RESTORATION, LIBERALISM
AND NATIONALISM
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS
1815-1870
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
1815-1820
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
1815-1820
Europe after the Napoleonic Empire
• What was the Restoration?
▫ It was a return to th...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
1815-1820
The Cogress of Vienna
The leaders of various
European states met at
the Congress of Vi...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
1815-1820
The Cogress of Vienna

The restoration of
absolute monarchy
The European
monarchs who ...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
1815-1820
The Cogress of Vienna
Changes to Europe´s
borders
Napoleon´s conquests
had transformed...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
1815-1820
Prusia annexed the
Rhineland.
Belgium was united
with the Netherlands
to form the King...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
1815-1820
The Cogress of Vienna
• Two alliances were formed to enforce the
agreements of the Con...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
1815-1820
The Cogress of Vienna
• Two alliances were formed to enforce the
agreements of the Con...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
The reign of Fernando VII
What happened in Spain after the
war of Independence?

Joseph I left S...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
The reign of Fernando VII
Periods of Fernando VII´s reign

1.- The restoration of
absolutism
2.-...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
The reign of Fernando VII
1.- The restoration of absolutism (1812-1820)
What happened when
Ferna...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
The reign of Fernando VII

Some
members of
the Spanish
military
rebelled
against this
return of
...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
The reign of Fernando VII
3.- The victory of absolutism
(1823-1843)

What did Fernando VII do to...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
The reign of Fernando VII
The end of Fernando VII´s reign

The problem of Fernando VII´s success...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
The reign of Fernando VII
The end of Fernando VII´s reign

The problem of
Fernando VII´s success...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
The reign of Fernando VII
The end of Fernando VII´s reign

The problem of
Fernando VII´s success...
THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE
The reign of Fernando VII
The end of Fernando VII´s reign

The problem of Fernando VII´s success...
LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM
AND DEMOCRACY
LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM
AND DEMOCRACY
LIBERALISM

REVOLUTIONS
19th CENTURY

TWO
POLITICAL
IDEOLOGIES
NATIONALISM

DEMOCRAC...
LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM
AND DEMOCRACY
Origins:
the Enlightenment ideas (American War of Independence and
French Revolution...
LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM
AND DEMOCRACY
SEPARATION OF
POWERS
LIMITED
SUFFRAGE
(Only male property
owners)

CONSTITUTIONAL
MO...
REMEMBER!
• What is the difference between a state
and a nation?
LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM
AND DEMOCRACY
Origins:
1.- The expansion of the Napoleonic
Empire.

NATIONALISM

2.- The new divis...
LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM
AND DEMOCRACY
Consecuences:
Some peoples claimed their independences.

NATIONALISM

Nationalism ad...
LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM
AND DEMOCRACY
INDEPENDENT NATION-STATES WITH
CLEARLY DEFINED BORDERS

THE FORM OF
GOVERNMENT THAT ...
LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM
AND DEMOCRACY
In the 19th century, democratic movements
defended ordinary people´s right to
partic...
LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM
AND DEMOCRACY
OPPOSITION
TO MONARCHY
(Considered
incompatible with
democracy)
REPUBLIC

NATIONAL
S...
Do exercises 9, 10 and
11 on page 125.

El comandante Riego
THE AGE OF REVOLUTION
Meaning

Political
revolutions

The end of
absolute
monarchy
Based on liberal
and nationalist
ideolo...
THE AGE OF REVOLUTION
Political revolutions
First half of the 19th century

1820s => Portugal, Spain and
Greece

1830 => F...
THE AGE OF REVOLUTION
• 1820s political revolutions
▫ Countries:
 Portugal and Spain

▫ Characteristics:
 liberal revolu...
THE AGE OF REVOLUTION
• 1820s political revolutions
▫ Countries:
 Greece

▫ Characteristics:
 liberal and nationalist
re...
THE AGE OF REVOLUTION
• 1830 political revolutions
▫ Countries:
 France

▫ Characteristics:

Carlos X of
Borbon wanted to...
THE AGE OF REVOLUTION
• 1830 political revolutions
▫ Countries:
 Belgium

▫ Characteristics:
 Nationalist revolution

▫ ...
THE AGE OF REVOLUTION
• 1848 political revolutions
▫ Countries:

 France, the Austrian Empire, the German Confederation a...
ITALIAN AND GERMAN
UNIFICATION
Nationalist
movements
Desintegrating
Greece
Belgium

