Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
   Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Seminar report on food security in india myths and realities-edited

458

Published on

this is my edited seminar report on Food Security in India: Myths and Realties.

this is my edited seminar report on Food Security in India: Myths and Realties.

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
458
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
30
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 2 TABLE OF CONTENT Serial no. Particulars Page no. 1 Introduction to Food Security 4 2 Physical Availability of Food 4-7 3 Per capita Consumption Expenditure on different food items for 30 days duration, All India, 2011- 2012 8 4 Engle’s Law & Trends in Consumption Expenditure 8-11 5 Consumption of Cereals and Pulses 11-14 6 Inequality in Consumption 14-15 7 Elasticities of Food Expenditure by commodity 16 8 Stark Realities 16-17 9 Performance on Global Hunger Index 17 10 Demand & Supply projections for Foodgrains 17-18 11 Government Measures for Food Security 19-20 12 National Food Security Act 2013 20-23 13 Conclusion 24 14 Policy Implication 24 15 References 25-27
  • 2. 3 List of Tables Table No. Title Page No. 1 Physical Availability of Food 6 2 Net Availability of Cereals and Pulses 7 3 Per capita Availability 2012-13 7 4 Per capita Net Availability per day 8 5 Per capita Consumption Expenditure on different items for 30 days duration for All India 2011-12 9 6 Trends in Percentage Consumption Expenditure since 1993-94 for rural India 10 7 Trends in Percentage Consumption of Consumer Expenditure Since 1993-94 for urban India 11 8 Growth in Income and Inflation 11 9 All India Per Capita consumption (Kg) of Cereals and Pulses for 30 days duration for each decile class of MPCE URP 2009-10 13 10 Quantity of cereal consumed per person per month and percentage share of rice and wheat in cereal consumption in 2009-10 for major states 14 11 Change in per capita cereal consumption (Kg) in rural areas in different MPCE fractile classes: All India 15 12 Change in per apita cereal consumption (Kg) in different MPCE fractile classes: All India 15 13 Inequality in consumption across states of India 16 14 Lorenz ratios for rural and urban sectors of India 16 15 Estimated Elasticities of Food Expenditure by Commodity 17 16 Performance on Global Hunger Index 18 17 Projected Scenario of 20202 19 18 Performance of NFSM 20 19 Growth of Agricultural and allied GDP 21 20 Cost of Transferring one rupee 22 21 Cost of food subsidy 22
  • 3. 4 1. Introduction to Food Security According to World Food Summit, Rome, 1996, Food Security exists, when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preference for an active and healthy life. Four dimensions of Food Security • Physical Availability of Food: The supply side, determined by the level of food production, stock level & net trade. • Economic & Physical access to Food: Adequate supply of food does not guarantee household level food security. Food access depends on incomes, expenditure, markets & prices in achieving food security objectives • Food Utilization: The way the body makes the most of various nutrients in the food. Involves care & feeding practices, food preparation and diversity of diet & intra-household distribution of food. • Stability of the other 3 dimensions over time: Access on a periodic basis. Weather, political conditions or economic factors have an impact on food security status. 2. Physical Availability of Food Physical availability of food can be understood in various ways as following. • Total Production of Food Commodities: Table No. 1 provides the production of food grains, oilseed, sugar, fruits and vegetables and milk for India. From the table it can be observed that production of cereal and coarse cereals has declined marginally from 2011-12 to 2012-13. But in case of Pulses, Oilseeds, Sugar, Fruits and Milk there is good jump in the production compared to previous year. Overall 9-10 grain production has declined due to ill distribution of rainfall in year 2011 and space in the country.
  • 4. 5 Physical Availability of Food Table No. 1 (million tonnes) Crop 2011-12 2012-13 Rice 105.31 104.22 Wheat 94.88 93.62 Coarse cereals 42.04 39.52 Total cereals 242.23 237.3618 Pulses 17.09 18.00 Total food grains 259.32 255.36 Oilseeds 29.79 30.72 Sugar 24.60 26.00 Vegetables 156.325 156.445 Fruits 76.42 79.40 Milk 127.9 133.7 Source:-RBI Hand Book on India Economy 2011-12 • Net Availability of Cereals and Pulses: Net availability is an important concept to look at availability in the domestic market for commodities after taking into account the effect of net import or export and changes in level of Government Stocks. The formula for calculating net availability is as following Net availability of cereals=Net production +net imports-changes in government stock of cereals It is important to consider the net availability of cereals and pulses because Cereals and Pulses are the main source of carbohydrates and protein. Hence Cereals and Pulses are the building blocks of Food Security. Government maintains the stock of Cereals as well as export & import the Cereals and Pulses based on the production in the respective year. From the table no. 2 provided below, it can be observed that over years the net availability of Cereals had improved but for Pulses it was dwindling in India. The highest availability was observed in the year 2008-09 of 17.6 million tonnes. But over the three years in 2010-11 the net availability declined to a level of 2006-07. It can also be observed that, Government Interventions and opening up of Economy helped the Economy in increasing net availability of Cereals and Pulses by big margin in three decades from 1980-81 to 2000-01.
