Russian Revolution


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Russian Revolution

  1. 1. RUSSIA FROM ABSOLUTISM TO REVOLUTION Material de apoyo para 4ºESO Sección bilingüe
  4. 4. • Despite the liberal revolutions of the 19th century, the Russian Empire continued to be an absolute monarchy. • The Russian absolute monarchy was ruled by the tsar. THE TSARIST EMPIRE Thetsar Concentrated all the powers Was supported by: The nobility The orthodox Church The army Burocracy
  6. 6. • Political situation: • Civil rights were not recognised. • Political parties faced repression. • There was a Parliament called DUMA: • Its powers were very limited. • The Tsar could gather or disolve the Duma whenever he wanted. THE TSARIST EMPIRE
  7. 7. • The economy THE TSARIST EMPIRE There was a semi-feudal economy: A wealthy minority owned most of the agricultural land. A peasant majority worked the agricultural land.
  8. 8. • The pesants were extremely poor. THE TSARIST EMPIRE Russian peasants at the beggining of the 20th century.
  9. 9. • The economy THE TSARIST EMPIRE Industrialisation Heavy industry and railways The working class increased. It depended on foreing capital and on the State The bourgeoisie was smaller and less significant than in other European countries. A capitalist economy could not develop.
  10. 10. • Working-class assembly in a Russian factory. 1905. THE TSARIST EMPIRE
  11. 11. Political problems 1898 1903 1905 1914-1917 THE TSARIST EMPIRE
  12. 12. THE TSARIST EMPIRE Theopposition Liberal parties Bourgeoisie Revolutionary parties Social revolutionary party Peasants Social democratic party Workers
  13. 13. THE TSARIST EMPIRE • In 1898, the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) was formed. It was composed by workers. Its aim was to establish a Social state based on the principles of Marxist ideology.
  14. 14. THE TSARIST EMPIRE • In 1903, the RSLDP divided into two separate factions: Moderate faction. Martov argued that gradual reforms could achieve a Socialist state. The Mensheviks Radical faction. Lenin argued for an immediate revolution to remove the tsar from power and establish a Socialis state. The Bolsheviks
  15. 15. THE TSARIST EMPIRE • THE REVOLUTION OF 1905 • Trigger: • Russia tried to expand to Japan, but Japan defeated Russia. • Russia suffered an important economic crisis. • January 1905: • There were protests against the tsar´s absolutist regime. • The Russians went to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, residence of the Tsar, to ask him to make political changes.
  16. 16. THE TSARIST EMPIRE • THE REVOLUTION OF 1905 • January 1905: • In response to the repression: • Workers and soldiers formed a revolutionary council or SOVIET in the city of St. Petersburg. Bloody Sunday: The government suppressed the protests with violence. As a result, there were a lot of dead and wounded people.
  17. 17. THE TSARIST EMPIRE • From 1914-1917, Russia took part in WWI: • It worsened the economic and political problems that the empire was already experiencing. • This caused more discontent and protests because Russian soldiers did not have enough food or military equipment. • This led to a revolution in 1917.
  18. 18. • Video about Nicholas II: Russia's Last Emperor. • Part 1 • Part 2 THE TSARIST EMPIRE
  20. 20. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1917 • Why is the Russian Revolution so important? • It´s an important milestone in the Contemporary History: 1. It means the emergence of a new model of State based in Socialism. 2. It means the end of the liberal Revolutions. 3. Two different social systems emerged: socialism and capitalism.
  21. 21. THE REVOLUTION OF FEBRUARY 1917 • What are the causes of the revolution of 1917? • Russia´s participation in the First World War caused more discontent and protests because Russian soldiers did not have enough food or military equipment.
  22. 22. THE REVOLUTION OF FEBRUARY 1917 • When did the Russian Revolution begin? • The Russian Revolution began on 23rd February with a demonstration in St- Petersburg. • Slogan: • Peace and Bread.
  23. 23. • What happened next? • On 25th february there was a general strike. • On 26th february the tsarist troops refused to shoot against the strikers. THE REVOLUTION OF FEBRUARY 1917 The tsarist army
  24. 24. THE REVOLUTION OF FEBRUARY 1917 • There were demonstrations before the Palace of the Tsar.
  25. 25. THE REVOLUTION OF FEBRUARY 1917 What was the result of these protests? • The protests involving peasants, workers and soldiers forced Nicolas II to abdicate.
  26. 26. THE REVOLUTION OF FEBRUARY 1917 • What happened after the abdication of Nicolas II? • At first, the Mensheviks formed a provisional government led by Kerensky. • The provisional government: • Declared Russia a republic. • Made political parties legal. • Its aim was to establish a liberal political system. • But the provisional government did not take control over all the Russian territory: • Because it was in favour of taking part in WWI
  27. 27. THE REVOLUTION OF FEBRUARY 1917 • Which alternative government emerged in Russia? • The Bolsheviks opposed the Mensheviks and established and alternative government based on the soviets. • The soviets spread throughout Russia. • Peasants, workers and soldiers formed soviets. • They had their own army: The Red Army.