Unifying

Germany
Italy
ITALIAN AND GERMAN
UNIFICATION
• How were Italian and German territories like until
the mid-19th century?
▫ They were divi...
ITALIAN UNIFICATION
• Starting point: after
the Congress of
Viena, the Italian
peninsula was divided
into seven states:
ITALIAN UNIFICATION
• Why was there a
nationalist
movement?
▫ They had a common
language.
▫ They wanted to
increase the ec...
ITALIAN UNIFICATION
• Who was opposed to
the Italian
unification?
▫ The Austrians (after the
Congress of
Vienna, they had
...
ITALIAN UNIFICATION
• Who was the motor
of the unification?
▫ The kingdom of
Piedmont-Sardinia
 Italian monarchy of
Saboy...
ITALIAN UNIFICATION
• Main
characters:

Cavour:
• Prime minister of the
monarchicst
Piedmont.

Garibaldi:
• Revolutionist ...
ITALIAN UNIFICATION
• Type of unification process:
▫ Military

• Process:

▫ 1859: After gaining support from
France, King...
ITALIAN UNIFICATION
• Process:
▫ The Piedmontese gradually
conquered and annexed the
rest of the Italian Peninsula
with th...
GERMAN UNIFICATION
• Starting point:
▫ 1815:
 German territory was
divided in 39 states.
The Congress of Vienna
created t...
GERMAN UNIFICATION
• Starting point:

▫ 1834: Prussia created a
customs union.
 This was the first unifying
step given by...
GERMAN UNIFICATION
Main
characters
from 1862:

King Wilhelm I

Chancellor Bismarck
GERMAN UNIFICATION
• Process:
▫ Bismarck started the
German unification
process with a conflict
with Denmark over the
Duch...
GERMAN UNIFICATION
• Process:
▫ 1866:
 Prussia defeated
Austria in the battle of
Sadowa and created the
Northern German
C...
GERMAN UNIFICATION
• Process:
▫ 1870:
 France was defeated in
the Franco-Prussian War.
 France didn´t accept Prussian
in...
GERMAN UNIFICATION
• Process:
▫ 1871:
 Bismarck established the
Second Reich, or
German Empire, with
Wilhem I as its kais...
SPAIN: FROM LIBERAL
MONARCHY TO REPUBLIC
THE REIGN OF ISABEL II
• What happened in 1833?
▫ Fernando VII died.
▫ Isabel II became Queen of Spain, but she
was only 3...
THE REIGN OF ISABEL II
• What were the Carlist Wars?
The Carlist Wars were military conflicts between:

the supporters of ...
THE REIGN OF ISABEL II
• The First Carlist War
▫ In 1833 Carlos Mª Isidro

proclaimed himself king of Spain.
▫ It lasted 7...
THE REIGN OF ISABEL II
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

What´s the importance of the reign of Isabel II?
Complete these table ab...
General Espartero

Amadeo de Saboya

Isabel II

Alfonso XII
AMERICA DURING THE 19th
CENTURY
AMERICA DURING THE 19th
CENTURY

USA
19th century

Westward
expansion

The American
Civil War
(1861-1865)
AMERICA DURING THE 19th
CENTURY
• What happened in the USA during the
19th century after the American War of
Independece?
...
EXPANSION IN THE UNITED
STATES
• How did the USA establish the definitive borders?
The 13
colonies
EXPANSION IN THE UNITED
STATES
• Why did the American people expanded
westwards during the 19th century?
Many inmigrants
a...
EXPANSION IN THE UNITED
STATES
• What were the
consequences of
the Westward
expansion?
▫ Conflicts with
Native
Americans.
...
EXPANSION IN THE UNITED
STATES

Some tribes
were isolated
on
reservations.
THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
• Starting point:
▫ Slavery still existed
in the southern
states.
▫ The northern states
rejected sl...
THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
• Consequences:
▫ The war was won
by the northern
states.
▫ Slavery was ended.
▫ Universal
manhood ...
LATIN AMERICAN
INDEPENDENCE
• When did the Spanish colonies in Central
and South America began to demand
independence?
▫ D...
LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE
Great Britain offered supporto
to the revolutionaries in order
to break Spain´s trade
monopoly...
LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE
• Who were the leaders?
Simón Bolívar

General José de San Martín
He led
Venezuela, Col
ombia
...
LATIN AMERICAN
INDEPENDENCE
• Between 1810 and 1825, all the
Spanish colonies in
America, except Puerto Rico
and Cuba, gai...
EXERCISE
List the new nations in
the order in which
they were established.

