Food security in india myths and realities

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This presentation tells us about the latest scenario of Food Security and helps us to clear the doubts in mind regarding Myths prevailing about Food Security Status of India. This document provide information along with references to cross check the source and authenticity of information.

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Food security in india myths and realities

  1. 1. 24-Sep-13 1 Food Security in India: Myths and Realities PRESENTED BY : GOURAV KUMAR VANI MAJOR ADVISOR: SHRI P. S. SRIKANTHA MURTHY, ASSISTANT PROFESOR
  2. 2. 24-Sep-13 2 CONTENT  Introduction to Food Security  Physical Availability of Food  Absolute break-up of MPCEMMRP by item groups  Trends in % Composition of Consumer Expenditure (Rural and Urban)  Engle’s law - trends in consumption expenditure  Per Capita Consumption of Cereals and Pulses  Inequality in Consumption  Elasticities of Food Expenditure by commodity  Stark Realities  Performance on Global Hunger Index
  3. 3. 24-Sep-13 3 CONTENT Demand & Supply projections for Foodgrains Govt. Measures for Food Security National Food Security Act 2013 Conclusion Policy Implication
  4. 4. 24-Sep-13 4 INTRODUCTION
  5. 5. 24-Sep-13 5 Food Security - Meaning Food Security exists, when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preference for an active and healthy life. (World Food Summit, Rome, 1996)
  6. 6. 24-Sep-13 6 Four dimensions of Food Security Food Security Physical Availability of Food The supply side, determined by the level of food production, stock level & net trade. Economic & Physical access to Food Adequate supply of food does not guarantee household level food security. Food access depends on incomes, expenditure, markets & prices in achieving food security objectives Food Utilization The way the body makes the most of various nutrients in the food. Involves care & feeding practices, food preparation, diversity of diet & intra-household distribution of food. Stability of the other 3 dimensions over time Access on a periodic basis. Weather, political conditions or economic factors have an impact on food security status.
  7. 7. 24-Sep-13 7 Physical Availability of Food
  8. 8. 24-Sep-13 8 Crop 2011-12 2012-13 Rice 105.31 104.22 Wheat 94.88 93.62 Coarse cereals 42.04 39.52 Total cereals 242.23 237.3618 Pulses 17.09 18.00 Total food grains 259.32 255.36 Oilseeds 29.79 30.72 Sugar 24.60 26.00 Vegetables 156.325 156.445 Fruits 76.42 79.40 Milk 127.9 133.7 Source:-RBI Hand Book on India Economy 2011-12 Table No. 2 (million tonnes) Physical Availability of Food
  9. 9. 24-Sep-13 9 Year Cereal Pulses 1950-51 44.3 8.0 1960-61 64.6 11.1 1970-71 84.0 10.3 1980-81 104.8 9.4 1990-91 145.7 12.9 2000-01 145.6 11.3 2005-06 157.4 12.7 2006-07 168.8 13.3 2007-08 168.9 14.7 2008-09 165.9 17.6 2009-10 173.7 15.8 2010-11 176.5 13.7 Source: Indian Economy,Gaurav Datt and Ashwani Mahajan,2013 Table No. 3 (in million tonnes) Net Availability of Cereals and Pulses
  10. 10. 24-Sep-13 10 Commodity Per capita availability Minimum per capita requirement Total cereals 528.70 400 Pulses 46.78 80 Total food grains 568.79 480 Oil 39.73 30 Sugar 54.79 20 Vegetables 348.47 300 Fruits 176.86 150 Milk 297.81 300 Source:-National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad Table No. 4 (in gram per day) Per capita availability, 2012-13