  • 5. 6 Net Availability of Cereals and Pulses Table No. 2 (in million tonnes) Year Cereal Pulses 1950-51 44.3 8.0 1960-61 64.6 11.1 1970-71 84.0 10.3 1980-81 104.8 9.4 1990-91 145.7 12.9 2000-01 145.6 11.3 2005-06 157.4 12.7 2006-07 168.8 13.3 2007-08 168.9 14.7 2008-09 165.9 17.6 2009-10 173.7 15.8 2010-11 176.5 13.7 Source: Indian Economy,Gaurav Datt and Ashwani Mahajan,2013 • Per Capita availability: The Production of commodities does not always tell us about the sufficiency of commodity’s availability in question. Hence a good measure can be to compare the per capita availability of commodities with the minimum requirements. Table no. 3 as given below provides us with a list of per capita availability per day and per capita minimum requirement per day for various food items for India for period 2012-13. Per capita availability, 2012-13 Table No. 3 (in gram per day) Commodity Per capita availability Minimum per capita requirement Total cereals 528.70 400 Pulses 46.78 80 Total food grains 568.79 480 Oil 39.73 30 Sugar 54.79 20 Vegetables 348.47 300 Fruits 176.86 150
  • 6. 7 Milk 297.81 300 Source:-National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad From the above table it can be observed that we have surplus amount of cereals, Sugar, Vegetables and Fruits compared to minimum requirement. But for pulses we have 50 % deficit in per capita availability. In case of oil we have more availability than the requirement but half of the availability is met through the import of vegetable oil. In case of milk we are on the path of achieving self sufficiency in per capita availability and we fall marginally short of the per capita daily requirement. Per capita Net Availability: Per capita availability is calculated by dividing the total production by total population and hence it fails to reflect the effect of changes in Government stocks and net imports. Therefore we need to consider Per Capita Net Availability. Table no. 4 provides us the per capita net availability over the years. Per capita Net Availability Per Day Table No.4 (in grams per day?) Year Cereal Pulses Total Food grains 1950-51 334.2 60.7 394.9 1960-61 399.7 69.0 468.7 1970-71 417.6 51.2 468.8 1980-81 417.3 37.5 454.8 1990-91 468.5 41.6 510.1 2010-11 407.0 31.6 438.6 Source: Indian Economy, Gaurav Datt and Ashwani Mahajan, 2013 From the above table it can be observed that for year 2010-11 level of net availability per person was adequate for cereals but not for pulses. Over the years it can be seen that per capita net availability of cereals and pulses has declined. In 2010-11 the net per capita availability was even worse then what it was in 2006-07 in the same decade. Even in 1990-91, when India was gripped in severe Economic Crisis, then also Indians were better than in 2010-11. On comparing the net availability of Pulses per capita with the pre Green Revolution period of 1960-61 with 2010-11, it is found that net availability per capita in 2010-11 was nearly half of what was available in 1960-61. This declining trend is a serious cause of concern for policy makers.
  • 7. 8 3. Per capita Consumption Expenditure on different food items for 30 days duration, All India, 2011-2012 Table no. 5 provided below gives us a summary of per capita consumption expenditure for duration of 30 days period for 2011-12. From the table it can be observed that, consumption of food and non food items as well as proportion of non food items were higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Of the food expenditure highest expenditure in rural areas was on Cereals & cereal substitute followed by milk & milk products, vegetables. In case of urban areas highest expenditure was on milk & milk products followed by cereals & cereal substitutes and vegetables. Expenditure on protein rich food was high in urban areas than in rural areas. Per capita Consumption Expenditure on different items for 30 days duration, All India, 2011 - 2012 Table No. 5 Source:-Key Indicators of Household Consumer Expenditure in India, NSSO report for 68th round survey. 4. Engle’s Law & Trends in Consumption Expenditure Table no. 6 and 7 are provided below for trends in percentage composition of consumer expenditure for rural and urban areas respectively for period 1993-94. From table no. 6 it can be observed that in rural areas, percentage of consumption expenditure on all Item group Amount (Rs.) Rural Urban Cereal and cereal substitutes 154 175 Pulse and their products 42 54 Milk and milk products 115 184 Edible oil 53 70 Egg, fish, meat 68 96 Vegetables 95 122 Fruits 41 90 Food total 756 1121 Non food total 673 1509 Total 1430 2630