Then use the list to
make a timeline.
Isabel Aguña
Profesora de Geografía e Historia
Sección Bilingüe
Fuente: Oxford Education HISTORY 4ºESO
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Restoration, liberalism and nationalism

  1. 1. RESTORATION, LIBERALISM AND NATIONALISM
  2. 2. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS 1815-1870
  3. 3. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820
  4. 4. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 Europe after the Napoleonic Empire • What was the Restoration? ▫ It was a return to the political system of the Ancien Régime after Napoleon´s defeat in 1815.
  5. 5. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 The Cogress of Vienna The leaders of various European states met at the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815). MEASURES The restoration of absolute monarchy Changes to Europe´s borders
  6. 6. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 The Cogress of Vienna The restoration of absolute monarchy The European monarchs who had been deposed by Napoleon returned to power. However, some of these monarchs had to accept constitutional limits to their power
  7. 7. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 The Cogress of Vienna Changes to Europe´s borders Napoleon´s conquests had transformed the map of Europe. After his defeat, another series of changes were made to guarantee peace and avoid new revolutions. Objectives: 1.- To reduce the number of States 2.- To stop the French conquers.
  8. 8. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 Prusia annexed the Rhineland. Belgium was united with the Netherlands to form the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Cogress of Vienna France came back to its borders before the Revolution. The German Confederation was created. It was formed by 39 states, and was dominated by Austria and Prusia. Two buffer states were created to avoid a French invasion. Italy was divided into various states. Austria, Rusia and Prusia gained territories in a balanced way, so that no one could be more powerful than the others.
  9. 9. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 The Cogress of Vienna • Two alliances were formed to enforce the agreements of the Congress of Viena: Objectives To enforce the Congress of Vienna To support Europe´s restored monarchs in the event of a revolution
  10. 10. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 The Cogress of Vienna • Two alliances were formed to enforce the agreements of the Congress of Viena: Alliances The Holy Alliance Russia Austria Prusia The Quadruple Alliance The three members of the Holy Alliance and Great Britain
  11. 11. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII What happened in Spain after the war of Independence? Joseph I left Spain Fernando VII returned to the Spanish throne.
  12. 12. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII Periods of Fernando VII´s reign 1.- The restoration of absolutism 2.- The liberal period 3.- The victory of absolutism
  13. 13. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII 1.- The restoration of absolutism (1812-1820) What happened when Fernando VII returned to Spain? He had the support of the Spanish people Spanish people received him as their legitimate king What did Fernando VII do after becoming king? He abolished the Constitution of 1812 He ruled as an absolute monarch
  14. 14. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII Some members of the Spanish military rebelled against this return of absolutism. In 1820, there was a successful revolt led by two army officers, Rieg o and Quiroga. The king restaured the liberal Constitution of 1812 and the rights and freedoms. General Riego
  15. 15. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII 3.- The victory of absolutism (1823-1843) What did Fernando VII do to restore absolutism? He asked the Holly Aliance to assist him in reestablishing absolutism. What happened after this decision? There were more revolts but this time they weren´t successful
  16. 16. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII The end of Fernando VII´s reign The problem of Fernando VII´s succession • Who was going to inherit the throne? ▫ Fernando VII had no sons. ▫ He had one daughter: Isabel. • Could women inherit the throne? ▫ No, they couldn´t. In Spain there was the Salic law, established by Felipe V. It didn´t allow females to inherit the throne.
  17. 17. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII The end of Fernando VII´s reign The problem of Fernando VII´s succession • What did Fernando VII do? ▫ He proclaimed his pragmatic sanction, which replaced Salic law. ▫ This allowed his daughter, Isabel, to become queen after his death.
  18. 18. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII The end of Fernando VII´s reign The problem of Fernando VII´s succession • Was everybody in favour of his pragmatic sanction? ▫ No, Fernando´s brother was angered:  Under Salic law, Fernando´s heir would have been his brother Carlos. Carlos María Isidro de Borbón
