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Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013
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Jordi Navarro and Antoni Roig, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities' presented at Communities in Digital Age symposium, Canterbury, June 2013

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Jordi Sánchez Navarro and Antoni Roig, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Spain, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities of Collaborative Filmmaking' presented at 'Communities in the …

Jordi Sánchez Navarro and Antoni Roig, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Spain, 'Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities of Collaborative Filmmaking' presented at 'Communities in the Digital Age' International Symposium, Canterbury Christ Church University, UK, 12 June 2013

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  • The ten case studies were selected to obtain an overview of several cases in both strategy and results, different approaches to the nature of collaboration and the relationship between promoters and participants.
  • Loose consideration of community: we tick the community box if the notion of community is integrated in the project discourses. Communities are not crowds.Co-creation:agreement between a project promoter and a collectivity of engaged users, willing to contribute to significant parts of the project, in an environment of transparency and mutual recognition (Deuze, 2008; Banks and Potts, 2010).Communities: growing number of participants, mutual engagement, interaction dynamics, motivational, value generation, participatory and sharing practices, common goal, different levels and areas of expertise (adapted from Lewis, Pea & Rosen, 2010)
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    • 1. Engagement, Hierarchy and Cohesion in Creative Communities of Collaborative Filmmaking JordiSánchez-Navarro, AntoniRoig (UniversitatOberta de Catalunya/ IN3) Communities in the Digital Age 12thJune 2013 Canterbury Christ Church University
    • 2. Research framework  Our previous research on participation and collaboration practices in complex media projects, like films and TV series, heavily relying on the web and social media.  Participation and collaboration as key concepts to explain the dynamics of contemporary cultural creation
    • 3. Framework: Crowd-based projects  Critical approach to notions like crowdsourcingor crowdfunding. – Crowd phenomena relies in recruitment of large collectives to obtain resources like money or expertise on a project in exchange of rewards. – Calls for participation on the web, social networking sites and other social media  community rhetoric. – Crowdsourcing emphasizes: • problem sloving • economical efficiency • embedment of consumer into product • Taks • organization through calls or contests • hierarchy based on content/ provider relationship. – … And neglects: • decision-making processes • participant recognition as creative agent • creation of a community.
    • 4. Framework: filmmaking communities • Analysis of creative practices in communities of collaborative filmmaking. • Strategies of engagement and community cohesion. – Role of motivations and expected rewards expressed by both collaborators and promoters. – Economy of affections in co-creative processes. – Power relations, normativity and hierarchy
    • 5. Research objectives •Relationship among co-creative agents in community-based endeavours. •Motivations and rewards for contributing to the community. •How community identity, normativity and hierarchy are produced through practices.
    • 6. Community-based filmmaking: Moviestorm • Community based ‘virtual moviemaking tool’ • Independent company, users own all rights over content • Fostering modding through specific additional tool: Modder’s Workshop • 2009 sees a change of business model → from freemium to subscription model → all users must subscribe to make or use mods.
    • 7. Community-based filmmaking: Moviestorm • Labour issues →‘playbour’ (Kücklich, 2005) • Theory of practices as a useful theoretical and methodological tool (Schatzki, 1996, Warde, 2005): • Motivations and rewards as constitutive elements of practices • Conflict and negotiation about the meaning of the practice • Normativity (implicit rules, hierarchy) • Performative practices of identity • Affective engagement
    • 8. Method • Controversy around the change in MS business model between company and dedicated users (particularly modders) → Forum thread analysis • Our focus is not business model but negotiated meanings of co-creation and engagement, related to performative identity and motivations of the community, specially their dedicated users.
