; labour wage rate, labour scarcity (and out migration), farm production and other major changes brought in agricultural activities in the selected villages of Karnataka. This includes analysis of multiplier effects of MGNREGA and direct and total village wide economic effects of the MGNREGA program interventions in the selected villages. 3. Based on results of the SAM, derivation of policy recommendations for welfare of the village economy.
  3. 3. The Social Accounting Matrix: Concepts and Methods The SAM is a comprehensive, disaggregated, consistent and complete data system that captures the interdependence that exists within a socioeconomic system. SAM is a square matrix in which each account is represented by a row and a column. Each cell shows the payment from the account of its column to the account of its row. The incomes of an account appear along its row and its expenditures along its column.
  4. 4. The Social Accounting Matrix: Concepts and Methods … Contd. The underlying principle of double-entry accounting requires that, for each account in the SAM, total revenue (row total) equals total expenditure (column total). SAM distinguishes between accounts for “activities” (the entities that carry out production) and “commodities”. The commodities are activity outputs, either exported or sold domestically, and imports. In the commodity columns, payments are made to domestic activities, the rest of the world, and various tax accounts , if any.
  5. 5. Basic structure of a SAM Activities C1 Income rows Commodities C2 Expenditure columns Households Factors C4 C3 Government Rest of world C6 C5 Savings and investment Total C7 Activities Domestic Activity R1 supply income Commodities Intermediate Consumption Recurrent Investment Export R2 demand spending (C) spending (G) demand (I) earnings (E) Factors Value-added Total demand Total factor R3 income Households Factor payments to R4 Social Foreign transfers remittances households Government Sales taxes and import R5 Total household income Direct Foreign grants and taxes tariffs Government income loans Savings and investment Private Fiscal savings Current account surplus R6 Total savings balance Rest of world Import payments (M) R7 Total Gross output Foreign exchange outflow Total supply Total factor spending Total household spending Government expenditure Total investment Foreign exchange spending inflow
  6. 6. Basic structure of a SAM … Contd. Activities produce goods and services by combining the factors of production with intermediate inputs. This is shown in the activity column of the SAM, where activities pay factors the wages, rents, and profits they generate during the production process (that is, value-added). This is a payment from activities to factors, and so the value-added entry in the SAM appears in the activity column and the factor row [R3-C1]. Activities buy commodities to be used as intermediate inputs for production [R2-C1]. Adding together value-added and intermediate demand gives gross output.
  7. 7. Basic structure of a SAM … Contd. Commodities are either supplied domestically [R1-C2] or imported [R7-C2]. Indirect sales taxes and import tariffs are paid on these commodities [R5-C2]. This means that the values in the commodity accounts are measured at market prices. Final demand for commodities consists of household consumption spending [R2-C4], government consumption [R2-C5], gross capital formation or investment [R2-C6], and export demand [R2-C7]. All of these sources of demand make up the commodity row (payments by different entities for commodities). On their own, the commodity row and column accounts are sometimes referred to as a “Supply–Use Table,” or the total supply of commodities and their different kinds of uses or demands.
  8. 8. Domestic institutions A SAM is different from an input–output matrix because it not only traces the income and expenditure flows of activities and commodities, but it also contains complete information on different institutional accounts, such as households and the government. Households are usually the ultimate owners of the factors of production, and so they receive the incomes earned by factors during the production process [R4-C3]. They also receive transfer payments from the government [R4-C5] (for example, pensions) and from the rest of the world [R4-C7] (such as remittances received from family members working abroad).
  9. 9. Domestic institutions … Contd. Households then pay taxes directly to the government [R5-C4] and purchase commodities [R2-C4]. The remaining income is then saved (or dis-saved if expenditures exceed incomes) [R6-C4]. The government receives transfer payments from the rest of the world [R5-C7] (such as foreign grants and development assistance). This is added to all of the different tax incomes to determine total government revenues. The government uses these revenues to pay for recurrent consumption spending [R2-C5] and transfers to households [R4C5]. The difference between total revenues and expenditures is the fiscal surplus (or deficit, if expenditures exceed revenues) [R6-C5].
  10. 10. Savings, investment, and the foreign account We account for private savings [R6-C4] and public savings [R6-C5]. The difference between total domestic savings and total investment demand is total capital inflows from abroad [R6-C7]. This is also equal to the difference between foreign exchange receipts (exports and foreign transfers received) and expenditures (imports and government transfers to foreigners).
  11. 11. Village level SAM: Tumkur and Bijapur districts of Karnataka Accounts 1. Activities a) Agriculture (field crops –major crops and others, horticultural crops – fruits, plantation crops , floriculture, others, livestock – dairy, sheep rearing, poultry, others) b) Manufacturing (agro processing and others) c) Trade d) Public service (finance, health, education, transportation, communication and others) e) Private service (finance, health, education, transportation, communication , PDS and others) f) MGNREGS g) SHGs
  12. 12. Accounts … contd. 2. Commodities a) Agriculture b) Manufacturing c) Trade d) Public service e) Private service f) MGNREGS g) SHGs
  13. 13. Accounts … contd. 3. Factors a) Labour (male and female) b) Capital 4. House holds a) Landless workers b) Marginal farmers c) Small farmers e) Large farmers f) Non agricultural households
  14. 14. Accounts … contd. 5. Government ( Local panchayath) a) Revenue (taxes, grants, donations) b) Expenditure (consumption, investment) 6. Savings and Investment 7. Rest of the world a) Exports (labour, capital, commodity) b) Imports (labour, capital, commodity) 8. Total
  15. 15. Distributional Effects of Agricultural Biotechnology in a Village Economy: The Case of Cotton in India Dr Arjunan Subramanian University of Glasgow, UK Kanzara Village Murtizapur Taluk Maharashtra 2004