The cold war 3


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The cold war 3

  2. 2. In the final decades of the 20th, the Eastern bloc collapsed. THE END OF THE COLD WAR
  3. 3. The end of the cold war Reform in the Soviet Union The collapse of the Eastern Bloc The dissolution of the USSR THE END OF THE COLD WAR
  4. 4. THE END OF THE COLD WAR The collapse of Communism The Russian Federation The survival of Communism China
  5. 5. REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION After 1975, important developments occured in the Eastern Bloc. Repressive policies in Eastern Europe USSR economic stagnation Perestroika
  6. 6. Repressive policies in Eastern Europe There was increasing popular discontent in Eastern Europe. This was caused by the Soviet Union´s repressive policies, which prevented democratic reform. REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION
  7. 7. USSR economic stagnation Causes: The Soviet´s high military expenditure. Consequences: This reduced investment in other areas and led to a fall in agricultural and industrial productivity. There were shortages of food and consumer goods. REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION
  8. 8. The Perestroika  In 1985, Gorbachev was named Secretary General of the Soviet Communist Party and leader of the USSR.  He implemented a series of political and economic reforms known as perestroika.  The goal of the perestroika was to end Soviet economic stagnation. REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION
  9. 9. Political Reform Economic Reform REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION
  10. 10. PERESTROIKA: POLITICAL REFORM  The USSR evolved from a single-party system to one in which other political parties were permitted.  The State also adopted a policy known as glasnost, which aimed to make government more open and transparent.  As a part of glasnost, limitations on freedom of speech were also relaxed. REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION
  11. 11. PERESTROIKA: ECONOMIC REFORM  In order to increase agricultural productivity, PRIVATE OWNERSHIP OF LAND was allowed.  SPENDING CUTS were also introduced in an attempt to reduce state expenditure.  However, these measures failed to improve the economic situation. REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION
  12. 12. In 1987, United States President Reagan and Gorbachev had commited to withdraw Soviet troops from Eastern Europe. THE COLLAPSE OF THE EASTERN BLOC As a result, popular protest movements emerged in these countries. They wanted to remove the Communist regimes from power.
  13. 13. In 1989, the Eastern European Communist regimes were in a very weak position. The most important revolutions occured in: POLAND In 1989 elections were won by Solidarity. This led to the formation of a non-Communist government. THE COLLAPSE OF THE EASTERN BLOC
  14. 14. In 1989, the Eastern European Communist regimes were in a very weak position. The most important revolutions occured in: BERLIN In 1989 the people of Berlin pulled down the Berlin Wall. In 1990, the GDR (East Germany)  was dissolved and  Germany was reunified. THE COLLAPSE OF THE EASTERN BLOC The fall of the Berlin Wall. 1989, 11th November.
  15. 15.  Independent movements had emerged in the Soviet republics after the introduction of perestroika.  In 1991, a number of these republics gained independence.  Gorbachev resigned and the Soviet Union was dissolved.  As a result, the Cold War ended. THE DISSOLUTION OF THE USSR
  17. 17. THE CIS The USSR was replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), which included the Russian Federation and a majority of the old Soviet republics.
  19. 19.  In 1990, the Socialist republics that made up Yugoslavia demanded their independence.  The largest republic was Serbia, which wanted to maintain the unity of Yugoslavia and opposed to the independent movements. THE DISSOLUTION OF YUGOSLAVIA
  20. 20.  The independence movements were based in religious differences among the different republics of Yugoslavia. THE DISSOLUTION OF YUGOSLAVIA
  21. 21.  As a consequence of political and religious conflicts there was a Civil war (1991-1995).  As a result, Yugoslavia was divided into various states: Slovenia, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Serbia and Montenegro.  In 2006, Montenegro became independent.  In 2008, the region of Kosovo declared its independencde from Serbia. THE DISSOLUTION OF YUGOSLAVIA However, Serbia and Russia, and some European countries didn´t recognise Kosovo as an independent state.
  22. 22.  The Russian Federation was created in 1991.  First president: Boris Yeltsin  Capital: Moscow  State: Federal State made up of republics and regions.  Political system: a democracy THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
  23. 23.  As president, Yeltsin abandoned the system of centrlised economic planning and introduced capitalism through a series of measures: THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION • Agricultural land and state-owned industries were privatised. • Industries that used outdated technology were closed down. • Public subsidies for housing, healthcare, electricity and other services were ended. • Multinational companies were allowed to establish themselves and operate in Russia.
  25. 25.  Negative consequences of the introdution of capitalism  The closure of state-owned companies produced high unemployment, and this led to an economic crisis.  In 2000, Putin became president and the economy began to recover. THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
  26. 26. THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION Consequences of the introdution of capitalism Russian society became more like other Western societies with peculiar features: Social inequalities A small minority have become very rich because they bought state companies at very low prices when they were privatised. Most Russians are poorer due to the end of state subsidies. High unemployment This has produced high levels of emigration to Western Europe.
  27. 27.  The Cold War ended in 1991 and the Communist regimes of the USSR and Eastern Bloc ceased to exist.  However: THE SURVIVAL OF COMMUNISM Still Communist States China Vietnam Laos North Korea Cuba
  28. 28. Still Communist States Citizens do not enjoy many freedoms They have gradually introduced capitalist economic reforms to estimulate grouth and development.. Communist states now allow private property. Foreign countries can operate in these countries The exception is North Korea: centrally planned economy. THE SURVIVAL OF COMMUNISM
  29. 29.  Mao Zedong´s successors have maintained the Communist Party in power in China. THE SURVIVAL OF COMMUNISM A picture of the Communist Party on 24 january 2014
  30. 30. Xi Jinping is the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and the Presiden of the People´s Republic of China (P.R.C.) THE SURVIVAL OF COMMUNISM
  31. 31.  The Chinese regime has intensified its repression of protest movements which demand democratic reform. THE SURVIVAL OF COMMUNISM Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
  32. 32.  China has resisted political reform but it has introduced capitalist economic reforms:  Since 1980, foreign businesses have been allowed to operate in certain areas of the country.  These companies have been benefited from cheap Chinese labour, while the arrival of foreign capital has enabled the Chinese to invest in their own industrial develpment. THE SURVIVAL OF COMMUNISM
  33. 33.  As a consequence of these changes, China has experienced dramatic economic growth.  Its products have flooded the markets of Western countries because they are much cheaper than European or American- made goods.  Today China is the second leading economic power. THE SURVIVAL OF COMMUNISM