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The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
The first world war
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The first world war

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  • 1. THE FIRST WORLD WAR Material de apoyo para 4ºESO Sección bilingüe
  • 2. THE ANTECEDENTS
  • 3. POLITICAL TENSION IN EUROPE AT THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY: THE WAY TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR    After the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, there were no wars between the European powers. However, relationships between these nations were characterised by increasing tension. At the same time, many countries were increasing their production of arms and military equipment.
  • 4. POLITICAL TENSION IN EUROPE 1871 - 1914 THE WAY TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR The German unification process made Germany the most powerful country in Europe.
  • 5. POLITICAL TENSION IN EUROPE AT THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY: THE WAY TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War Second French Empire opposed the German expansion through Europe and declared the war to the Kingdom of Prussia, aided by the North German Confederation, of which it was a member. Prussia won the war and it brought about changes in Europe. France had to surrender the region of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany. Napoleon III's Empire finished during the
  • 6. POLITICAL TENSION IN EUROPE AT THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY: THE WAY TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR   German Confederation became a political union as well after the war, as Bismarck wished. Bismark then established the Second Reich, or German Empire, with Wilhem I King Wilhelm I Chancellor Bismarck
  • 7. GERMANY´S FOREIGN POLICY  Germany´s foreign policy became especially important during this period in two phases: The Bismarkian system The policies of Wilhem II
  • 8. THE BISMARKIAN SYSTEM German Chancellor Otto von Bismark established a system of alliances with Austria, Russia and Italy in order to reach to objectives:  The isolation of France.  The balance in the Balcans.
  • 9. Part of the Austrian Empire Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, part of present-day Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, part of Ukraine Part of the Russian Empire Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, part of Ukraine Part of the Ottoman Empire Turkey
  • 10. THE BISMARKIAN SYSTEM The isolation of France  France´s main objective during this period was to recover the region of Alsace-Lorraine, which it had lost to Germany in 1871.  Bismark used his alliances to prevent conflict in Europe, including a
  • 11. THE BISMARKIAN SYSTEM The balance in the Balcans  Bismark knew that Austria and Russia wanted to control the Balcans and that these tensions could be the origin of a European conflict.
  • 12. THE POLICIES OF WILHELM II  Kaiser Wilhlem I died and Wilhelm II took the throne.
  • 13. THE POLICIES OF WILHELM II   Wilhelm II wanted a more agressive foreign policy in Europe, so in 1890 he dismissed Bismark and abandoned his system of alliances. Then, Wilhem II began a policy of expansionism known as Weltpolitik (world politics).  This policy created tension between Germany and other European countries, especially in unstable regions such as Morocco and the Balkan Peninsula.
  • 14. THE FIRST WORLD WAR
  • 15. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I (WWI)  France wanted to recover the region of AlsaceLorraine, which it had lost to the German Empire in 1871.
  • 16. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I (WWI)   Britain and Germany became involved in a naval arms race. Both countries built a range of powerful new battleships known as dreadnoughts (acorazados). HMS Hood (Royal Sovereign-class battleship of 1890s).
  • 17. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I (WWI)  Industrialised European countries expanded their empires and competed for control of colonies.
  • 18. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I (WWI)  The competition for control of colonies had an important role in North Africa:  The two Moroccan crisis  Germany didn´t want France to create a protectorate in Morocco.  But Great Britain helped France.  Finally, France could take control over Morocco.
  • 19. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I (WWI)  Another important scenary of Imperialism took place in the Balcanes:  The Eastern Question (La Cuestión de Oriente)  The Ottoman Empire was collapsing, and Austria and Russia wanted to take control over the Balcans. • Russia supported the Slavic States (Serbia and Bulgaria). Russia didn´t want this states to be under the AustroHungarian Empire. • Austria wanted to expand its territories to the Adriatic Sea coast.
  • 20. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I (WWI)  Between 1878 and 1908, the AustroHungarian Empire occupied and then annexed BosniaHerzegovina.
  • 21. Between 1878 and 1908, the AustroHungarian Empire occupied and then annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I (WWI) Nacionalist protests of Serbians living in Bosnia. It also angered Russia, Serbia´s traditional ally.
  • 22. THE ARMED PEACE  THE ARMED PEACE (1890-1914)  As a result of this situation, rivalries between European countries had resulted in the formation of two powerful alliances that fought against one another during the First World War: Two alliances The Triple Alliance The Triple Entente
  • 23. THE ARMED PEACE
  • 24. THE TRIGGER OF THE WWI  On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was assassinated by a Serbian gunman in the Bosnian city of Sarajevo.
  • 25. THE TRIGGER OF THE WWI  Archduke Franz Ferdinand´s death triggered the sequence of events that led to the First World War: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Austro-Hungarian Empire, supported by Germany, raised an ultimatum to Serbia. They threatened Serbia with war if this one didn´t allow Austria to investigate the murder. Serbia, supported by Russia, rejected the ultimatum. On 25 July The Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia, blaming the Serbs for the archduke´s death. Russia began mobilising against Austria and Germany. Germany declared war to Russia, and then to France, because it was a Russian allied. Great Britain declared war to Germany.
  • 26. THE CAUSES OF WWI  Page 163:  Exercises 1, 2 and 3
  • 27. THE WAR´S PARTICIPANTS   First, Austria declared the war on Serbia. After the Austro-Hungarian Empire had declared war on Serbia, other European countries chose sides, based on:  Their pre-existing alliance  Triple Entente  Triple Alliance  Their own national interests
  • 28. THE WAR´S PARTICIPANTS European countries chose sides. Russia began mobilising against Austria and Germany.