    • 9. Categorizing users: performative practices of identity • “Only the true dedicated modders will stay to create their content. In the end, it‟s all about raising the bar professionally, and that‟s the part I like a lot.” (Kuroken) • “Advanced modders are in a sense working for Moviestorm for free.” (ChatNoir) • “As an ardent MS supporter, I strongly opposed the restriction of modding and 3rd party content.” (Sean Heimbuch) • “Moviestormcustomers can be generically clumped into three categories: New Users, Old Timers… and The Freeloader.” (AngryBuddhist, Pioneer)
    • 10. Categorizing users: performative practices of identity • “Only thetrue dedicated modderswill stay to create their content. In the end, it‟s all about raising the bar professionally, and that‟s the part I like a lot.” (Kuroken) • “Advanced moddersare in a sense working for Moviestorm for free.” (ChatNoir) • “As an ardent MS supporter, I strongly opposed the restriction of modding and 3rd party content.” (Sean Heimbuch) • “Moviestormcustomerscan be generically clumped into three categories: New Users, Old Timers… and The Freeloader.” (AngryBuddhist, Pioneer)
    • 11. The conflict: community perspective • “You are forcing us to pay for content that you don‟t offer. In other words, you are going to profit from something you didn’t create and are not going to compensate the creator for that.” (Harb40) • “If that's the case, I feel that Moviestorm (the company) is taking value away from Moviestorm (the software), and to a certain extent, stealing my ability to use the fruits of my own labor.” (Sfdex) • “It essentially limits the market to only modders, and its going to create a subculture of hackers (just like every other machinima-used game in existence that doesn't have a legitimatemodding tool included).” (StormScape) • “Compromise. Even a blind person can see the feedback you've gotten about this screams for it. We represent your market...hell, in part we ARE your market. Pay attention to what we are saying.” (Armanus, Pioneer)
    • 12. The conflict: community perspective • “You are forcing us to pay for content that you don‟t offer. In other words, you are going to profit from something you didn’t createand are not going to compensate the creator for that.” (Harb40) • “If that's the case, I feel that Moviestorm (the company) is taking value away from Moviestorm (the software), and to a certain extent, stealing my ability to use the fruits of my own labor.” (Sfdex) • “It essentially limits the market to only modders, and its going to create asubculture of hackers (just like every othermachinima-used game in existence that doesn't have a legitimatemodding tool included).” (StormScape) • “Compromise. Even a blind person can see the feedback you've gotten about this screams for it. We represent your market...hell, in part we ARE your market. Pay attention to what we are saying.” (Armanus, Pioneer)
    • 13. The conflict: company awnsers - “If you want to do more than just the basics, then we‟re asking you to pay. We are, after all, a business. […] There seems to be a strong feeling that we‟re ripping off modders by taking all the money for their hard work. That‟s the last thing on our minds […] What some of you seem to be asking for is for us to provide a free tool which you can sell mods for. That‟s, quite simply, not in our interest.” (MattKelland) - “[…] we ask you contribute to the running costs.” (Chris Ollis) - “As always, I can't help feeling upset if we've done anything to upset our customer-base. But I think […] everyone will benefit.” (Jeffz) - “OK, OK, we hear you!!! […] Keep talking to us!” (MattKelland)
    • 14. The conflict: company answers - “If you want to do more than just the basics, then we‟re asking you to pay. We are, after all, abusiness. […] There seems to be a strong feeling that we‟re ripping off modders by taking all the money for their hard work. That‟s the last thing on our minds […] What some of youseem to be asking for is for us to provide a free tool which you can sell mods for. That‟s, quite simply, not in our interest.” (MattKelland) - “[…] we ask you contribute to the running costs.” (Chris Ollis) - “As always, I can't help feeling upset if we've done anything to upset our customer-base. But I think […] everyone will benefit.” (Jeffz) - “OK, OK, we hear you!!! […] Keep talking to us!” (MattKelland)
    • 15. Controversy key issues: diversity of motivations - “3rd-party content is ultimately going to be a driving force on sales for MS, since each piece of content produced that fills gaps in what MS is providing gives the overall product added value […] They need […] to have a truly robust modding community to support and add value to their product.” (Sean Heimbuch) - “I suspect that in many NGOs in other developing countries [subscription] wouldn‟t be an option. The free version would have limited interest once the kids had found they couldn’t reproduce their own environments.” (Primaveranz, Pioneer) - “For me this has nothing to do with how much it costs. It is to do with the fact that I could suddenly lose control of something that I thought I owned.” (Iceaxe, Pioneer) - “I myself have put considerable time into adding to this documentation […] My goal has always been to help expand the size of the modding community but now it seems as if it's potential has just been snipped.” (AngryBuddhist, Pioneer)
    • 16. Controversy key issues: diversity of motivations - “3rd-party content is ultimately going to be a driving force on sales for MS, since each piece of content produced thatfills gaps in what MS is providing gives the overall product added value […] They need […] to have a truly robust modding community to support and add valueto their product.” (Sean Heimbuch) - “I suspect that in many NGOsin other developing countries [subscription] wouldn‟t be an option. The free version would have limited interest once the kids had found theycouldn’t reproduce their own environments.” (Primaveranz, Pioneer) - “For me this has nothing to do with how much it costs. It is to do with the fact that I could suddenly lose control of something that I thought I owned.” (Iceaxe, Pioneer) - “I myself have put considerable time into adding to this documentation […] My goal has always been to help expand the size of the modding communitybut now it seems as if it's potential has just been snipped.” (AngryBuddhist, Pioneer)
    • 17. Controversy key issues: misunderstanding motivations and rewards Company • “If you want to make and sell mods, then please, by all means, do, and we’ll support you […]Let me emphasise, there‟s nothing to stop you setting your own shop up, and you can take 100%.” (Matt Kelland) Users • “My concern with content is mainly within the „but I want control of my own content‟ area. If someone spends a lot of time creating their own content, they are not likely to feel comfortable with it being restricted.” (Sean Heimbuch) • “If I make something cool […] I want everyone who wants it to have it. If people have to pay Ms to allow them to use something I’ve made for free use, am I going to continue to develop for Moviestorm, or am I going to start looking at other platforms where I can share my work without it being monetized.” (Kuroken) • "Selling mods kills the very ideals of a community for me.” (MefuneAkira, Pioneer).