  11. 11. 24-Sep-13 11 Year Cereal Pulses Total 1950-51 334.2 60.7 394.9 1960-61 399.7 69.0 468.7 1970-71 417.6 51.2 468.8 1980-81 417.3 37.5 454.8 1990-91 468.5 41.6 510.1 2000-01 366.2 30.0 416.2 2005-06 390.9 31.5 422.4 2006-07 412.1 32.5 444.5 2007-08 407.4 32.5 442.8 2008-09 374.6 41.8 436.0 2009-10 407.0 37.0 444.0 2010-11 407.0 31.6 438.6 Source: Indian Economy,Gaurav Datt and Ashwani Mahajan,2013 Table No.5 (in gram) Per capita Net Availability Per Day
  12. 12. 24-Sep-13 12 Table No.6 Source:-Key Indicators of Household Consumer Expenditure in India, NSSO report for 68th round survey. Absolute break-up of MPCE MMRP by item group, All-India, 2011-2012 Item group Amount (Rs.) Rural Urban Cereal and cereal substitutes 154 175 Pulse and their products 42 54 Milk and milk products 115 184 Edible oil 53 70 Egg, fish, meat 68 96 Vegetables 95 122 Fruits 41 90 Food total 756 1121 Non food total 673 1509 Total 1430 2630
  13. 13. 24-Sep-13 13 Table No.7 Source:-Key Indicators of Household Consumer Expenditure in India, NSSO report for 68th round survey. Trends in Percentage Composition of Consumer Expenditure Since 1993-94 for Rural India Item group 1993-94 1999-2000 20004-05 2009-10 2011-12 Cereal 24.2 22.2 18.0 15.6 12.0 Pulse and their products 3.8 3.8 3.1 3.7 3.1 Milk and milk products 9.5 8.8 8.5 8.6 9.1 Edible oil 4.4 3.7 4.6 3.7 3.8 Egg, fish, meat 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.6 Vegetables 6.0 6.2 6.1 6.2 4.8 Fruits and nuts 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.6 1.9 Food total 63.2 59.4 55.0 53.6 48.6 Non food total 36.8 40.6 45.0 46.4 51.4
  14. 14. 24-Sep-13 14 Trends in Percentage Composition of Consumer Expenditure Since 1993-94 for Urban India Table No.8 Item group 1993-94 1999-2000 20004-05 2009-10 2011-12 Cereal 14.0 12.4 10.1 9.1 7.3 Pulse and their products 3.0 2.8 2.1 2.7 2.1 Milk and milk products 9.8 8.7 7.9 7.8 7.8 Edible oil 4.4 3.1 3.5 2.6 2.7 Egg, fish, meat 3.4 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.8 Vegetables 5.5 5.1 4.5 4.3 3.4 Fruits and nuts 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.3 Food total 54.7 48.1 42.5 40.7 38.5 Non food total 45.3 51.9 57.5 59.3 61.5 Source:-Key Indicators of Household Consumer Expenditure in India, NSSO report for 68th round survey.
  15. 15. 24-Sep-13 15 There is decreasing trend in % expenditure on many of the commodities. Is this because of Engle‟s Law of Consumption Expenditure ?
  16. 16. 24-Sep-13 16Source: Policy Brief on demand for foodgrains during 2020,Ramesh Chand, NCAP, New Delhi Recent and Projected Growth Rate in Income Table No.9 Growth rate of 1993-94 to 2004-05 2004-05 to 2011-12 2011-12 to 2020-21 (estimated) NNPFC 6.85 9.00 9.00 Rural 2.27 3.46 3.58 Urban 7.75 11.81 12.19 Total 4.97 7.57 7.81
  17. 17. 24-Sep-13 17 Category CPI WPI Agricultural labourers Rural labourers General 10.53 10.44 7.06 Food items 10.54 10.51 11.84 Table No.10 Growth rate in Inflation (2005-06 to 2011-12) Note: calculated by presenter based on the data available from ”Statistical Year Book,2013”.