  • 29. European countries chose sides. THE WAR´S PARTICIPANTS Germany declared war to Russia, and then to France, because it was a Russian allied.
  • 30. European countries chose sides. THE WAR´S PARTICIPANTS Great Britain declared war to Germany.
  • 31. THE WAR´S PARTICIPANTS  As a result, two alliances emerged which then fought each other for the next four years. Two alliances The Central Powers The Allied Powers AustroHungarian Empire Serbia German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Great Britain France Russian Empire Later: Japan, Romania, USA, Greece and Portugal.
  • 32. THE WAR´S PARTICIPANTS
  • 33. THE WAR´S PARTICIPANTS   What did Italy do? Italy was a member of the Triple Alliance.
  • 34. THE WAR´S PARTICIPANTS   What did Italy do? But Italy remained neutral at the beggining of the war.
  • 35. THE WAR´S PARTICIPANTS   What did Italy do? However, in 1915, Italy joined the Allied Powers.  Italy hoped to acquire territory that belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
  • 36. THE WAR´S PARTICIPANTS  Globalization of the conflict.  Both  The  14 blocks looked for new allies. following countries took place in the war: European countries with their colonies.  Japan  USA
  • 37. First time a war affected such a wide territory.    Orange: Central Powers (Triple Alliance) Green: Allied Powers (Triple Entente) Grey: Neutral countries
  • 38. PHASES OF THE WAR
  • 39. PHASES OF THE WAR 4 PHASES •1914: Initial offensives •1915-1917:Trench warfare •1917: The crisis of 1917 •1918: Allied victories and the armistice
  • 40. INITIAL OFFENSIVES 1914 1.GERMAN OFFENSIVE S IN THE WESTERN FRONT 2.- RUSSIAN OFFENSIVES IN THE EASTERN FRONT
  • 41. INITIAL OFFENSIVES 1914 (West front)    The German plan wanted a quick victory over France and then fight against Russia. The German Military Staff had developed the Schlieffen plan: A surprise attack over France invading Belgium, which was neutral.
  • 42. INITIAL OFFENSIVES 1914 (West front)  But the German were stopped in the Battle of Marne (September 1914), near Paris.
  • 43. INITIAL OFFENSIVES 1914 (East front)    France asked Russia to attack Germany in the east. German forces fought against Russia and defeated the Russian in Tannenberg and the Massurian Lakes. But the Allies achieved to make the German move towards the east.
  • 44. THE TRENCH WARFARE 1915-1917  In 1915, the western front between Germany and the Allies stablilised and a period of trench warfare began.  The failure of the German offensive consolidated the fronts, so the objective was to defend the
  • 45. THE TRENCH WARFARE 1915-1917  Defensive tactics: Machine-guns Trenches Video about the trenches in the Battle of the Somme (France)
  • 46. THE TRENCH WARFARE 1915-1917  The German tried to break the fronts in the Battle of Verdún (February 1916).  The British tried it in the Battle of Somme (July 1916).  But anybody succeed.  Thousands of soldiers died
  • 47. THE TRENCH WARFARE 1915-1917  As the main fronts were stabilised, the Allies tried to break the balance attacking the secondary areas:  The Mediterranean area.  The German Colonies in Africa.  The Middle East.
  • 48. THE TRENCH WARFARE 1915-1917 Attack to the Mediterranean area.  The British attempt to take the Bosporus and the Dardaneles in order to aisle the Ottoman Empire.  But they were defeated in the Battle of Gallipoli (1915)
  • 49. THE TRENCH WARFARE 1915-1917    The Middle East was invaded by the Allies, supported by the Arab nationalists. These areas belonged to the Ottoman Empire. (Palestina, Siria, Arabia e Irak)
  • 50. THE TRENCH WARFARE 1915-1917  The British conquered the German colonies  Great Britain conquered the German colonies in Africa.  Japan conquered the German colonies in Asia.
  • 51. THE TRENCH WARFARE 1915-1917  Meanwhile, a naval conflict took place: The German submarines attacked the Allied merchant ships in order to cut the supply.o naval:  The German and British fleets fought in the Battle of Jutland (1916).  Great Britain won the battle and blockaded Germany. 
  • 52. THE CRISIS OF 1917  The Russian Revolution. The Tzar was overthrown and a Communist government was imposed.  The new government signed the Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918):    Russia withdrew from the war and gave a big part of territory to Germany. As Germany didn´t have to worry about the East front, it attacked
  • 53. THE CRISIS OF 1917 The entrance of USA  At first, USA was neutral, but it sold supplies to the Allies.  The German tried to avoid it through attacks to American merchant ships.  In 1915, Germany sank the transatlantic Lusitania.  In 1917 USA entered the war in support of the Allies.  USA provided the Allies more than one million of soldiers and a powerful
  • 54. ALLIED VICTORIES AND THE ARMISTICE 1918  German offensive in spring 1918  Germany moved its troops from the east to the west and attacked France.  But Germany was defeated by the support of USA to France.
  • 55. THE CRISIS OF 1917  Allied offensive in 1918  The Allies took advantage of the internal problems in:  Autria-Hungarian Empire there were independent movements.  In Germany there was a communist revolution.  The Allies defeated the Central Powers in Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary.
  • 56. THE CRISIS OF 1917  The end of the war  The Central Powers collapsed and surrendered:  First, Turkey  Then, Austria  Finally, Germany, where Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated.  In november 1918, the war had finished. HOMEWORK: PAGE 163, EXERCISE 6

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