  • 8. 9 items of food except milk had decreased over years. Total food expenditure had decreased over years but total non food expenditure had increased over years, which is in conformity with Engle’s law of consumption expenditure. From table no. 7 it can be observed that in urban areas, like rural areas, percentage of consumption expenditure on all items had decreased, but here milk was no exception for decreasing trend. Trends in Percentage Composition of Consumer Expenditure since 1993-94 for Rural India Table No.6 Item group 1993-94 1999-2000 20004-05 2009-10 2011-12 Cereal 24.2 22.2 18.0 15.6 12.0 Pulse and their products 3.8 3.8 3.1 3.7 3.1 Milk and milk products 9.5 8.8 8.5 8.6 9.1 Edible oil 4.4 3.7 4.6 3.7 3.8 Egg, fish, meat 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.6 Vegetables 6.0 6.2 6.1 6.2 4.8 Fruits and nuts 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.6 1.9 Food total 63.2 59.4 55.0 53.6 48.6 Non food total 36.8 40.6 45.0 46.4 51.4 Source:-Key Indicators of Household Consumer Expenditure in India, NSSO report for 68th round survey. Since we know that Engle’s Law of consumption expenditure was operating and hence we should look towards the growth in income and inflation to know “Is growth in income really helping the people to purchase more or is getting offset by increase in growth in rate of inflation?” Following Tables No.8 gives us the growth in income and inflation for the period 1993-94 to 2004-05 & 2004-05to 2011-12. For inflation in urban areas here we mean CPI for Industrial Workers and for inflation in rural areas we mean CPI for agricultural labour and rural labourers. For pan India inflation irrespective of rural or urban area, we use WPI based inflation. For income at rural and urban level, we have Per capita income while at pan India level we have Per capita income and NNPFC. From the above table it can be inferred that growth of national income in period 1993- 94 to 2004-05 was 6.85% and in the next period of 2004-05 to 2011-12 it was estimated to be 9% of trend rate of growth. But if we see the growth of inflation then for 2004-05 to 2011-12 period income growth lagged behind growth of inflation and for period 1993-94 reverse was true. The estimates of growth in national income do not reveal growth of income after adjusting for growth of population. Hence Dr. Ramesh Chand of NCAP has estimated growth rate of per capita income (PCI) for rural and urban India.
  • 9. 10 Trends in Percentage Composition of Consumer Expenditure since 1993-94 for Urban India Table No.7 Source:-Key Indicators of Household Consumer Expenditure in India, NSSO report for 68th round survey. Growth in Income & Inflation Table No.8 Period 2004-05 to 2011-12 1993-94 to 2004-05 Category Growth rate of (%) General Food General Food CPI Agricultural labourers 7.76 7.78 3.3 3.18 Rural labourers 7.71 7.8 3.3 3.21 Industrial worker 7.15 8.05 6.01 5.31 WPI 5.72 8.55 5.37 5.32 Growth rate of (%) NNPFC 9 6.85 Rural Per capita income 3.46 2.27 Urban Per capita income 11.81 7.75 Total Per capita income 7.57 4.97 Source: Policy Brief on demand for foodgrains during 2020, 2009, Ramesh Chand, NCAP, New Delhi It can be observed that growth of PCI in rural India was far lower compared to their urban counterparts. Growth in income (PCI) in rural areas was far lower compared to Item group 1993-94 1999-2000 20004-05 2009-10 2011-12 Cereal 14.0 12.4 10.1 9.1 7.3 Pulse and their products 3.0 2.8 2.1 2.7 2.1 Milk and milk products 9.8 8.7 7.9 7.8 7.8 Edible oil 4.4 3.1 3.5 2.6 2.7 Egg, fish, meat 3.4 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.8 Vegetables 5.5 5.1 4.5 4.3 3.4 Fruits and nuts 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.3 Food total 54.7 48.1 42.5 40.7 38.5 Non food total 45.3 51.9 57.5 59.3 61.5
  • 10. 11 growth of inflation (both General and Food) growth in rural areas for both periods. While in case of urban areas the income growth was more than growth of inflation (both General and Food) for both periods. For period 2004-05 to 2011-12 at Pan India scenario, growth of income had surpassed growth of inflation but for period 1993-94 reverse was true. Thus real income of rural people had reduced over time while for urban areas real income had increased over time. This led to disparity in economic access and consumption in rural and urban areas as well as it makes the poor more vulnerable from the view point of Food security. 5. Consumption of Cereals and Pulses Table no. 9 provided below gives us the per capita consumption of cereals and pulses for each decile class of MPCEURP [Monthly per capita consumption for Uniform Reference Period]. In case of URP, A common reference period of last 30 days was used for all items of consumption expenditure on which data was collected. 1st Decile class “1” is having lowest MPCE while the last one “10th ” has the highest MPCE. From the table, it is clear that in rural areas consumption of cereal as well as pulses was increasing from decile class 1st to 10th . For urban areas across the decile class there wasn’t any pattern (either decreasing or increasing) for cereal consumption but there was increasing pattern of consumption of pulse from 1st to 10th decile class. In case of urban areas lowest cereal consumption was observed in the 10th decile class which has highest MPCE while the same decile class had highest pulse consumption. In case of urban areas the last three decile classes had the cereal consumption below All India average cereal consumption. Minimum requirement of cereal per person per month is 12 kg. Except 9th and 10th decile classes of rural areas, no other class of both rural and urban areas had adequate cereal consumption. Minimum requirement of pulse per person per month is 1.8 kg and consumption of pulse was inadequate in all the decile classes of both rural and urban areas. Thus it is clearly evident from the table that lower MPCE classes are severely food insecure because there does not have existence of option of supplementing this inadequate cereal and pulse consumption with highly nutritious foods like meat and fish due to low purchasing power but the reverse holds good for decile classes with high MPCE.
