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  • 1. THE INTER-WAR CRISIS 1919 - 1939
  • 2. THE INTER-WAR ECONOMY 1919-1939
  • 3. THE POST-WAR CRISISCauses The material destruction during WWI The reduced work-force brought about by the millions of deaths and casualties. The end of the war economy, based on the production of military equipment and supplies The shortage of consumer goods. High levels of inflation (general increase in the price of goods)
  • 4.  In post-war Germany, this economic crisis was especially severe because of the reparations payments that the country had to make under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. THE POST-WAR CRISIS Hyperinflation made German bank notes almost worthless in the early 1920s.
  • 5. THE ROARING TWENTIES  The USA and Japan were the first countries to recover from the crisis, since they had not been devastated by the war.  The USA also helped European countries by giving them loans and selling them the consumer goods that they lacked.  By the mid-1920s, the European economy had recovered and was growing rapidly.
  • 6. THE ROARING TWENTIES New forms of entertainment Increased consumption A rapid growth in financial investments
  • 7.  Music  Radio shows  Cabarets  Ballrooms  Music halls THE ROARING TWENTIES
  • 8.  Cinema  A new film industry developed.  Famous Hollywood stars THE ROARING TWENTIES Greta Garbo Charlie Chaplin
  • 9.  Consumerism  People spent more money on cars, household appliances and luxury goods. THE ROARING TWENTIES
  • 10.  Investments  People speculated, buying shares and making large profits over short periods of time. THE ROARING TWENTIES
  • 11. THE GREAT DEPRESSION  At the end of the 1929, a series of problems in the USA caused a major crisis, known as the Great Depression.  This crisis lasted until the end of the 1930s.  It brought and end to the prosperous, consumer lifestyle of the previous decade.
  • 12. THE GREAT DEPRESSION CAUSES Overproduction Falling consumption The Wall Street Crash
  • 13. THE GREAT DEPRESSION  OVERPRODUCTION  American industry produced more goods than the population needed.  When companies could not sell their products, they went bankrupt and had to close.
  • 14. THE GREAT DEPRESSION  FALLING CONSUMPTION  When companies closed down, people lost their jobs and stopped spending money.  Rising unemployment reduced demand for consumer goods and the raw materials that were used to make them.  As a result more and more companies went out of business.
  • 15. THE GREAT DEPRESSION  THE WALL STREET CRASH  When many companies whose shares were sold on the stock market began to fail, investors panicked and tried to sell all of their shares.  As a result, share values fell dramatically in October 1929, the New York stock market crashed.
  • 16. THE GREAT DEPRESSION  How did the American Great Depression affect to Europe?  USA asked Europe to repay the loans that they had received after WWI.  As a consequence:  consumption decreased in Europe.  Companies there went out of business as well.  Wages fell.  Unemployment increased.  Some banks collapsed because many people panicked and withdrew all their money.
  • 17. THE GREAT DEPRESSION  How did the American Great Depression affect to international trade?  Many countries adopted protectionist measures in response to the economic crisis.
  • 18. THE GREAT DEPRESSION  How did the people react during the «Great Depression» 1929?  There were protests against the government and against the capitalist system that had produced the crisis.
  • 19. POLITICAL SYSTEMS DURING THE INTERWAR PERIOD (1919 – 1939)
  • 20. REMEMBER: WHAT IS A DEMOCRATIC STATE? CITIZEN PARTICIPATION THROUGH DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS Not every citizen can participate directly in government decisions. This is why citizens elect representatives to make decisions por them. INCLUSIVE All the citizens of legal age should have the right to vote. There should be no exclusion factors (gender or economic status) PARTICIPATIVE All citizens and political parties should have the right to stand as candidates and present political programs freely if they repect the rules. PERIODIC This prevents people from perpetuating their own power. In Spain, general elections are held every four years. OPEN AND FAIR The voting process should be secret, and results should be counted openly.
  • 21. REMEMBER: WHAT IS A DEMOCRATIC STATE? CITIZEN PARTICIPATION THROUGH DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS Not every citizen can participate directly in government decisions. This is why citizens elect representatives to make decisions por them. - After electionsthe winning party should respect the losing party. - The losing party is now in the political opposition. - The opposition party should have the right to criticize the government and propose alternative policies freely.
  • 22. REMEMBER: WHAT IS A DEMOCRATIC STATE? The separation of powers protects people form abuse by the authorities because the three branches control each other. As a result, no single person or group can control the state.
  • 23. REMEMBER: WHAT IS A DEMOCRATIC STATE? The highest law in states which are ruled by the law is the CONSTITUTION: • It defines the state, the rights and the obligation of the people. • It limits the powers of institutions. If the government does not respect a person s rights, he or she can turn to the courts to rectify the situation.