    • 18. Controversy key issues: misunderstanding motivations and rewards Company • “If you want to make and sell mods, then please, by all means, do, and we’ll support you […]Let me emphasise, there‟s nothing to stop you setting your own shop up, and you can take 100%.” (Matt Kelland) Users • “My concern with content is mainly within the „but I want control of my own content‟ area. If someone spends a lot of time creating their own content, they are not likely to feel comfortable with it being restricted.” (Sean Heimbuch) • “If I make something cool […] I want everyone who wants it to have it. If people have to pay Ms to allow them to use something I’ve made for free use, am I going to continue to develop for Moviestorm, or am I going to start looking at other platforms whereI can share my work without it being monetized.” (Kuroken) • "Selling mods kills the very ideals of a community for me.” (MefuneAkira, Pioneer).
    • 19. Community-based filmmaking: conclusions • Conflict and negotiation about the meaning of the practice: commitment • Key identity and motivation issues arise in changing constitutive rules. • Multiplicity of motivations, not envisaged by the company. • Dualism between ‘intrinsic’ (pleasure through creation) and ‘extrinsic’ (profit) is challenged: not everything is for ‘fun’ or ‘profit’ • Emotional involvement: dedicated users don’t want MS to become as ‘other’ tools • Self-conscience of the contribution of modding practices to MS. Modders as authority. • Demand of control over content creation and production processes: effective participation.
    • 20. Thank you!! JordiSánchez Navarro (UOC/ IN3): jsancheznav@uoc.edu AntoniRoigTelo (UOC/ IN3): aroigt@uoc.edu Gemma San Cornelio (UOC/ IN3): gsan_cornelio@uoc.edu ElisendaArdèvol (UOC/ IN3): eardevol@uoc.edu
    • 21. Crowdsourcing is a type of participative online activity in which an individual, an institution, a non-profit organization, or company proposes to a group of individuals of varying knowledge, heterogeneity, and number, via a flexible open call, the voluntary undertaking of a task. The undertaking of the task, of variable complexity and modularity, and in which the crowd should participate bringing their work, money, knowledge and/or experience, always entails mutual benefit.The user will receive the satisfaction of a given type of need, be it economic, social recognition, self-esteem, or the development of individual skills, while the crowdsourcer will obtain and utilize to their advantage what the user has brought to the venture, whose form will depend on the type of activity undertaken (Estellés& Gonzalez 2012)
    • 22. Crowdsourcing is a type of participativeonline activity in which an individual, an institution, a non-profit organization, or company proposes to a group of individuals of varying knowledge, heterogeneity, and number, via aflexible open call, the voluntary undertaking of a task. The undertaking of the task, of variable complexity and modularity, and in which thecrowd should participate bringing their work, money, knowledge and/or experience, always entails mutual benefit.The user will receivethe satisfactionof a given type of need, be it economic, social recognition, self-esteem, or the development of individual skills,while the crowdsourcer will obtain and utilize to their advantage what the user has brought to the venture, whose form will depend on the type of activity undertaken (Estellés& Gonzalez 2012)
    • 23. Crowd-based projects Identification and critical evaluation of broad and established conceptualization of crowdsourcing. Identification of key dimensions for case analysis based on participatory practices in media production. Comparative analysis of significative cases.
    • 24. Empire Uncut (US) Collaborative filmmaking, remix Iron Sky (Fin-Ger) Task-based filmmaking and community engagement The Cosmonaut (Sp) Crowdfunding and community engagement A Swarm Of Angels (UK) Open source filmmaking and crowdsourcing El dietista (Sp) crowdfunding Lost Zombies (US) Co-creation based on social networking The entertainment experience (Nl) Celebrity-mediated co-creation Life in a day (UK-US) crowdsourcing Gesamt (Dk) Celebrity-mediated collaborative filmmaking, remix Arròs Movie (Sp) Crowdfunding and collaborative filmmaking Cases
    • 25. Comparative analysis Re-appropriation Money Community Co-creation Work (tasks) Diffusion Life in a day x x Gesamt x x x Arròs Movie x x x x El dietista x Lost Zombies x x x x Entertainment experience x x Empire Uncut x x x x The Cosmonaut x x x x Iron Sky x x x x A Swarm of Angels x x x x x

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