  19. 19. THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII The end of Fernando VII´s reign The problem of Fernando VII´s succession • What were the consequences of the pragmatic sanction? ▫ The Carlist Wars  1833-1840  1846-1849  1872-1876
  20. 20. LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY
  21. 21. LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY LIBERALISM REVOLUTIONS 19th CENTURY TWO POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES NATIONALISM DEMOCRACY
  22. 22. LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY Origins: the Enlightenment ideas (American War of Independence and French Revolution). LIBERALISM Objective: Emphasis of individual freedoms and rights. (As a reaction against the Restoration of the Absolutism) Representation: It represented the interests of the bourgeoisie.
  23. 23. LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY SEPARATION OF POWERS LIMITED SUFFRAGE (Only male property owners) CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY LIBERALISM FREEDOM OF: - ASSOCIATION - RELIGION - THE PRESS
  24. 24. REMEMBER! • What is the difference between a state and a nation?
  25. 25. LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY Origins: 1.- The expansion of the Napoleonic Empire. NATIONALISM 2.- The new division of Europe imposed by the Congress of Vienna => no respect to the identity of the peoples such as Polish, Belgians, Norwegians, Italians or Germans. 3.- The ancien Empires, such as the Ottoman, the Russian and the Austrian Empires, were formed by very different peoples.
  26. 26. LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY Consecuences: Some peoples claimed their independences. NATIONALISM Nationalism advocated the right of people who defined themselves as nations to establish their own independent states.
  27. 27. LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY INDEPENDENT NATION-STATES WITH CLEARLY DEFINED BORDERS THE FORM OF GOVERNMENT THAT EACH NATION PREFERS NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY POPULATION WITH A COMMON HISTORY, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE NATIONALISM A WELL-INTEGRATED SOCIETY
  28. 28. LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY In the 19th century, democratic movements defended ordinary people´s right to participate in politics. DEMOCRACY Representation: The middle and working classes.
  29. 29. LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY OPPOSITION TO MONARCHY (Considered incompatible with democracy) REPUBLIC NATIONAL SOVEREINGTY UNIVERSAL MANHOOD SUFFRAGE DEMOCRACY POLITICAL PARTIES SHOULD DEFEND THE RIGHTS OF THE MIDDLE AND WORKING CLASSES AGAINST UPPER-CLASS DOMINANCE
  30. 30. Do exercises 9, 10 and 11 on page 125. El comandante Riego
  31. 31. THE AGE OF REVOLUTION Meaning Political revolutions The end of absolute monarchy Based on liberal and nationalist ideologies First half of the 19th century Characteristics Establishment of democracy
  32. 32. THE AGE OF REVOLUTION Political revolutions First half of the 19th century 1820s => Portugal, Spain and Greece 1830 => France and Belgium 1848 => France, the Austrian Empire, the German Confederation and Italy
  33. 33. THE AGE OF REVOLUTION • 1820s political revolutions ▫ Countries:  Portugal and Spain ▫ Characteristics:  liberal revolutions ▫ Aim:  To establish constitutional monarchies
  34. 34. THE AGE OF REVOLUTION • 1820s political revolutions ▫ Countries:  Greece ▫ Characteristics:  liberal and nationalist revolution ▫ Aim:  To win its independence from the Ottoman Empire
  35. 35. THE AGE OF REVOLUTION • 1830 political revolutions ▫ Countries:  France ▫ Characteristics: Carlos X of Borbon wanted to eliminate the charter given by Luis XVIII.  liberal revolution ▫ Aim:  To establish a constitutional monarchy. Luis Felipe de Orleans became king. He was the leader of the upper class.
  36. 36. THE AGE OF REVOLUTION • 1830 political revolutions ▫ Countries:  Belgium ▫ Characteristics:  Nationalist revolution ▫ Aim:  To gain independence from the Neatherlands, to which Belgium had been united by the Congress of Vienna.
  37. 37. THE AGE OF REVOLUTION • 1848 political revolutions ▫ Countries:  France, the Austrian Empire, the German Confederation and Italy. ▫ Characteristics:  More radical  Democratic revolution: ▫ Aim:  the middle class and proletariat were now demanding democratic reforms which would give them access to political power. ▫ Results :  Only in France the revolution suceed:  Proclamation of the Second Republic  Introduction of universal manhood suffrage
  38. 38. ITALIAN AND GERMAN UNIFICATION Nationalist movements Desintegrating Greece Belgium Unifying Germany Italy
