UNIT 1: MAPS
1.- Fill the gaps with a suitable word from the box. You only need 14 words:
SPHERICAL NORTH USE PARALLELS GEOID COMPASS THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISTANCES
GLOBES MAPS DETAILED EQUATOR GLOBES TWO-DIMENSIONAL
SPHERE MERIDIANS FLATTENED REGIONAL SUN DETAILED
Globes and maps
The Earth is _________________. However, it is not a perfect ____________. It is slightly ___________ at the
poles. This shape is called a ____________.
• ___________ represent the Earth accurately, because they have a similar shape: they are
__________________. However, they do not usually contain ___________ information.
• ___________ are the most common representations of the Earth. Maps are easy to _________and carry
around. They provide __________ and practical information at a local, __________ or international level.
However, maps are not as accurate as _____________, because they are _______________. Consequently,
shapes and _______________ are distorted.
2.- Answer the following questions about Establishing direction:
• What do we use the cardinal points for?
• What are the principal cardinal points?
• Explain how the Sun can help us to establish direction.
• What element in the sky always indicates the north?
• What instrument with a magnetic needle always points north?
3.- Answer the following questions and label the maps:
• What kind of maps give information on relief?
• What kind of maps give information on particular subjects, such as climate or vegetation?
• What kind of maps give information on political organisation?
___________________ ___________________ ___________________
2.- Match each word to its definition:
Arrow indicates how many times the area represented has been
Title contains the symbols which represent information on the map.
names of places or other information on the map.
Key are imaginary lines which establish the exact location of places.
Text shows what the map is about, the area which is represented, the
Scale pointing north enables us to establish orientation.
3.- Find the suitable word for the following definitions: (2 points)
• Semicircles which go from one pole to another.__________________
• An important parallel located south of the Tropic of Capricorn. .__________________
• The point of reference for other meridians. .__________________
• An important parallel located north of the Equator. .__________________
• Circles which are perpendicular to the meridians. .__________________
• The point of reference for other parallels. .__________________
• An important parallel located south of the Equator. .__________________
• Hemisphere which is located north of the Equator. .__________________
• An important parallel located north of the Tropic of Cancer.
• Hemisphere which is located south of the Equator. .__________________
4.- Fill the following boxes with a correct concept.
5.-Fill the gaps with a suitable word from the box. You only need 10 words:
MERIDIANS COMPASS LATITUDE GLOBES VERTICALLY MAPS
POLES LOCATED HEMISPHERE EAST GEOID
(GEOGRAPHICAL COORDINATES) EQUATOR LOCATIONS LONGITUDE
Latitude and longitude
Latitude and longitude indicate __________________________: the exact location of a place on the Earth.
_________________ is measured by using the parallels which start at the _________________ (0º). At the
poles they are _________________. They are north (N) or south (S) depending on whether they are
_________________ in the northern or southern hemisphere. All _________________ on a line have the same
_________________ is measured by using the _________________ which star at the prime meridian (0º). They
run _________________ from 0º to _________________ to the west (W), and 0º to 180º to the
_________________ (E). All locations on a _________________ have the same _________________.
The combination of latitude and longitude gives us the _________________ of a place.
6.- Identify the coordinates. (1,1 points)
UNIT 2: RELIEF
1.- Label the parts of the Earth.
2.- Classify these words.
Mountains Ocean trenches Cape Island Continental slopes Plains Basins
Continental shelves gulf isthmus Ocean ridges Plateaus
Continental relief Coastal Oceanic relief
3.- Name the parts of the course of a river and say in which part there is erosion, transport and sedimentation.
4.- Answer the following questions about the causes of erosion:
● What are the most important agents of erosion?
● What is the consecuence of abrupt changes in temperature?
● Where is there a great difference between daytime and nighttime temperatures?
● How can water break rocks?
5.- Fill the gaps about the erosion produced by water. Use the words on the box. There are 5 words that you don´t
have to use.