  • 11. 12 All India Per capita Consumption (Kg) of cereals and pulses for 30 days duration for each decile class of MPCEURP, 2009-10. Table No.9 SOURCE:-NSSO report no. 538: level and pattern of consumption expenditure Quantity of cereal consumed per person per month and % share of rice and wheat in cereal consumption for major states, 2009-10 To know the pattern of consumption of cereals across states table no. 10 is provided below. Now first we shall look at rural India’s scenario. It can be observed from the table that only four states consume good amount of other cereals and these states are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Karnataka known for consumption of pearl millet, sorghum, pearl millet and sorghum & Ragi respectively. This condition is reflective of neglect of millets which are more nutritive than cereals. Among the major states Kerala (8.7 Kg.), Gujarat (9.2 Kg.), Punjab (9.3Kg.) and Haryana (9.8 Kg.) had less than required minimum consumption of cereals (@ 12 Kg. per person). Even though these states are developed but the per capita cereal consumption is low, which may be due to the reasons of substantial non vegetarian component in diet or vegetarian diet pattern where other food components compensate for the inadequate cereal consumption. More than minimum required level of consumption of cereal is observed in Orissa (13.9 Kg.), Chhattisgarh (12.1 Kg.), and Assam (12.9 Kg.) among major states. The All India Decile classes Rural (Kg.) Urban(Kg.) Cereals Pulses cereals pulses 1 10.2 0.41 9.43 0.469 2 10.6 0.49 9.54 0.559 3 11.1 0.53 9.47 0.590 4 11.1 0.54 9.61 0.665 5 11.5 0.54 9.69 0.724 6 11.4 0.61 9.52 0.783 7 11.7 0.62 9.45 0.850 8 11.8 0.72 9.35 0.895 9 12.1 0.77 9.23 0.934 10 12.1 0.91 8.57 1.038 All Classes 11.4 0.62 9.39 0.751
  • 12. 13 average cereal consumption in rural areas is lower than minimum requirement at 11.3 Kg per month. For urban areas also the scenario remains more or less same for millets. The condition of consumption of millets has become worse in urban areas as evident by substantial decrease in consumption of as one move from rural areas to urban areas. Even in those four states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Karnataka where consumption of millets was high in rural areas, in urban areas it substantially reduced. Per capita consumption in urban areas was lower than rural areas for all the states of India. In case of some states like Kerala it was compensated by high calorie and high protein foods like meat and fish but this is not the case with all the states. Hence obvious inference from the table is that in urban areas nutrition levels were below rural areas. Quantity of cereal consumed per person per month and % share of rice and wheat in cereal consumption in 2009-10, major states Table No.10 Source:-NSSO report no. 538: level and pattern of consumption expenditure Changes in Per Capita Cereal Consumption (kg.) in different MPCE fractile classes: All-India To know the inequality in consumption we need trend in consumption across the different expenditure class which is provided by table no. 11 for rural areas. Fractile classes here are the division of MPCE into different groups where 0-10 fractile class refers to the lowest class of monthly consumption expenditure while 90-100 fractile class refers to the highest class of monthly consumption expenditure. It can be observed that over years consumption of cereals is decreasing. Consumption of cereals increases for all years as one move from lowest fractile class of MPCE to highest class of MPCE. This shows that income has positive relation with cereal consumption. Table no. 12 provides us trends in consumption of cereals across the different expenditure class for urban areas. It can be observed from the table that as we move
  • 13. 14 from lowest MPCE fractile class to highest fractile class, cereal consumption is decreasing. This indicates that cereal consumption is negatively related to MPCE. Over years cereal consumption has decreased. Over years difference in consumption of different fractile class has reduced. Changes in Per Capita Cereal Consumption (kg.) in rural areas in different MPCE fractile classes: All-India Table No. 11 Source:-NSSO report no. 538: level and pattern of consumption expenditure Changes in Per Capita Cereal Consumption (kg) in urban areas in different MPCE fractile classes: All-India Table No.12 Source:-NSSO report no. 538: level and pattern of consumption expenditure 6. Inequality in Consumption across States of India In table no. 13 inequality in consumption is measured through use of Lorenz ratio which ranges from 0 to 1, 0 for perfect equality and 1 for perfect equality. Lorenz ratio
  • 14. 15 is calculated separately for rural and urban areas. In list of top five states for inequality in consumption in rural areas Uttarakhand stands first followed by Kerala, Arunachal Pradesh, Punjab and Madhya Pradesh. For urban areas Kerala has highest inequality in consumption followed by Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Himachal Pradesh. At the bottom of inequality we find Manipur with least inequality both in urban as well as rural areas. In rural areas Manipur is followed by Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura while in urban areas Manipur is followed by Mizoram, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Jammu & Kashmir for increasing order of inequality. Thus it is evident that states located in hills have low inequality. Inequality in Consumption across States of India Table No. 13 SOURCE:-NSSO REPORT NO. 538: LEVEL AND PATTERN OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE Table no. 14 provides Lorenz ratio for rural and urban areas based on MMRP (Modified Mixed Reference Period).MMRP is a reference period where data is collected over duration of 365 days. It can be observed from the table that inequality is more in urban areas than in rural areas. Lorenz ratios for Rural and Urban Sector of India Table No.14 Sector MMRP Rural 0.270 Urban 0.362 SOURCE:-NSSO REPORT NO. 538: LEVEL AND PATTERN OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE Rank Rural areas Lorenz ratio MMRP Urban areas Lorenz ratio MMRP 1 Uttarakhand 0.421 Kerala 0.388 2 Kerala 0.318 Maharashtra 0.378 3 Arunachal Pradesh 0.313 Uttar Pradesh 0.377 4 Punjab 0.284 West Bengal 0.376 5 Madhya Pradesh 0.277 Himachal Pradesh 0.373 23 Tripura 0.206 Jammu &Kashmir 0.284 24 Mizoram 0.198 Nagaland 0.244 25 Meghalaya 0.178 Meghalaya 0.239 26 Nagaland 0.172 Mizoram 0.232 27 Manipur 0.158 Manipur 0.206
