Script of poultry project
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Script of poultry project

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It provides the details of poultry project to be set up in Dharwad District. This document was prepared in year 2011 and hence all prices used are for 2011. It helps to understand the basic steps in ...

It provides the details of poultry project to be set up in Dharwad District. This document was prepared in year 2011 and hence all prices used are for 2011. It helps to understand the basic steps in setting up poultry project.

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    Script of poultry project Script of poultry project Document Transcript

    • Department of Agribusiness Management, UAS Dharwad. Prepared by Gourav Kumar Vani in partial fulfillment of course requirement PROJECT ON POULTRY INTRODUCTION Poultry as an enterprise can only be started if one is thinking to start it as a full time enterprise rather than as a part time job because it needs special attention all the time. Poultry enterprise has gained its momentum because its meat is an important source of high quality proteins, minerals and vitamins to balance the human diet .Specially developed breeds of chicken meat (broiler) are now available with the ability of quick growth and high feed conversion efficiency. Depending on the farm size broiler farming can be main source of family income or can provide subsidiary income and gainful employment to farmers throughout the year. Poultry manure has high fertilizer value and can be used for yield of crops. Based on the purpose, poultry enterprise can be of following types: 1) LAYERS FARM- for egg production purpose 2) BROILER FARM-for chicken production purpose 3) IMPROVED BACKYARD FARM-for dual purpose LAYERS FARM Layers farm is started for the purpose of egg production. Though the main emphasis is given to broiler production, layer farming has received its own significance. The poultry population is 269 million and egg production is 28000 million. India ranks 8th in the world in egg production still per capita consumption of egg per year is 20.6 in number which is insignificant compared to 400 eggs in Denmark, 340 in USA and over 250 in UK. SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE Layer farming has got lots of potential and if harnessed properly it may contribute significantly to national income. High quality chicks, better equipments, proper immunization, technically and professionally competent guidance are available to famers which should be used properly to increase the income. The management practices have improved and diseases and mortality incidence has reduced. Government is coming up with various schemes and has opened training institutions to provide training to entrepreneurs .Increasing assistances from the central and state governments and poultry corporations is given to create infrastructure facilities so that new entrepreneurs take up this business. Thus, with all these facilities there is a good scope for further development in the years to come.
    • Department of Agribusiness Management, UAS Dharwad. Prepared by Gourav Kumar Vani in partial fulfillment of course requirement HOUSING The first requirement in poultry business is construction of shed which should be conducive to layers growth. To start an enterprise as layers farm, the minimum size of the farm should be such that it should not contain less than 25000 layers which should produce 16000 eggs per day non-stop for 365 days. Based on different age groups of layers, shed can be of three types. These are: 1) BROODER SHED-for 1-24 weeks old birds 2) GROWERS SHED-for 24-48 weeks old birds 3) LAYERS SHED-for 48-72 weeks old birds The capacity of each shed is 8000 birds and for every shed 5% extra chicks are provided which adds up to make the minimum size of farm i.e. 25000 birds. In the brooders shed ventilation is provided at the top of the building to provide additional heat from sun to one day old chicks. Growers and layers shed should be well-aerated from bottom to top. STAGES OR LIFE CYCLE OF LAYERS The life cycle of layers is of 72 weeks which is equally divided into three stages. These are: 1) CHICKS - young one of either sex up to the age of 8 weeks 2) PULLETS-young growing female bird of 8 weeks and onwards till it attains sexual maturity COCKRET-young growing male bird of 8 weeks and onwards till it attains sexual maturity 3) LAYERS-fully grown young ones this has attained sexual maturity of 18- 72 weeks. From 18 weeks onwards, reproduction starts and egg productivity is 90-97%. The layers from third shed i.e. layers shed goes for selling as they are of no use. These birds are called spent birds and are sold @ 50-60 rupees each.
    • Department of Agribusiness Management, UAS Dharwad. Prepared by Gourav Kumar Vani in partial fulfillment of course requirement CHICKS Chicks purchased should be from reputed hatchery .Generally, chicks are bought from Venkateshwara Hatchery Limited which enjoys monopoly over entire SouthEast Asia. The breed sold is BV-300 Where B stands for backyard; V for Venkateshwara and 300 indicates 300 eggs produced in 365 days. Recently, BV339 is introduced which can produce 339 eggs in 365 days. This capacity is much more than what our local backyard produces i.e.40-60 eggs per 365 days. A local bird produces 4-5 clutches and each clutch contains 8-12 eggs. After the egg has been produced, it is kept for brooding. The incubation period is of 18 days and hatching starts from 19th day and continues up to 21 days. Therefore, total hatching period is of 21 days. Though chancing of getting male chick is almost nil, yet while purchasing of chick utmost care must be taken that all the chick bought are female. Therefore, sex of the chick can be known by protposcopic method of sexing. FEEDING The feed of the poultry bird varies with environmental and climatic conditions. The feed provided in Dharwad region is called as poultry mesh .The poultry mesh provided to the bird can be of different types depending on the age group of birds to which it is fed. These are 1) CHICK MASH- for 0-8 weeks old birds 2) GROWER MASH- for 8-18 weeks old birds 3) PRE-LAYER MASH- for 18-20 weeks old birds 4) LAYER MASH- for 20-72 weeks old birds Requirement of chick mash, grower mash and layer mash is 4-5 kg for 72 week and layer mash required is 120-130 gm per bird per day i.e. 45 kg mash per bird for 72 weeks. Therefore, feed requirement for one bird for entire span of 72 weeks is 50 kg per bird. One of the interesting facts about layer is that their body weight is never going to exceed 1.5 kg after one week of growth. Body weight will remain around 1.25-1.50 kg from 20 weeks onward to entire egg production time. HEALTH CARE It is one of the important factors in determining the profit. Birds bought must be free from diseases. Therefore, layers after being bought must be vaccinated properly and should be provided with feed supplements such as vitamins, minerals, b-complex, etc. Layers must be provided sanitary condition. Diseased and dead birds must be removed from the shed. If any bird show advance sign of
    • Department of Agribusiness Management, UAS Dharwad. Prepared by Gourav Kumar Vani in partial fulfillment of course requirement disease then it must be shown to a qualified veterinarian and suitable treatment be given as per instructions given by the doctors. MARKETING One of the most essential factors in determining the profit from this enterprise is its accessibility to market. Before marketing of the product, market demand must be analyzed and the price should be fixed accordingly. During winter season demand for egg is more compared to demand in summer. Eggs are packed in trays and can be sold in bulk in the wholesale markets in the urban area. Eggs are more liable to be damaged during transportation so proper care must be taken during transportation as profit or loss of enterprise depends on this. Retail buyers are also available who directly purchase the eggs from the farm. Eggs are perishable commodity and cannot be stored for longer period of time. Shelf life of eggs in summer is 1 week and winter is 4 weeks.