WATER WIND CAVES STEEP SAND SOLUTION DISSOLVES SOIL
ERODE CANYONS TRANSPORTS VALLEYS FLUVIAL FLATTER
LIMESTONE ERODED MARINE CURRENTS GENTLER WAVES
DEPOSITS FARMING SEDIMENT BEACHES LANDSCAPES
________1______ acts constantly on the land:
● ________2______: water ____3__________ some rocks, such as _______4_______, producing unusual
_____5_________ and landscapes.
● ________6______ erosion::
○ Rivers travel fast down ________7______ slopes. They _________8_____ materials, and create deep
____9__________ and ________10______.
○ When the slopes are _____11_________, the water moves more slowly. It transports the
○ When rivers arrive at the ____13__________ lands which are near the sea, they deposit
________14______ on their banks. These areas are known as alluvial plains.
● _______15_______ erosion:
○ ________16______ and ____17__________ wear away coasts and create cliffs. Subsequently, the
water _____18________ the sediment and _______19_______ it. This process forms
1 5 9 13 17
2 6 10 14 18
3 7 11 15 19
4 8 12 16 20
6.- Label the pictures with a suitable type of erosion. (0.4 points)
7.- Answer the following questions:
• What theory developed the German scientist Alfred Wegener?
• What is this theory about?
• What is the name of the only continent that existed 225 million years ago?
• What continents where there 135 million years ago?
8.- Match the sentences and write the whole sentences:
1 The tectonic plates
2 The tectonic plates
3 Some plate move apart
4 The Earth´s surface
5 The Earth´s crust sometimes fractures
6 Where faults are created
7 The Himalaya mountain range in Asia
A often undulates where plates collide.
B is still rising.
C are in continuous movement.
D blocks rise or sink.
E while others collide.
F if the surface where plates collide is very extremely rigid.
G move slowly at a speed of two to ten centimetres per year.
9.- Answer the following questions:
• What happens when a volcano erupts?
• How are islands, such as the Canary Islands, formed?
• Where are volcanoes generally found?
• What elements are found in the same areas as volcanoes?
• How are earthquakes caused?
10.- Label the parts of a volcano. (0,4 points)
11.- Give a definition for the following terms:
12.- Locate the following landforms on the physical world map.
1.- Rocky mountains 6.- Appalachian mountains
2.- Ural mountains 7.- Balkans
3.- Atlas mountains 8.- Tibetan Plateau
4.- Andes mountains 9.- Himalayas
5.- Great Dividing range 10.- Drakensberg mountains
UNIT 3: WATER
1. Put the stages in the water cycle in the correct order:
a. Groundwater goes into the sea.________
b. River water goes into the sea and other rivers. ________
c. Water from the sea evaporates. ________
d. Condensed vapour falls as precipitation. ________
e. Water vapour rises, cools and condenses. Clouds form. ________
f. Wind moves the clouds. ________
g. Some water infiltrates into the ground.
2.- Answer the following questions:
• What are rivers?
• Define "tributary"
• Define "basin"
• Define "flow"
3.- True or false. If they are wrong, correct them.
a. Oceans provide us with food.
b. Raw materials and energy are provided by the oceans.
c. Large quantities of gas and petroleum are found in the continental shelves.
d. Salt is obtained from rivers.
e. Oceans attract tourism to the coasts.
f. Tourism does not create jobs in coastal areas.
g. Oceans are used for transport.
h. Oceans transport just people.
4.- Read the definitions and decide what they refer to :
a. It refers to the quantity of salt.____________
b. They are large masses of water, similar to rivers, which can be warm or cold. ____________
c. They are caused by the gravitational forces of the Moon and Sun acting on the water. ____________
d. Wind produces these undulations on the surface of the water. ____________
e. This product comes from the sea and is used for cooking. ____________
5.- Answer the following questions about lakes:
● Define Lakes
● Define Lagoons
● Define inland seas
● Make a diagram of the origin of the water in lakes.
6.- Answer the following questions about groundwater
1. Where does groundwater run and where is it stored?
2. Where does most of the water come from?
3. When it rains, what happens with some of the water?
4. What happens when this water reaches impermeable rocks?
5. Define "aquifer"
6. What does groundwater form when it finds a way to the surface?
7. Make a diagram of the value of groundwater.
7.- Answer the following questions about glaciers and icebergs:
• What kind of water is there in a glacier?
• Define "glacier"
• Where are glaciers found?
• What happens when a glacier reaches the sea?
• Define "iceberg"
8.- Find the correct term for the following definitions:
● A shortage of water can produce this:_____________
● An excess of water can produce this: :_____________
● It occurs when large amounts of materials are added to a body of water. :_____________
● It contains harmful chemicals such as sulphur and nitrogen. :_____________
9.- Complete the gaps using a word from the box. (1 point)
Chemicals (water cycle) rainfall gases (Acid rain) transformation clouds
___________ contains harmful chemicals such as sulphur and nitrogen. These ____________ are released
into the atmosphere as _________. They undergo a chemical _______________and are absorbed by the
water in ____________. They become part of ___________ and enter in the _____________________.
10.- Label the following pictures related to water.