  18. 18. 24-Sep-13 18 Consumption of Cereals and Pulses
  19. 19. 24-Sep-13 19 Table No.11 Quantity (kg) of consumption of cereals and pulses per person for a period of 30 days for each decile class of MPCEURP All India, Rural, 2009-10. SOURCE:-NSSO REPORT NO. 538: LEVEL AND PATTERN OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE Decile classes Total cereals Total pulses 1 10.2 0.41 2 10.6 0.49 3 11.1 0.53 4 11.1 0.54 5 11.5 0.54 6 11.4 0.61 7 11.7 0.62 8 11.8 0.72 9 12.1 0.77 10 12.1 0.91 All Classes 11.4 0.62
  20. 20. 24-Sep-13 20 Table No.12 Quantity (kg) of consumption of cereals and pulses per person for a period of 30 days for each decile class of MPCEURP All India, Urban, 2009-10. SOURCE:-NSSO REPORT NO. 538: LEVEL AND PATTERN OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE Decile classes Total cereals Total pulses 1 9.43 0.469 2 9.54 0.559 3 9.47 0.590 4 9.61 0.665 5 9.69 0.724 6 9.52 0.783 7 9.45 0.850 8 9.35 0.895 9 9.23 0.934 10 8.57 1.038 All Classes 9.39 0.751
  21. 21. 24-Sep-13 21SOURCE:-NSSO REPORT NO. 538: LEVEL AND PATTERN OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE Table No.13 Quantity of cereal consumed per person per month and % share of rice and wheat in cereal consumption in 2009-10, major states
  22. 22. 24-Sep-13 22 SOURCE:-NSSO REPORT NO. 538: LEVEL AND PATTERN OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE Table No. 14 Changes in Per Capita Cereal Consumption in Quantity terms in Rural areas in different MPCE fractile classes: All-India
  23. 23. 24-Sep-13 23SOURCE:-NSSO REPORT NO. 538: LEVEL AND PATTERN OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE Table No.15 Changes in Per Capita Cereal Consumption in Quantity terms in Urban areas in different MPCE fractile classes: All-India
  24. 24. 24-Sep-13 24 Inequality in Consumption across States of India
  25. 25. 24-Sep-13 25 Rank Rural areas Lorenz ratio Urban areas Lorenz ratio 1 Uttarakhand 0.421 Kerala 0.388 2 Kerala 0.318 Maharashtra 0.378 3 Arunachal Pradesh 0.313 Uttar Pradesh 0.377 4 Punjab 0.284 West Bengal 0.376 5 Madhya Pradesh 0.277 Himachal Pradesh 0.373 23 Tripura 0.206 Jammu &Kashmir 0.284 24 Mizoram 0.198 Nagaland 0.244 25 Meghalaya 0.178 Meghalaya 0.239 26 Nagaland 0.172 Mizoram 0.232 27 Manipur 0.158 Manipur 0.206 Table No. 16 Inequality in Consumption across States of India SOURCE:-NSSO REPORT NO. 538: LEVEL AND PATTERN OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE
  26. 26. 24-Sep-13 26 SOURCE:-NSSO REPORT NO. 538: LEVEL AND PATTERN OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE Table No.17 Lorenz ratios for Rural and Urban Sector of India Sector URP MRP MMRP Rural 0.291 0.276 0.270 Urban 0.381 0.371 0.362
  27. 27. 24-Sep-13 27 SOURCE:-NSSO REPORT NO. 538: LEVEL AND PATTERN OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE Lorenz curve for Rural and Urban India Figure 1
  28. 28. 24-Sep-13 28 Source:-Demand and Supply of Cereals in India 2010-2025, IFPRI, Washington Table No. 18 Estimated Elasticities of Food Expenditure by Commodity Commodity Expenditure Elasticity Rice -0.21 Wheat -0.13 Pulse -0.24 Edible Oil 0.90 Milk 0.55 Vegetables 0.64 Sugar 0.83 Eggs 1.31 Fish, Chicken and Meat 1.17
  29. 29. 24-Sep-13 29 Stark Realties • India ranked 10th largest Economy of world on nominal GDP basis and 3rd largest on economy on PPP basis But India has………….. • 29% of the 872.9 million undernourished people (FAO) • 49% of the world’s underweight children (WHO) • 34% of the world’s stunted children (WHO) • Over 46% undernourished children (WHO) • India is ranked 67 way below neighboring countries like China, Nepal & Pakistan in 2011 Global Hunger Index by the IFPRI.