  • 15. 16 7. Estimated Elasticities of Food Expenditure by Commodity To know the effect of increase in income on consumption of different commodities, we must know the income Elasticities of demand. For this we have Income Elasticities of various commodities of staple consumption from IFPPR discussion paper provided in table no. 15. It was observed that income elasticity of demand for rice, wheat and pulse was negative meaning these are inferior commodities. For edible oil, sugar and milk it was positive but below 1 meaning normal goods. For Egg, fish, chicken and meat it was found to be more than one meaning that these are the luxury commodities. The big question here is for what proportion of people these luxury and normal goods are affordable. Estimated Elasticities of Food Expenditure by Commodity Table No. 15 Commodity Expenditure Elasticity Rice -0.21 Wheat -0.13 Pulse -0.24 Edible Oil 0.90 Milk 0.55 Vegetables 0.64 Sugar 0.83 Eggs 1.31 Fish, Chicken and Meat 1.17 Source:-Demand and Supply of Cereals in India 2010-2025, IFPRI, Washington 8. Stark Realties India is ranked 10th largest Economy of world on nominal GDP basis and 3rd largest economy on PPP basis. But 10th largest Economy of the world is facing a stark reality which is more troubling than the other problems of its economy. These are • India is home to 29% of the world’s 872.9 million undernourished people (FAO). • India accounts for 49% of the world’s underweight children (WHO). • India is having 34% of the world’s stunted children (WHO). • India has over 46% undernourished children (WHO).
  • 16. 17 • India is ranked 67 way below neighboring countries like China, Nepal & Pakistan in 2011 Global Hunger Index by the IFPRI. • According to the latest data on child under nutrition from 2005–10, India ranked second to last on child underweight out of 129 countries below Ethiopia, Niger, ?? Nepal and Bangladesh. Only Timor-Leste had a higher rate of underweight children. • 21% of India’s population is undernourished, nearly 44% of below the age of 5 children are underweight and 7% of them dying before they reach fifth birthday. 9. Performance on Global Hunger Index Every year for all countries of the world, Global Hunger Index is prepared by IFPRI??. It ranges from 0 to 100, where 0 stands for no hunger while 100 means absolutely all are hungry. From the table no. 9 provided below it can be observed that over years India’s status on Global Hunger Index is Alarming. Performance wise over years score is improving but still we rank among last 12 countries in the world. Performance on Global Hunger Index Table No.16 Year Rank in Hunger index Out of total no. of countries Score Status 1990 - - 31.73 Alarming 2007 94 118 25.03. Alarming 2008 66 88 23.70 Alarming 2009 65 88 23.90 Alarming 2010 67 84 24.10 Alarming 2011 67 81 24.2 Alarming 2012 65 79 22.9 Alarming Source:-Global Hunger Report, IFPRI 10. Demand & Supply Projections for Food grains Food Grain Requirement Projection According to NCAP report (2009, Policy Brief on demand for Food Grains during 2020 ), India will require 280.6 million tonnes of food grains by 2020. Demand for pulses and oil seeds would increase by 140 per cent and 243 per cent respectively. India would require about 130 million tonnes of rice in 2020 while requirement of wheat would reach 110 million tonnes in 2020 Projected Scenario of 2020
  • 17. 18 In the table no. 17 provided below, along with the demand estimates of various agricultural commodities estimated projections of production (domestic) are compared. Here BAU (business as usual) refers to the future state of business affairs, Government support for agriculture and pace of technological change to remain same. While Best case scenario refers to the best possible changes in state of technology, business environment and level of Government support to agriculture. All the estimation done by presenter for various commodities are based on BAU scenario. From the table it can be observed that in 2020 demand for Rice, wheat, coarse grains and total cereals will be more than the production projected by the presenter while as per estimation of supply by planning commission, demand will be less than production, in any of the two scenario assumed, leading to a surplus of food grains. In case of Pulses the estimation by presenter for production shows there will be a marginal deficit in production compared to demand. Going by the estimates of supply for pulses, there shall be huge gap in any scenario. This deficit in production can cause severe protein crisis which will be more than present deficit of protein in Indian diet. As per the estimates provided by the presenter for production of oilseeds, there shall be deficit in production compared to demand to the tune of 50%. This deficit in demand will have to be met by import, like at present India imports 50% of its domestic vegetable oil requirement, in absence of significant Government intervention to step up the oilseed production. Projected Scenario of 2020 Table No. 17 (in million tonnes) By NCAP Estimated by presenter By Planning Commission Crop Projected demand during 2020 Estimated production for 2020 Demand projected for Vision 2020 Supply projection for scenario of Business as usual (BAU) Supply projection for Best case scenario (BCS) Rice 130 117.08 119 125 207 Wheat 110 105.64 92 108 173 Coarse grains 10 34.92 15.6 13 14 Total Cereals 236.99 262.2 226.6 246 394 Pulses 43.61 42.8 19.5 16 23 Total food grain 280.6 278.62 246.1 262 417 Oilseed 85.33 40.62 Source:-1. GUPTA S.P., Report of Committee on India Vision 2020,December 2002, Planning commission, GOI., New Delhi,30-34.