  • 24. REMEMBER: WHAT IS A DICTATORSHIP? Power concentrated In one person or In one group Army An ethnic group A religious group A political party
  • 25. REMEMBER: WHAT IS A DICTATORSHIP? Dictators often use violence to gain power in A revolution A coup d état A small group takes control of a government by force.
  • 26. REMEMBER: WHAT IS A DICTATORSHIP? DICTATORSHIP NO CITIZEN PARTICIPATION NO SEPARATION OF POWERS VIOLATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS NO INSTITUTIONS TO DEFEND PEOPLE AGAINST THE VIOLATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS
  • 27. DEMOCRATIC STATES
  • 28. DEMOCRATIC STATES AFTER WWI DEMOCRATICSTATES AFTERWWI EUROPE Great Britain (Parliamentary Monarchy) France (A republic) Germany (The Weimer Republic) 1919-1933 USA
  • 29. EUROPEAN DEMOCRACIES  Where European democracies in Great Britain, France and Germany perfect?  No, because the democracies did not always protect all rights and freedoms equally in this period.  What happened with workers rights?  These states didn t respect the workers rights to:  Protest against government policies  Go on strike
  • 30. EUROPEAN DEMOCRACIES Two political wings Left-wing Workers Right-wing Bourgeoisie and the upper classes There was a division in the European society which led to a clear political division:
  • 31. EUROPEAN DEMOCRACIES LEFT-WING PARTIES • Workers reacted by voting for political parties that defended their interests. • Left-wing parties increased their support and gained more seats in parliament during the inter-war years. • Characteristics of Left-wing parties: • They defended workers interests. • They supported policies that would reduce social and economic inequalities (redistribution of weath and state intervention to promote these objectives)
  • 32. EUROPEAN DEMOCRACIES Left-wing parties Social Democratic and Labour parties Favoured moderate policies, within the limits of the democratic system Communist parties Advocated more radical policies and aimed to overthrow democracy and establish a Communist state
  • 33. EUROPEAN DEMOCRACIES RIGHT-WING PARTIES • In response to this growth in support for left-wing parties, the bourgeoisie and the upper classes voted for right-wing parties. • Characteristics of Right-wing parties: • They advocated more traditional, conservative policies. • In Germany and Italy, some of these parties opposed democracy and supported the establishment of an authoritatian regime.
  • 34. DEMOCRACY IN THE USA  During 1920s and 1930s, the USA was already a democracy, but different from the European democracies. TWO-PARTY POLITICAL SYSTEM THE REPUBLICAN PARTY THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY
  • 35.  TWO-PARTY POLITICAL SYSTEM  Similarities:  Both parties supported the capitalist system and free markets DEMOCRACY IN THE USA
  • 36. DEMOCRACY IN THE USA TWO-PARTY POLITICAL SYSTEM DIFFERENCES THE REPUBLICAN PARTY - They opposed the government intervention in economy. - They were hostile to trade unions. - They represented the interests of the wealthiest Americans. THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY - They defended the government intervention in economy and to policies that would reduce social and economic inequalities. - They supported the existence of trade unions. - They represented the interests of the middle and working classes.
  • 37. DEMOCRACY IN THE USA  Which party governed in the USA during 1920s and 1930s?  During the Roaring Twenties, the Republican administrations governed the USA because of:  The economic prosperity of 1920s.  The fear of Communism, which could destroy the American capitalist system.  They introduced conservative policies (isolationism and hostility to immigration).
  • 38. DEMOCRACY IN THE USA  Which party governed in the USA during 1920s and 1930s?  In 1933 the Democrats returned to Power, when Roosevelt won the presidential election.  President Roosevelt passed a series of mesures called the NEW DEAL.
  • 39. DEMOCRACY IN THE USA NEW DEAL Public-works programmes to create jobs and reduce unemployment The establishment of a basic social insurance system Assistance for farmers and other people affected by the Great Depression The New Deal brought about greater government intervention in the economy.
  • 40. THE CRISIS OF THE DEMOCRACY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOTALITARIANISM
  • 41. THE SUCCESS OF THE FIRST DICTATORSHIPS POLITICAL SITUATION AFTER WWI  After WWI, the authoritarian empires had disappeared and in a lot of new countries democratic regimes were established. THE EFFECTS OF THE POST-WAR CRISIS  But the democracies during the inter-war period were weak.  The first years were affected by an economic crisis, which caused severe social tensions:  in some countries there were riots of workers and peasants.  The middle and upper clases were afraid of a communist revolution, like the one in Russia.