  30. 30. 24-Sep-13 30 • According to the latest data on child under nutrition from 2005–10, India ranked second to last on child underweight out of 129 countries— below Ethiopia, Niger, Nepal, and Bangladesh. Only Timor-Leste had a higher rate of underweight children. • 21% of India‟s population undernourished, • nearly 44% of below the age of 5 children are underweight and
  31. 31. 24-Sep-13 31 7% of them dying before they reach fifth birthday
  32. 32. 24-Sep-13 32 Year Rank in Hunger index Out of total no. of countries Score Status 1990 31.73 Alarming 2007 94 118 25.03. Alarming 2008 66 88 23.70 Alarming 2009 65 88 23.90 Alarming 2010 67 84 24.10 Alarming 2011 67 81 24.2 Alarming 2012 65 79 22.9 Alarming Table No.19 Source:-Global Hunger Report, IFPRI Performance on Global Hunger Index
  33. 33. 24-Sep-13 33 Demand & Supply Projections for Food grains
  34. 34. 24-Sep-13 34 According to NCAP report, India will require 280.6 million tonnes of food grains by 2020. Demand for pulses and oil seeds would increase by 140 per cent and 243 per cent respectively. India would require about 130 million tonne of rice in 2020 while requirement of wheat would reach 110 million tonne in 2020. Food Grain Requirement Projection
  35. 35. 24-Sep-13 35 Projected Scenario of 2020 Crop Projected demand during 2020 by NCAP Estimated production for 2020 (estimated by presenter ) Demand projected for Vision 2020 (by planning commission) Supply projection for scenario of Business as usual (BAU) Supply projection for Best case scenario (BCS) Rice 130 117.08 119 125 207 Wheat 110 105.64 92 108 173 Coarse grains 34.92 15.6 13 14 Total Cereals 236.99 262.2 226.6 246 394 Pulses 43.61 42.8 19.5 16 23 Total food grain 280.6 278.62 246.1 262 417 Oilseed 85.33 40.62 Table No. 20 (in million tonnes) Source: Policy Brief on demand for foodgrains during 2020,Ramesh Chand, NCAP, New Delhi
  36. 36. 24-Sep-13 36 Govt. Measures for Food Security •National Food Security Mission •Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana •Mid Day Meal •ICDS (integrated Child Development Scheme), •National Food Security Act 2013.
  37. 37. 24-Sep-13 37 National Food Security Mission Source: Economic Survey,2013 •NFSM was launched in Aug,2007 by GOI with an aim of achieving an additional production of 10,8 and 2 million tonnes of paddy, wheat and pulses respectively by the end of 2011-12. •A sum of Rs. 3381 crore has been spent till 31March, 2011.
  38. 38. 24-Sep-13 38 • Following table below shows the performance of Mission over different benchmarks. benchmark years Crop 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Paddy 10.97 7.63 5.14 wheat 18.09 15.33 13.22 pulses 3.01 2.45 2.64 Table No.21 ( in million tonnes) Performance of NFSM Note: Calculated by presenter based on data available from RBI hand book of Indian Economy, 2011-12
  39. 39. 24-Sep-13 39 2007-08 2008-09 2009- 10 2010- 11 2011- 12 Growth in GDP for Agriculture and allied Sectors (%), base year 2004-05 5.8 0.1 0.8 7.9 3.6 Table No. 22 Source:-Economic Survey,2013 Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana •Started in 2007-08 for incentivizing states to enhance public investment to achieve 4% growth rate in agriculture and allied sectors during the 11th five year plan. During 2007-11 an amount of Rs.14598 was released.
  40. 40. 24-Sep-13 40 Mid Day Meal Scheme •100 million school children are eligible for hot meal; 50 million are getting the meals; of which 27 million also get the “4-in-one health package.” •The scheme does not provide meals to those who does not attend the school.
  41. 41. 24-Sep-13 41 •50% of urban and 75% of rural population be covered under Act. •Guarantees providing 5 kg food grain per person per month at a subsidised rate to 67% of the country's population. •82 crore people in both urban and rural areas. •Food grains would include rice, wheat and millet at Rs.3, Rs.2 and Rs.1 per kg, respectively. National Food Security Act 2013
  42. 42. 24-Sep-13 42 •The annual food grain requirement for implementing the National Food Security Bill is estimated at 61 million tonne. •Out of this proposed 61 million tonnes of food grains, our 82.4 crore of targeted people require only 49.44 million tonnes and rest shall be for other institutional arrangements.
  43. 43. 24-Sep-13 43 •In year 2011-12 FCI procured 66.35 million tonnes of Food grains and off take was 56.28 million tonnes. The stock at the end of the period was 53.44 million tonnes. Hence the requirement of 61 million tonnes can be met easily without impacting the functioning of Food grain markets.