  39. 39. ITALIAN AND GERMAN UNIFICATION • How were Italian and German territories like until the mid-19th century? ▫ They were divided into numerous independent states. • What happened during the first half of the 19th century in these modern-day countries? ▫ Nationalists movements emerged. • What was the result of these movements? ▫ These states were unified to form two new nation-states: Italy and Germany.
  40. 40. ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Starting point: after the Congress of Viena, the Italian peninsula was divided into seven states:
  41. 41. ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Why was there a nationalist movement? ▫ They had a common language. ▫ They wanted to increase the economic market. ▫ They wanted infraestructures of transport.
  42. 42. ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Who was opposed to the Italian unification? ▫ The Austrians (after the Congress of Vienna, they had annexed the Kingdom of Lombardy, Parma, Mód ena and Toscana). ▫ The Papal States
  43. 43. ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Who was the motor of the unification? ▫ The kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia  Italian monarchy of Saboya.  A great army.  Liberal constitution.  A seaport.  Wealth
  44. 44. ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Main characters: Cavour: • Prime minister of the monarchicst Piedmont. Garibaldi: • Revolutionist who led an army of volunteers called the «red shirts»
  45. 45. ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Type of unification process: ▫ Military • Process: ▫ 1859: After gaining support from France, King Victor Emmanuel II and his prime minister, Cavour, fought successfully against Austria. ▫ Austria was defeated in the battles of Magenta and Solferino. • Result: ▫ The Austrians were expelled from Lombardy. ▫ Lombardy was given to Piedmont.
  46. 46. ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Process: ▫ The Piedmontese gradually conquered and annexed the rest of the Italian Peninsula with the help of Garibaldi, including Venetia and the Kingdom of the Two Siciles. ▫ 1859: Garibaldi and the «Red Shirts» conquered the Southern States.
  47. 47. GERMAN UNIFICATION • Starting point: ▫ 1815:  German territory was divided in 39 states. The Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia.
  48. 48. GERMAN UNIFICATION • Starting point: ▫ 1834: Prussia created a customs union.  This was the first unifying step given by Prussia. Austria didn´t take part. ▫ 1848: the nationalist Revolution  It failed because the king didn´t accept the throne of a unified Germany in the parliament of Frankfurt.  But it consolidated the nationalism.
  49. 49. GERMAN UNIFICATION Main characters from 1862: King Wilhelm I Chancellor Bismarck
  50. 50. GERMAN UNIFICATION • Process: ▫ Bismarck started the German unification process with a conflict with Denmark over the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. ▫ 1864: Denmark was defeated.
  51. 51. GERMAN UNIFICATION • Process: ▫ 1866:  Prussia defeated Austria in the battle of Sadowa and created the Northern German Confederation.
  52. 52. GERMAN UNIFICATION • Process: ▫ 1870:  France was defeated in the Franco-Prussian War.  France didn´t accept Prussian influence.  Result:  France had to surrender the region of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany.  The Southern states joined to the German Confederation.
  53. 53. GERMAN UNIFICATION • Process: ▫ 1871:  Bismarck established the Second Reich, or German Empire, with Wilhem I as its kaiser.
  54. 54. SPAIN: FROM LIBERAL MONARCHY TO REPUBLIC
  55. 55. THE REIGN OF ISABEL II • What happened in 1833? ▫ Fernando VII died. ▫ Isabel II became Queen of Spain, but she was only 3 years old. ▫ Fernado VII´s widow, María Cristina, became the regent. ▫ At the same time, Fernando VII´s brother, Carlos María Isidro de Borbón, proclaimed himself as king of Spain:  This was the beginning of the First Carlist War. (1833-1840). María Cristina of Bourbon
  56. 56. THE REIGN OF ISABEL II • What were the Carlist Wars? The Carlist Wars were military conflicts between: the supporters of Isabel II, called liberals. and those who believed that her uncle Carlos was the legitimate heir to the Spanish throne. They were called carlists. They defended the absolutism and the Ancien Régime.
  57. 57. THE REIGN OF ISABEL II • The First Carlist War ▫ In 1833 Carlos Mª Isidro proclaimed himself king of Spain. ▫ It lasted 7 years (1833-1840) ▫ The Carlists were defeated. ▫ The «Abrazo de Vergara» put an end to the war.  But the conflict continued through the rest of the 19th century.