  • 18. 19 2. Policy Brief on demand for Food Grains during 2020, 2009, NCAP, New Delhi. 11. Government Measures for Food Security There are many Government Interventions in Agriculture for ensuring food subsidy. These are • National Food Security Mission (NFSM) • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) • National Food Security Act 2013 • National Mission For Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) • National mission on Agricultural Mechanization (NMAM) • Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern India (BGRI) • Macro Management of Agriculture (MMA) Scheme • Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil palm and Maize (ISOPOM) • National Horticulture Mission (NHM) • Horticulture Mission For North East and Himalayan States • Grameen Bhandaran Yojana • National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) • National Food Security Mission (NFSM) NFSM was launched in August, 2007 by GOI with an aim of achieving an additional production of 10, 8 and 2 million tonnes of paddy, wheat and pulses respectively by end of 2011-12. Following table no. 18 shows the performance of Mission over different benchmark periods. Performance of NFSM Table No.18 (in million tonnes) Benchmark years 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Paddy 10.97 7.63 5.14 wheat 18.09 15.33 13.22 pulses 3.01 2.45 2.64 Note: Calculated by presenter based on data available from RBI hand book of Indian Economy, 2011-12 Government of India considered 2006-07 period for evaluating the performance of NFSM but given the fact that since programme started in August 2007 which falls under period 2007-08 and hence we must evaluate the performance against benchmark period 2007-08. So performance against 2006-07 benchmark is very good but performance against benchmark 2007-08, only target for increase in wheat production was achieved but for pulses and paddy it fell short of target. Some experts opine that performance be measured from the next year of start of a Government programme
  • 19. 20 because it takes time to implement it and hence performance must be measured from benchmark period of 2008-09. Performance from 2008-09 benchmark periods is that NFSM failed to achieve targeted increase in production of paddy and pulses but could over achieve in case of wheat. • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) RKVY Started in 2007-08 for incentivizing states to enhance public investment to achieve 4% growth rate in agriculture and allied sectors during the 11th five year plan. During 2007-11, an amount of Rs.14598 was released. From the table no.19 provided below, it can be observed that highest growth in agriculture and allied sectors came in 2010-11 which was marked by ill distribution of rainfall. The objective of achieving 4% growth rate at the end of 11th five year plan fell short of target by 0.4% points i.e. growth at the end of 11th five year plan was 3.6. Growth of Agricultural & Allied Sector GDP Table No. 19 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 Growth in GDP for Agriculture and allied Sectors (%), base year 2004-05 5.8 0.1 0.8 7.9 3.6 Source:-Economic Survey, 2013 12. National Food Security Act 2013 National Food Security Act 2013 is the latest attempt made by the Government of India to ensure Food Security of citizens. According to the Act 50% of urban and 75% of rural population be covered under the proposed plan. The Act guarantees providing 5 kg food grain per person per month at a subsidised rate to 67% of the country's population. This amounts to 82 crore people in both urban and rural areas. Food grains would include rice, wheat and millet at Rs.3, Rs.2 and Rs.1 per kg, respectively. The annual food grain requirement for implementing the National Food Security Bill is estimated at 61 million tonnes. Out of this proposed 61 million tonnes of food grains, our 82.4 crore of targeted people require only 49.44 million tonnes and rest shall be for other institutional arrangements. In year 2011-12 FCI procured 66.35 million tonnes of Food grains and off take was 56.28 million tonnes. The stock at the end of the period was 53.44 million tonnes. Hence the requirement of 61 million tonnes can be met easily without impacting the functioning of Food grain markets. (Increased off take because of increased inclusion and reduced price is considered??) The Act stipulates that the entitled quantity of food grains should be supplied mainly through Public Distribution System. Pubic Distribution System is a costly affair for the Government to follow. This can be shown with the help of following table No. 20. From the table it can be observed that PDS has the highest cost of transferring one rupee of benefit to the targeted beneficiary (Rs, 5.37). PDS is followed in terms of cost
  • 20. 21 by Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (Rs. 4.35), Maharashtra EGS (Rs. 3.10) and least costly ICDS (Rs.1.8). Only exceptional scheme is Andhra Pradesh Rice Scheme with Rs. 6.35 as the cost. Thus by following present structure of PDS we shall incur more cost without revamping PDS Cost of Transferring One Rupee Table No. 20 (in Rs.) Scheme Cost of income transfer Public Distribution System 5.37 Andhra Pradesh Rice Scheme 6.35 Jawahar Rozgar Yojana 4.35 Maharashtra EGS 3.10 ICDS 1.80 Source: Indian Economy, Gaurav Datt and Ashwani Mahajan, 2013 Cost of Food Subsidy Table No. 21 (in Rs. Crores, at current prices) Year Amount 2000-01 12,010 2004-05 25,746 2005-06 23,071 2006-07 23,828 2007-08 31,259 2008-09 43,668 2009-10 58,242 2010-11 63,844 2011-12 72,823 2012-13 85,000 2013-14 (estimated ) 124000