  28. 28. THE SOVIETS´ IDEOLOGY The key character: LENIN • Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks. • He was the promoter or the Russian Revolution. • He established a program to be followed in the Revolution based on his famous “April Theses”
  29. 29. THE SOVIETS´ IDEOLOGY • “April Theses” • These theses consisted on: • Withdraw of WWI. • Redistribution of lands to all the pesants. • Control of the factories by the workers comitees. • Autonomy for the different Russian nacionalities. • Delivery of power to the soviets.
  30. 30. THE REVOLUTION OF OCTOBER 1917 • What happened in october 1917? • There was another revolution: • The soviets controlled by the Bolsheviks took control over St. Petersburg and stormed the Winter Palace. • As a result, the provisional government fell.
  31. 31. THE REVOLUTION OF OCTOBER 1917 • What were the consequences of the fall of the provisional government? • The Bolsheviks sized control of the government and Lenin became the new leader of Russia.
  32. 32. THE REVOLUTION OF OCTOBER 1917 What were the consequences of the fall of the provisional government? • Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the German Empire in March 1918: • This allowed Russia to withdraw from an unpopular war. • But in return the Bolsheviks agreed to give large amounts of land and resources to Germany.
  33. 33. REMEMBER!! THE CRISIS OF 1917 IN WWI (We saw this slide when learning about WWI). • The Russian Revolution. • The Tzar was overthrown and a Communist government was imposed. • The new government signed the Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918): • Russia withdrew from the war and gave a big part of territory to Germany.
  34. 34. THE REVOLUTION OF OCTOBER 1917 • What were other consequences of the fall of the provisional government? • Land was redistributed among the poorest peasants. • Minor nationalities were recognised.
  35. 35. 1918 • At the beggining of 1918 the Revolution had succeeded.
  36. 36. 1918 What did the Bolsheviks do after taking power? • In July 1918 they killed the tsar Nicolas II and his family. VIDEO: Murder Of The Romanovs Min. 22:07
  37. 37. 1918 What did the Bolsheviks do after taking power? • They began persecuting their opponents: • Supporters of the Tsar: landowners, high-ranking military, Orthodox Church. • Supporters of the liberal political system.
  38. 38. THE CIVIL WAR: 1918-1921 In response to these events, a civil war broke out: Between two groups White Russians The counterrevolutionaries, su pported by the foreign powers. Red Army The Bolshevik forces, who supported the Revolution.
  39. 39. THE CIVIL WAR: 1918-1921 Who won the war? The war was won by the Bolsheviks, thanks of the influence of Trotksy in the Red Army.
  40. 40. CHANGES IN ECONOMY, SOCIETY AND POLITICS ECONOMY • In 1921 a NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (N.E.P.) was established to improve: • The production • The social conditions • One of the most important actions was: • The State controlled transports, foreign trade, the banks and great enterprises.
  41. 41. CHANGES IN ECONOMY, SOCIETY AND POLITICS A NEW STATE • In 1922, Lenin established the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (URSS or Soviet Union). • It was a federation of republics. • It was a plurinational and multiethnic state.
  42. 42. CHANGES IN ECONOMY, SOCIETY AND POLITICS • The flag of the USSR (1921-1991)
  43. 43. CHANGES IN ECONOMY, SOCIETY AND POLITICS • The flag of the USSR (1921-1991) The sickle and the hammer is a symbol which represents the union of the workers. It was also used to represent the communism and its political parties. It is composed by a hammer overlapping a sickle. This tools are the symbol of the industrial proletariat and the peasants, respectively. The overlapping of both tools symbolizes the unity between all the workers.
  44. 44. CHANGES IN ECONOMY, SOCIETY AND POLITICS • The flag of the USSR (1921-1991) The red five-pointed star is one of the symbols of Socialism and Communism. It represents: • the five fingers of the worker´s hand • the five continents. It is related to the internationalism of the marxist slogan “Proletarians of all countries, unite!”. • the five social groups who led the establishment of Socialism: the youth, the militaries, the workers, the peasants and the intellectuals.
  45. 45. CHANGES IN ECONOMY, SOCIETY AND POLITICS POLITICS • In 1923 a new constitution was established. • It was based on Communist principles.
  46. 46. CHANGES IN ECONOMY, SOCIETY AND POLITICS POLITICS • In the USSR, Karl Marx´s idea of the dictatorship of the proletariat was put into practice through a system in which workers´ interests were represented by one political party: the communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). • The party controlled the soviets. • The soviets directed all state institutions.
  47. 47. CHANGES IN ECONOMY, SOCIETY AND POLITICS POLITICS • Under the Communist system, the state also controlled the means of production, such as factories and energy sources, as well as trade and finance. 1/weblog-project-russian-propaganda.html
  48. 48. LENIN AND THE INTERNATIONALISM • Lenin thought that it was necessary to spread the revolution outside the USSR. • In 1919 Lenin created the Third International (KOMITERN). • Other countries were invited in order to create communist parties. • The communists parties followed the model of the CPSU: • Very centralised party. • Not much democratic party. • Critics were considered dissidence (people who disagrees with the government) • In 1924 the USSR was recognised by many countries.
  49. 49. • VIDEO • Lenin´s speach 1919 • What is the Soviet Power? Comrade Lenin cleans the world from garbage.
  50. 50. • EXERCISES ON PAGE 173 • 16 • 17 • 18 • 19 • 20