  58. 58. THE REIGN OF ISABEL II • • • • • • • • • • • • • What´s the importance of the reign of Isabel II? Complete these table about the two liberal political parties that supported Isabel II: What kind of suffrage existed during the reign of Isabel II? What was the military´s role during the reign of Isabel II? What regents governed in Isabel II´s place when she was a child? How old was Isabel II when she reached the age of majority? Explain the political problems she had to deal with when she reached the age of majority. What did Isabel II´s government do to solve the Spain´s economic problems? What did they do with the expropriated lands? What was the money obtained at public auctions used for? ow were the “latifundios” or agricultural estates changed through this expropriation? These lands were supposed to be expropriated for small farmers to buy them. But, in fact, who had the money to buy it? What happened to many common lands, that had been used by ordinary people to collect wood or use them as pasture for their farm animals? What was the consequence of that? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What was the consequence of expropriating lands to the Church? What happened in 1868? What did Isabel II have to do? What´s the name of that revolution? Why is this revolution important in Spain? Explain the most important characteristics of the Constitution of 1869. What historical period followed to the Glorious Revolution? What were the two political systems that existed in Spain during that period? Who became king of Spain in 1871? Why did this king have to abdicate? Who was the legitimate heir of Isabel II? What political system was established in Spain in 1873? How long did it last? What dates? What were the most important problems during these period? What economic achievements were there during the Six Revolutionary Years? What happened in 1874? What was the result of this event?
  59. 59. General Espartero Amadeo de Saboya Isabel II Alfonso XII
  60. 60. AMERICA DURING THE 19th CENTURY
  61. 61. AMERICA DURING THE 19th CENTURY USA 19th century Westward expansion The American Civil War (1861-1865)
  62. 62. AMERICA DURING THE 19th CENTURY • What happened in the USA during the 19th century after the American War of Independece? American War of Independence Political and territorial changes. The USA consolidated itself as a sovereing nation and established its definitive borders. Establishmet of many new states which still exist today.
  63. 63. EXPANSION IN THE UNITED STATES • How did the USA establish the definitive borders? The 13 colonies
  64. 64. EXPANSION IN THE UNITED STATES • Why did the American people expanded westwards during the 19th century? Many inmigrants arrived from Europe •because they were looking for a better life in the New World. The population increased rapidly. This increase in population encouraged the USA to expand westwards • They reach ed North America´s Pacific coast. Watch this video about Pioneers.
  65. 65. EXPANSION IN THE UNITED STATES • What were the consequences of the Westward expansion? ▫ Conflicts with Native Americans.  Destruction of many tribes. Watch this video
  66. 66. EXPANSION IN THE UNITED STATES Some tribes were isolated on reservations.
  67. 67. THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR • Starting point: ▫ Slavery still existed in the southern states. ▫ The northern states rejected slavery. ▫ The southern states felt threatened by this. ▫ A civil war started. Watch this video
  68. 68. THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR • Consequences: ▫ The war was won by the northern states. ▫ Slavery was ended. ▫ Universal manhood suffrage.  Male citizens of all ethnic bacgrounds had the right to vote in elections.
  69. 69. LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE • When did the Spanish colonies in Central and South America began to demand independence? ▫ During the reign of Fernando VII.
  70. 70. LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE Great Britain offered supporto to the revolutionaries in order to break Spain´s trade monopoly over its colonies. The colonies´Creole upper middle classes wanted more political and economic control. Other Wars of Independence (USA, Spain) and the French Revolution. Factors
  71. 71. LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE • Who were the leaders? Simón Bolívar General José de San Martín He led Venezuela, Col ombia (including Panama at the time), Ecuado r, Peru (together with Don José de San Martín), and Bolivia to independence from the Spanish Empire. He got the Independence of Argentina and Peru.
  72. 72. LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE • Between 1810 and 1825, all the Spanish colonies in America, except Puerto Rico and Cuba, gained their independence. ▫ Venezuela, Argentina and Mexico became independent republics. • They moved from being dominated by Spain to being under the political and economic influence of Great Britain and the USA.
  73. 73. EXERCISE List the new nations in the order in which they were established. Then use the list to make a timeline.
  74. 74. Isabel Aguña Profesora de Geografía e Historia Sección Bilingüe Fuente: Oxford Education HISTORY 4ºESO
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