  • 42. THE EFFECTS OF THE POST-WAR CRISIS  In this context of economic and political crisis, in some countries dictatorial regimes were imposed:  Italy: Mussolini, the leader of the Fascist Party, came into power in 1922.  Spain: Primo de Rivera  Hungary: Horthy  Poland: Pilsudsky  Yugoslavia: King Alejandro I  Portugal… THE SUCCESS OF THE FIRST DICTATORSHIPS
  • 43. THE EXPANSION OF THE CRISIS OF 1929
  • 44. THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS OF 1929  The population didn t trust on democracy and the traditional parties because they considered them guilty of the situation.  In this context, the extremist parties gained the support and a lot of parties radicalized. THE GROWTH OF THE POLITICAL EXTREMISM IN 1930s
  • 45. THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS OF 1929  The workers and peasants, who suffered severe effects of the crisis, supported the communist parties.  The USSR, whose industry grew a lot in the 30s, was a model to follow for them.  The middle classes and bourgeoisie supported the extreme right-wing parties, as they considered that the more moderate parties were not able to overcome the crisis and to avoid a communist revolution.  In every almost countries, fascist parties developed. THE GROWTH OF THE POLITICAL EXTREMISM IN 1930s
  • 46. THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS OF 1929  In this context, in 1930s new dictatorships appeared:  Austria (Dolfus)  Greece (Metaxas),  Spain (Franco)  The most important dictatorship was in Germany, where the Nazi regime led by Hitler succeeded. THE GROWTH OF THE POLITICAL EXTREMISM IN 1930s
  • 47. POLITICAL SYSTEMS IN EUROPE Comparison 1919 and 1939
  • 48. TOTALITARIAN REGIMES IN THE INTER-WAR PERIOD  TOTALITARIANISM  Political regime which eliminates the individual freedom and controls all the aspects of society. TOTALITARIANISM FASCISM IN ITALY NAZISM IN GERMANY COMMUNISM IN USSR
  • 49. TOTALITARIAN REGIMES LEFT-WING AUTHORITARIAN REGIME - It came to power in the USSR as a result of the Russian Revolution. - The Communist State was anticapitalist. - They aimed to establish a classless society. RIGHT-WING AUTHORITARIAN REGIME - It came to power in Italy (1922) and Germany (1933). - These regimes were extremely pro- nationalist. - They opposed to both Communism and democracy.
  • 50. COMMON FEATURES POLITICS Power was concentrated in the hands of a supreme leader and one ruling political party STALIN: Communist Party MUSSOLINI: Fascist Pary HITLER: Nazist Party
  • 51. COMMON FEATURES POLITICS  Propaganda was used to spread the party s message and glorify the leader.
  • 52. COMMON FEATURES POLITICS  There were no free elections.  Other political parties were prohibited.
  • 53. COMMON FEATURES: ECONOMY  The state intervened and controlled the economy.  Public-works programmes were used to reduce unemployment.  Trade unions were prohibited or controlled by the ruling party.
  • 54. COMMON FEATURES: SOCIETY  The State limited rights and freedoms.  Repressive mesures were used against people who opposed or critised the regime.  Political opponents were arrested, imprisoned, deported or sent to prison camps.  Supporters of the regime argued that these policies were necessary to solve the country s problems.
  • 55. COMMON FEATURES: FOREIGN POLICY  These regimes pursued expansionist foreign policies to gain new territory and access to raw materials.
  • 56. STALINISM
  • 57. STALINISM  Lenin died in 1924. Lenin s mummy
  • 58. STALINISM  Stalin had been named General Secretary of the CPSU in 1922.  After Lenin s death, Stalin became the new leader of the USSR.  Under Stalin, Communist rule was consolidated and a totalitarian regime developed.
  • 59. STALINISM  In 1929 Stalin controlled all the branches of the government and established a personal dictatorship through three aspects: Stalin s totalitarian dictatorship Cult of personality Reinforcement of the Communist Party The terror
  • 60. STALINISM  The cult of personality.  Stalin used the propaganda to glorify himself as the “great benefactor” and “father” of the Russian people.
  • 61. STALINISM  The reinforcement of the Communist Party.  In order to participate in politics through the soviets, it was necessary to belong to the CPSU.  The soviets were not free assemblies any more.
  • 62. STALINISM  The terror.  The political opponents and the general population were persecuted.  The instrument used to carry out the repression was the NKVD (political police).  But a great part of the population collaborated to betray the opponents, so an atmosphere of
  • 63. STALINISM  The terror.  The policy of terror was applied through purges.  The most intensive purges developed between 1933 and 1939, where the former leaders of the communist party were executed.  Thousands of people were sent to prison camps or gulags in Siberia, where they were forced to live in inhumane conditions and to make forced labour.
  • 64. STALINISM  Culture  Stalin had absolute power over culture.  The CPSU decided that art should be used to form good communists and as a way of propaganda of the party.  An only artistic tendence was established, the Socialist Realism.  A traditional style  Acclaiming the
  • 65. STALINISM  Economy The state controls the economy Economic plans Agricultural collectivisation
  • 66. STALINISM  Economy  From 1927 the economy was planned and controlled by the state. GOSPLAN Five-Year Plans rapid industrialization and economic development Private property was prohibited
  • 67. STALINISM  Industry  Private property was prohibited, and industries such as iron and steel and mining were nationalized:  Industries were made property of the state.  Stalin developed the heavy industry and the energy production.  After the first three Five-Year Plans, the USSR became an industrial power.