  44. 44. 24-Sep-13 44 Scheme Cost of income transfer Public Distribution System 5.37 Andhra Pradesh Rice Scheme 6.35 Jawahar Rozgar Yojana 4.35 Maharashtra EGS 3.10 ICDS 1.80 Table No. 23 (in Rs.) Source: Indian Economy,Gaurav Datt and Ashwani Mahajan,2013 Cost of Transferring One Rupee
  45. 45. 24-Sep-13 45 Year Amount 2000-01 12,010 2004-05 25,746 2005-06 23,071 2006-07 23,828 2007-08 31,259 2008-09 43,668 2009-10 58,242 2010-11 63,844 2011-12 72,823 2012-13 85,000 2013-14 (estimated ) 124000 Table No. 24 (in Rs. Crores, at current prices) Source: Indian Economy,Gaurav Datt and Ashwani Mahajan,2013 Cost of Food Subsidy
  46. 46. 24-Sep-13 46 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 Amount (Rs. crores) Year Cost of Food Subsidy Figure 2 Cost of Food Subsidy
  47. 47. 24-Sep-13 47 •since 2004-05, UPA has doled out Rs. 32 lakh-crore by way of tax exemptions to corporate, trade and business. These exemptions are clubbed under the category ‘Revenue Foregone’ in the budget documents. For 2013-14, the ‘revenue foregone’ is Rs. 5.73 lakh crore. Can We Sustain the Cost of Food Subsidy? Source:- Food Security Bill could Spark grain crisis: Ashok Gulati, March 21, 2013, Times of India
  48. 48. 24-Sep-13 48 Rotting Wheat in Godowns
  49. 49. 24-Sep-13 49 Rotting Wheat in Godowns Source:-http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013- 05-07/india/39090187_1_global-hunger-index-wheat-ghi- score •The Food Corporation of India (FCI) has admitted in data accessed through RTI that the amount of damaged wheat has increased from 2,010 tonnes (T) in 2009-2010 to 2,401.61 tonnes (2011- 2012). •The country has already suffered a loss of 932.46 tonnes damaged wheat this year till February(2013). •Bihar has the highest quantity of rotting wheat at 306.5 tonnes, followed by Uttarakhand (221 tonnes) and Gujarat (195 tonnes). • According to data, the worst offender in 2011-2012 was Maharashtra (1444 tonnes), while in 2010-2011 Uttarakhand recorded (931 tonnes) of damaged wheat. •Gujarat had the maximum (785 tonnes) damaged wheat in 2009-2010.
  50. 50. 24-Sep-13 50 Arrangements Made For Additional Storage Infrastructure •In the Central Pool as on July 30, 2013, the storage capacity stood at 74.6 million tonnes for food grains. • This would be supplemented by about 20.3 million tonnes with the creation of both conventional and silo capacities by private sector participation under the Private Entrepreneur Guarantee (PEG) scheme. •FCI has already taken over facilities totalling a capacity of 7.3 million tonnes, while the rest is expected to be ready in the next couple of years.
  51. 51. 24-Sep-13 51 •Further, FCI will be adding capacity of 0.6 million tonnes, especially in the difficult terrain of the north-eastern states, as is envisaged in the 12th Plan. •FCI also have the option of hiring capacities from private or public sector players, based on actual demands. •Source:- Food Security Bill could Spark grain crisis: Ashok Gulati, March 21, 2013, Times of India
  52. 52. 24-Sep-13 52 Source:-A leaky Bucket, Times of India, May 20,2011, http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-05- 20/edit-page/29560838_1_welfare-schemes-centrally- sponsored-uid How Far PDS is Benefiting Poor? Recent World Bank report says that PDS which accounts for 1% of GDP benefits only 40% of targeted beneficiaries.
  53. 53. 24-Sep-13 53 •The Planning Commission puts the number of BPL families at 6.5 crore while the states lists add up to a shade over 10 crore households. •Excluding the North East states, the proportion of households with ‘no card’ was highest in Orissa -- where 33 per cent of rural households did not possess any type of ration card. •In the State of Orissa which is characterized as ‘severely food insecure’ (MSSRF 2001), one-third of rural households were outside the purview of the PDS. In another 10 States, more than 20 per cent of rural households did not possess a ration card. Source:-Role and effectiveness of PDS in assuring food Security in india: An Appraisal , Sarbapriya Ray, Ishita Aditya Ray, Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development, Vol.2, No.4, 2011 Deciding on the targeted beneficiaries of the Food Security Act 2013
  54. 54. 24-Sep-13 54 •As per the Food Security Act 2013, Section 2, sub section 7 the term “Food Security “ means „the supply of the entitled quantity of foodgrains and meal specified under Chapter II‟. •According to Section 2, Sub section 8 “Food Security Allowance ” means „the amount of money paid by the concerned State Government to the entitled persons under section 13‟. •Thus the Act implies that we should not look for overall cover of a daily man’s requirement for food but it is an attempt by the Govt. to support the food security of households. Source: Food Security Act 2013 Is this Food Security or Cereal Security ?
