An environmental economic assessment of sujala watershed programme in kolar district
AN ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC
ASSESSMENT OF SUJALA
WATERSHED PROGRAMME IN
POORNIMA K N
Gourav Kumar Vani
•Sujala is a community driven watershed development
project initiated by Government of Karnataka and
implemented by the watershed development Department
with tripartite cost sharing arrangements. The WB through
IDA provides major portion of funds as loan.
•It was implemented in 5 districts of Karnataka
covering 5.11 lakh hectares of land
spread over 77 sub-watersheds,
741 micro watersheds and
1270 villages benefiting nearly 4 lakh beneficiary
OBJECTIVES OF SUJALA
•Improve the productive potential of selected
watersheds and their associated natural resource
•Sustainable alleviation of poverty.
•Develop and strengthen community based
institutional arrangements for sustainable natural
•Improved skills employment opportunities for
OBJECTIVES OF THE
1. The environmental economic assessment of
Sujala watershed development programme .
Watershed development programme enhances
the economic return on rainfed lands, irrigated
lands and livestock on the farm compared to
Watershed development program enhances
groundwater yield, well life and economic
returns per unit volume of augmented water.
OBJECTIVES OF THE
2.assessment of equity in distribution of watershed
benefits on different class of farmers in upstream and
downstream of watershed .
Watershed development program has enhanced income levels
among upstream farmers relative to their downstream
Watershed programme has enhanced economic benefits to
different classes of farmers in watershed area.
3. Estimation of economic benefits due to synergistic
roles community organizations in watershed
of eight micro
Doddagukri selected as control
village where there has been no
•Weighted averages, ratio measures, percentages and
proportions were calculated.
•Age of irrigation- age of wells that are functioning at the time of
collection of field data. If it is newly constructed then age is taken as zero.
•Life of irrigation- number of years a well has already has functioned and
no longer functioning now.
•Cost of irrigation wells- cost includes cost of divining, drilling, lining at
the time of construction to year 2005.
•Amortized cost of well- annual fixed cost component of irrigation water.
•Cost of irrigation- worked out by multiplying the cost per acre-inch of
water with number of acre-inch of water applied.
•Annual externality cost of irrigation- estimated as
the difference between the amortized cost per well and
the amortized cost per working well .
•Gini coefficients and Lorenz curves were worked
out to assess the extent of inequality in income
•The net returns per acre-inch of groundwater, Net
returns per rupee of amortized groundwater irrigation cost
( net return to private investment ) and incremental net
return from irrigation per rupee of expenditure on
Net Returns per Farm
OUTSIDE THE WATERSHED
PROFITABILITY OF CROPS
PER ACRE INSIDE THE
•Watershed farmers reaped 55% higher net returns per farm than non-watershed
farmers even in the 4th year of successive drought.
• percentage of well failures is 25
the watershed areas as against 32% in
•The average life of irrigation wells was 20% higher in watershed areas over nonwatershed areas.
•Net returns realized per acre of gross irrigated area were also higher in the
watershed by 46%.
•The incremental net return per rupee of Sujala expenditure on watershed
development is Rs.. 0.23 for small farms and Rs. 1.2 for large farms that have no
•The benefit to those farmers who were in upstream than those who were in