  • 68. STALINISM  Agriculture  Stalin carried out a collectivisation policy:  (policy of nationalizing agricultural land).  This policy took lands from private owners (kulaks) and used them to establish state- controlled collective farms.  The kulaks who didn’t want to follow orders were also persecuted. «We´ll keep the kulaks far from the collective farms» 1930
  • 69. STALINISM «We will liquidate the landlord class» 150 Kulaks died during the repression of 1930/1931 (forced collectivisation)
  • 70. STALINISM  Collectivisation policy :  This policy took lands from private owners and used them to establish state-controlled collective farms:  KOLKHOZ, big farms which worked like a cooperative. "¡Para una vida de cultura y acomodada!". El gobierno bolchevique llevó a cabo la colectivización de las tierras, creando enormes granjas donde los campesinos tenían que inscribirse obligatoriamente. Este cartel trata de idealizar los koljoses, cuando en realidad la vida allí era muy dura.
  • 71. STALINISM  Collectivisation policy :  This policy took lands from private owners and used them to establish state-controlled collective farms:  SOVKHOZ, state farms which used wage labour.
  • 72. STALINISM CLASSLESS SOCIETY? The ruling elite They had access to all types of consumer products. The rest of the population They suffered from shortages of food and other basic items.
  • 73. STALINISM CLASSLESS SOCIETY? The ruling elite They had access to all types of consumer products. The rest of the population They suffered from shortages of food and other basic items.
  • 74. FASCISM
  • 75. THE FASCIST ITALY  In 1920s Italy was the first country in establishing a fascist regime.  It became a model to follow.
  • 76. THE FASCIST ITALY  The origins of Fascism in Italy: Economic crisis during WWI and post-war. The debts caused an increase of prices. Unemployment increased.
  • 77. THE FASCIST ITALY  The origins of Fascism in Italy:  The standard of living of the working- class grew worse.=> claims in defense or a more dignified life:  Workers took factories => the industrial businessmen were afraid.  Peasants took lands=> landlords were afraid.  The working-class demanded a communist revolution.
  • 78. THE FASCIST ITALY  How did the dominat classes reacted to the working claims?  They supported the Fascist parties because of:  Violent acts against strikers, peasants, socialists, etc.  Resource of the bourgeoisie to impose their own interests.
  • 79. THE FASCIST ITALY  Traditional parties couldn´t face the situation:  Extremist parties apperared:  Communist party (left-wing)  Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, del by Benito Mussolini (right-wing).
  • 80. THE FASCIST ITALY  Mussolini seized power:  In the elections of 1919 and 1921, Mussolini didn´t get many seats in the parliament.  1922: The March on Rome:  He took power by force.  He concentrated in a massive way members of his party in several places of the center of Italy.  All converged in Rome.  The king Victor Manuel III gave the government to Mussolini.  In 1925 Mussolini established a dictatorship.
  • 81. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM  Antidemocratic ideology:  No free elections.  No individual freedoms.  Anticommunist ideology:  Destruction of the working-class movement => in favour of the bourgeoisie.
  • 82. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM Totalitarism: No individual freedoms. Control of all the aspects of society.
  • 83. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM  Totalitarian state:  Led by a supreme leader: Il Duce (Mussolini)  Cult of personality  Propaganda  No individual freedoms.  An only party: the Fascist party.
  • 84. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM  Totalitarian state  Intervention in economy => achieve the self-sufficiency of the country.  Control over the society:  Repression of the oposition.  Public opinion management:  Control of education.  Control of the media.
  • 85. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM  Expansionist nationalism Creation of a colonial empire:
  • 86. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM  Cult of violence and militarism.  Eliminate the rivals, not convincing them.  Creation of armed groups to fight against:  Political rivals  Workers
  • 87. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM  A militar style was adopted: Anthems Uniforms (Black shirted Fascists)
  • 88. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM  A militar style was adopted:  El Roman salute:  After 1922, Mussolini trained the Fascist National Party of Italy to require the «Roman salute» to be used compulsorily by their followers, and then for the rest of the population.
  • 89. SYMBOL OF FASCISM  FASCES: symbol of authority in the Ancient Rome: a bound bundle of wooden rods, tied round an axe with its blade emerging :  The wooden rods represented the people obeying the leader (the axe).  With this objects, the glories of Ancient Rome were remembered.  Their slogan: “Believe! Obey! Fight!» is Mussolini´s answer to «Freedom, Equality, Fraternity» of the democracies he hated.
  • 90. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM  Another symbols: Flag