  • 21. 22 Source: Indian Economy, Gaurav Datt and Ashwani Mahajan, 2013 Food security bill also put before us the question of Food Subsidy, which is important consideration before policy makers. Following table no. 21 provides us the details of past, present and estimated food subsidy cost to exchequer. From the table it can be observed that during 2004-05 there had been substantial increase in food subsidy. Later on growth of food subsidy came down and again there was sudden spurt in food subsidy in 2009-10 as well as in 2012-13. It is estimated that during 2013-14 the food subsidy will increase to 124000 crore Rupees owing to new bureaucratic arrangements that will have to be made for systematic implementation of Act. Since 2004-05, UPA Govt. has doled out Rs. 32 lakh-crore by way of tax exemptions to corporate, trade and business. These exemptions are clubbed under the category ‘Revenue Foregone’ in the budget documents. For 2013-14, the ‘revenue foregone’ is Rs. 5.73 lakh crore. In the light of these facts it is observable point that an additional burden of 39,000 crore rupees will definitely be a big burden on Government which runs on a fiscal deficit of 4.8% of GDP. Rotting Wheat in Godowns The Food Corporation of India (FCI) has admitted in data accessed through RTI by Uttar Pradesh resident, Kush Kalra that the amount of damaged wheat has increased from 2,010 tonnes in 2009-2010 to 2,401.61 tonnes (2011-2012). The country has already suffered a loss of 932.46 tonnes damaged wheat this year till February(2013). Bihar has the highest quantity of rotting wheat at 306.5 tonnes, followed by Uttarakhand (221 tonnes) and Gujarat (195 tonnes). According to data, the worst offender in 2011-2012 was Maharashtra (1444 tonnes), while in 2010-2011 Uttarakhand recorded (931 tonnes) of damaged wheat. Gujarat had the maximum (785 tonnes) damaged wheat in 2009-2010. Given these rotting of wheat in FCI Godowns it is imperative for us to check rotting because food saved is food produced. Rotting of food grains create two way problem • The food grains neither remains usable for consumption • Nor it can be sold in open market at competitive prices leading to great loss to exchequer. Arrangements Made For Additional Storage Infrastructure
  • 22. 23 In the wake of massive food grain spoilage in FCI godowns the GOI has taken various measures at each step. ?? In the Central Pool as on July 30, 2013, the storage capacity stood at 74.6 million tonnes for food grains. This would be supplemented by about 20.3 million tonnes with the creation of both conventional and silo capacities by private sector participation under the Private Entrepreneur Guarantee (PEG) scheme. FCI has already taken over facilities totalling a capacity of 7.3 million tonnes, while the rest is expected to be ready in the next couple of years. Further, FCI will be adding capacity of 0.6 million tonnes, especially in the difficult terrain of the north-eastern states, as is envisaged in the 12th Plan. FCI also have the option of hiring capacities from private or public sector players, based on actual demands. How Far PDS is Benefiting Poor? Given the fact that Government wants to supply entitled quantity of food grains through Public Distribution System it is imperative to know how much of the targeted people get benefit. According to recent World Bank report, PDS which accounts for 1% of GDP benefits only 40% of targeted beneficiaries. Deciding on the targeted beneficiaries of the Food Security Act 2013 The Planning Commission puts the number of BPL families at 6.5 crore while the states lists add up to a shade over 10 crore households. Given this fact, there is going to be the exclusion of many genuine beneficiaries from the list. At present excluding the North East states, the proportion of households with ‘no card’ was highest in Orissa -- where 33 per cent of rural households did not possess any type of ration card. In the State of Orissa which is characterized as ‘severely food insecure’ (MSSRF 2001), one-third of rural households were outside the purview of the PDS. In another 10 States, more than 20 per cent of rural households did not possess a ration card. In this regard we have ideal system of deciding on targeted beneficiaries in Karnataka where to decide on eligible person or household Government has linked Adhar Card with BPL and LPG card no.. This step weeds out ineligible beneficiaries. Is this Food Security or Cereal Security? As per the Food Security Act 2013, Section 2, sub section 7 the term “Food Security “means ‘the supply of the entitled quantity of foodgrains and meal specified under Chapter II’. According to Section 2, Sub section 8 “Food Security Allowance” means ‘the amount of money paid by the concerned State Government to the entitled persons under section 13’. Thus the Act implies that we should not look for overall cover of a daily man’s requirement for food but it is an attempt by the Govt. to support the food security of households.