  55. 55. 24-Sep-13 55 Conclusion •India will not have problem of Cereals availability in the long run (2020-21) and will have shortage of Pulse and Oilseed production if adequate steps are not taken by the Government of India. •In absence of alternatives of Public Distribution System in future, Government shall have to continue the costly PDS. •Given the inflationary tendencies in economy, Food Security Bill 2013 will increase the Real Income of the targeted beneficiaries. •Sustainability of Food Subsidy is subject to operation of FRBM Act. •To ensure success of Food Security in India we have to achieve t he Food Production Targets and improve the efficiency of public distribution system.
  56. 56. 24-Sep-13 56 Policy Implications •Attempts should be made to increase productivity of food grains •Rather than focusing more on increasing Food Production, we must focus on distribution of Food grains in an equitable manner. •Public distribution system must be revamped to avoid leakage and Karnataka model should be replicated. •Attempts should be made to reduce cost of transferring benefit through PDS by way of local procurement policy. •Attempts must be made to increase Oilseed and Pulse production at an accelerated rate to overcome the protein crisis prevailing in our country •Storage of Food grains be made more scientific and prevent rotting of food grains. •Need to curb the growth of inflationary tendencies in economy and more specifically Food Inflation to improve nutritional security.
  57. 57. 24-Sep-13 57 References •Global Hunger Index: The challenge of hunger; ENSURING sustainable food security under land, water, and energy stresses,2012, IFPRI,Washington,11-18. •GANESH-KUMAR A., MEHTA RAJESH, PULLABHOTLA HEMANT, PRASAD SANJAY K.,GANGULY KAVERY, GULATI ASHOK, Demand and Supply of Cereals in India 2010- 2025, IFPRI Discussion Paper 01158,Environment and Production Technology, New Delhi Office,17. •LEVEL AND PATTERN OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE 2009-10 NSS 66th round, REPORT NO. 538,December 2011,NSSO, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, GOI,. •Key Indicators of Household Consumer Expenditure in India, NSS report 68th round survey,(July 2011-June 2012), June 2013,NSSO, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, GOI,. •CHAND RAMESH, Policy Brief: Demand for foodgrains during 11th Plan and towards 2020, NCAP, New Delhi.
  58. 58. 24-Sep-13 58 •Dietary Guidelines for Indians: A manual,2011, National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, Hyderabad,6. •GUPTA S.P. ,Report of Committee on India Vision 2020,December 2002, Planning commission, GOI., New Delhi,30-34. •RAY SARBAPRIYA, RAY ISHITA ADITYA, 2011, Role and effectiveness of PDS in assuring food Security in india: An Appraisal, Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development, 2(4), 244. •GULATI ASHOK, “Food Security Bill could Spark grain crisis”, Times of India, March 21, 2013. •“India’s score alarming on hunger map”, Times of India ,Oct 12, 2012. •DHAWAN HIMANSHI ,“2,400 MT wheat rotting in govt granaries for past 2 years”, Times of India, May 7, 2013. •DATT GAURAV AND MAHAJAN ASHWANI,2013,Indian Economy •Economic Survey,2013,Ministry of Finance,GOI,174-191. •Hand book of Indian Economy, 2011-12, RBI. •Statistical Year Book,2013,
  59. 59. 24-Sep-13 59 •Web sites •http://www.indiatogether.org/2012/jun/pov- nutrients1.htm#sthash.oglEKp2H.dpuf •http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-01- 15/india/30629637_1_anganwadi-workers-ghi-number-of-hungry-people •http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-10- 11/india/34385840_1_global-hunger-index-international-food-policy-ghi •http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-08- 05/nagpur/33048504_1_mdgs-global-hunger-index-millennium- development-goals •http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-05-20/edit- page/29560838_1_welfare-schemes-centrally-sponsored-uid •http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2007-10- 14/india/27971206_1_global-hunger-index-mortality-rate-pakistan •http://www.commodityonline.com/news/indias-food-grain-requirement-to- touch-2806-mn-tons-by-2020-21-46992-3-46993.html •http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-07- 04/india/40370951_1_food-security-act-monsoon-session-ordinance
  60. 60. 24-Sep-13 60 Thank You

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