  • 23. 24 13. Conclusion • India will not have problem of Cereals availability in the long run (2020-21) and will have shortage of Pulse and Oilseed production if adequate steps are not taken by the Government of India. • Public Distribution System is a costly method of reaching out to poor people. • Food Security Bill 2013 will increase the Real Income of the targeted beneficiaries. • There exists more inequality in consumption in urban areas than in rural areas. • Sustainability of Food Subsidy is subject to operation of FRBM Act. • To ensure success of Food Security in India we have to achieve the Food Production Targets and improve the efficiency of public distribution system. 14. Policy Implications • Attempts should be made to increase productivity of crops. • We must focus on cost effective distribution of Food grains in an equitable manner, in addition to increasing food grain production • Public distribution system must be revamped to avoid leakage and Karnataka model should be replicated . • Attempts must be made to increase Oilseed and Pulse production at an accelerated rate to overcome the protein crisis prevailing in our country • Storage of Food grains be made more scientific and prevent rotting of food grains. • Need to curb the growth of inflationary tendencies in economy in general and more specifically Food Inflation to improve nutritional security. • In addition to Cereals, Government should also provide pulses to supplement lacking protein in Indian diet.
  • 24. 25 15. References • ANONYMOUS, December 2011, Level and pattern of consumption expenditure 2009-10 NSS 66th round, report no. 538, NSSO, published by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, GOI, New Delhi. • ANONYMOUS, 2011, Dietary Guidelines for Indians: A manual, published by National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, Hyderabad: 6. • ANONYMOUS, 2011-12, Hand book of Indian Economy, published by RBI. • ANONYMOUS, 2012, Global Hunger Index: The challenge of hunger; Ensuring sustainable food security under land, water, and energy stresses, published by IFPRI, Washington: 11-18. • ANONYMOUS, India’s score alarming on hunger map, Times of India: Oct 12, 2012. • ANONYMOUS, 2013, Economic Survey, published by Ministry of Finance, GOI, New Delhi: 174-191.
  • 25. 26 • ANONYMOUS, June 2013, Key Indicators of Household Consumer Expenditure in India, NSS report 68th round survey (July 2011-June 2012), published by NSSO, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, GOI, New Delhi. • ANONYMOUS, 2013, Statistical Year Book, published by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, GOI, New Delhi • CHAND RAMESH, 2009, Policy Brief: Demand for foodgrains during 11th Plan and towards 2020, NCAP/ICAR, New Delhi. • DATT GAURAV AND MAHAJAN ASHWANI, 2013, Indian Economy, S Chand Publication: 552-564. • DHAWAN HIMANSHI, 2400 MT wheat rotting in govt granaries for past 2 years, Times of India, May 7, 2013. • JHA RAJESH, SINGH N.K., RANJAN VIKASH, 2012, Survey of Agriculture, Golden Peacock Publications: 19-98 • GANESHKUMAR, A. AND et.al. Jan 2012, Demand and Supply of Cereals in India 2010-2025, IFPRI Discussion Paper 01158, Environment and Production Technology, New Delhi Office: 17. • GULATI ASHOK, Food Security Bill could Spark grain crisis, Times of India, March 21, 2013. • GUPTA, S. P., Report of Committee on India Vision 2020, December 2002, published by Planning commission, GOI, New Delhi: 30-34. • RAY SARBAPRIYA, RAY ISHITA ADITYA, 2011, Role and effectiveness of PDS in assuring food Security in India: An Appraisal, Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development, 2(4): 244. Web sites • http://www.indiatogether.org/2012/jun/pov- nutrients1.htm#sthash.oglEKp2H.dpuf • http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-01- 15/india/30629637_1_anganwadi-workers-ghi-number-of-hungry-people
  • 26. 27 • http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-10- 11/india/34385840_1_global-hunger-index-international-food-policy-ghi • http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-08- 05/nagpur/33048504_1_mdgs-global-hunger-index-millennium- development-goals • http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-05-20/edit- page/29560838_1_welfare-schemes-centrally-sponsored-uid • http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2007-10- 14/india/27971206_1_global-hunger-index-mortality-rate-pakistan • http://www.commodityonline.com/news/indias-food-grain-requirement-to- touch-2806-mn-tons-by-2020-21-46992-3-46993.html • http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-07- 04/india/40370951_1_food-security-act-monsoon-session-ordinance • http://www.who.int/countries/ind/en/ • http://labourbureau.nic.in/CPI%20A%20&RL%202k5-6%20Content.htm • http://labourbureau.nic.in/CPI%2004-05%20Contents.htm
  • 27. 28 ……. Consumer expenditure in percentage …. In rural India / urban India
  • 28. 29
  • 29. 30 ……. ? Rural / Urban India? Write the full title

×