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Restoration, liberalism and nationalism
 

Restoration, liberalism and nationalism

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    Restoration, liberalism and nationalism Restoration, liberalism and nationalism Presentation Transcript

    • RESTORATION, LIBERALISM AND NATIONALISM
    • POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS 1815-1870
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 Europe after the Napoleonic Empire • What was the Restoration? ▫ It was a return to the political system of the Ancien Régime after Napoleon´s defeat in 1815.
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 The Cogress of Vienna The leaders of various European states met at the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815). MEASURES The restoration of absolute monarchy Changes to Europe´s borders
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 The Cogress of Vienna The restoration of absolute monarchy The European monarchs who had been deposed by Napoleon returned to power. However, some of these monarchs had to accept constitutional limits to their power
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 The Cogress of Vienna Changes to Europe´s borders Napoleon´s conquests had transformed the map of Europe. After his defeat, another series of changes were made to guarantee peace and avoid new revolutions. Objectives: 1.- To reduce the number of States 2.- To stop the French conquers.
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 Prusia annexed the Rhineland. Belgium was united with the Netherlands to form the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Cogress of Vienna France came back to its borders before the Revolution. The German Confederation was created. It was formed by 39 states, and was dominated by Austria and Prusia. Two buffer states were created to avoid a French invasion. Italy was divided into various states. Austria, Rusia and Prusia gained territories in a balanced way, so that no one could be more powerful than the others.
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 The Cogress of Vienna • Two alliances were formed to enforce the agreements of the Congress of Viena: Objectives To enforce the Congress of Vienna To support Europe´s restored monarchs in the event of a revolution
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE 1815-1820 The Cogress of Vienna • Two alliances were formed to enforce the agreements of the Congress of Viena: Alliances The Holy Alliance Russia Austria Prusia The Quadruple Alliance The three members of the Holy Alliance and Great Britain
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII What happened in Spain after the war of Independence? Joseph I left Spain Fernando VII returned to the Spanish throne.
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII Periods of Fernando VII´s reign 1.- The restoration of absolutism 2.- The liberal period 3.- The victory of absolutism
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII 1.- The restoration of absolutism (1812-1820) What happened when Fernando VII returned to Spain? He had the support of the Spanish people Spanish people received him as their legitimate king What did Fernando VII do after becoming king? He abolished the Constitution of 1812 He ruled as an absolute monarch
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII Some members of the Spanish military rebelled against this return of absolutism. In 1820, there was a successful revolt led by two army officers, Rieg o and Quiroga. The king restaured the liberal Constitution of 1812 and the rights and freedoms. General Riego
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII 3.- The victory of absolutism (1823-1843) What did Fernando VII do to restore absolutism? He asked the Holly Aliance to assist him in reestablishing absolutism. What happened after this decision? There were more revolts but this time they weren´t successful
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII The end of Fernando VII´s reign The problem of Fernando VII´s succession • Who was going to inherit the throne? ▫ Fernando VII had no sons. ▫ He had one daughter: Isabel. • Could women inherit the throne? ▫ No, they couldn´t. In Spain there was the Salic law, established by Felipe V. It didn´t allow females to inherit the throne.
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII The end of Fernando VII´s reign The problem of Fernando VII´s succession • What did Fernando VII do? ▫ He proclaimed his pragmatic sanction, which replaced Salic law. ▫ This allowed his daughter, Isabel, to become queen after his death.
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII The end of Fernando VII´s reign The problem of Fernando VII´s succession • Was everybody in favour of his pragmatic sanction? ▫ No, Fernando´s brother was angered:  Under Salic law, Fernando´s heir would have been his brother Carlos. Carlos María Isidro de Borbón
    • THE RESTORATION IN EUROPE The reign of Fernando VII The end of Fernando VII´s reign The problem of Fernando VII´s succession • What were the consequences of the pragmatic sanction? ▫ The Carlist Wars  1833-1840  1846-1849  1872-1876
    • LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY
    • LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY LIBERALISM REVOLUTIONS 19th CENTURY TWO POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES NATIONALISM DEMOCRACY
    • LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY Origins: the Enlightenment ideas (American War of Independence and French Revolution). LIBERALISM Objective: Emphasis of individual freedoms and rights. (As a reaction against the Restoration of the Absolutism) Representation: It represented the interests of the bourgeoisie.
    • LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY SEPARATION OF POWERS LIMITED SUFFRAGE (Only male property owners) CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY LIBERALISM FREEDOM OF: - ASSOCIATION - RELIGION - THE PRESS
    • REMEMBER! • What is the difference between a state and a nation?
    • LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY Origins: 1.- The expansion of the Napoleonic Empire. NATIONALISM 2.- The new division of Europe imposed by the Congress of Vienna => no respect to the identity of the peoples such as Polish, Belgians, Norwegians, Italians or Germans. 3.- The ancien Empires, such as the Ottoman, the Russian and the Austrian Empires, were formed by very different peoples.
    • LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY Consecuences: Some peoples claimed their independences. NATIONALISM Nationalism advocated the right of people who defined themselves as nations to establish their own independent states.
    • LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY INDEPENDENT NATION-STATES WITH CLEARLY DEFINED BORDERS THE FORM OF GOVERNMENT THAT EACH NATION PREFERS NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY POPULATION WITH A COMMON HISTORY, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE NATIONALISM A WELL-INTEGRATED SOCIETY
    • LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY In the 19th century, democratic movements defended ordinary people´s right to participate in politics. DEMOCRACY Representation: The middle and working classes.
    • LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY OPPOSITION TO MONARCHY (Considered incompatible with democracy) REPUBLIC NATIONAL SOVEREINGTY UNIVERSAL MANHOOD SUFFRAGE DEMOCRACY POLITICAL PARTIES SHOULD DEFEND THE RIGHTS OF THE MIDDLE AND WORKING CLASSES AGAINST UPPER-CLASS DOMINANCE
    • Do exercises 9, 10 and 11 on page 125. El comandante Riego
    • THE AGE OF REVOLUTION Meaning Political revolutions The end of absolute monarchy Based on liberal and nationalist ideologies First half of the 19th century Characteristics Establishment of democracy
    • THE AGE OF REVOLUTION Political revolutions First half of the 19th century 1820s => Portugal, Spain and Greece 1830 => France and Belgium 1848 => France, the Austrian Empire, the German Confederation and Italy
    • THE AGE OF REVOLUTION • 1820s political revolutions ▫ Countries:  Portugal and Spain ▫ Characteristics:  liberal revolutions ▫ Aim:  To establish constitutional monarchies
    • THE AGE OF REVOLUTION • 1820s political revolutions ▫ Countries:  Greece ▫ Characteristics:  liberal and nationalist revolution ▫ Aim:  To win its independence from the Ottoman Empire
    • THE AGE OF REVOLUTION • 1830 political revolutions ▫ Countries:  France ▫ Characteristics: Carlos X of Borbon wanted to eliminate the charter given by Luis XVIII.  liberal revolution ▫ Aim:  To establish a constitutional monarchy. Luis Felipe de Orleans became king. He was the leader of the upper class.
    • THE AGE OF REVOLUTION • 1830 political revolutions ▫ Countries:  Belgium ▫ Characteristics:  Nationalist revolution ▫ Aim:  To gain independence from the Neatherlands, to which Belgium had been united by the Congress of Vienna.
    • THE AGE OF REVOLUTION • 1848 political revolutions ▫ Countries:  France, the Austrian Empire, the German Confederation and Italy. ▫ Characteristics:  More radical  Democratic revolution: ▫ Aim:  the middle class and proletariat were now demanding democratic reforms which would give them access to political power. ▫ Results :  Only in France the revolution suceed:  Proclamation of the Second Republic  Introduction of universal manhood suffrage
    • ITALIAN AND GERMAN UNIFICATION Nationalist movements Desintegrating Greece Belgium Unifying Germany Italy
    • ITALIAN AND GERMAN UNIFICATION • How were Italian and German territories like until the mid-19th century? ▫ They were divided into numerous independent states. • What happened during the first half of the 19th century in these modern-day countries? ▫ Nationalists movements emerged. • What was the result of these movements? ▫ These states were unified to form two new nation-states: Italy and Germany.
    • ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Starting point: after the Congress of Viena, the Italian peninsula was divided into seven states:
    • ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Why was there a nationalist movement? ▫ They had a common language. ▫ They wanted to increase the economic market. ▫ They wanted infraestructures of transport.
    • ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Who was opposed to the Italian unification? ▫ The Austrians (after the Congress of Vienna, they had annexed the Kingdom of Lombardy, Parma, Mód ena and Toscana). ▫ The Papal States
    • ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Who was the motor of the unification? ▫ The kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia  Italian monarchy of Saboya.  A great army.  Liberal constitution.  A seaport.  Wealth
    • ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Main characters: Cavour: • Prime minister of the monarchicst Piedmont. Garibaldi: • Revolutionist who led an army of volunteers called the «red shirts»
    • ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Type of unification process: ▫ Military • Process: ▫ 1859: After gaining support from France, King Victor Emmanuel II and his prime minister, Cavour, fought successfully against Austria. ▫ Austria was defeated in the battles of Magenta and Solferino. • Result: ▫ The Austrians were expelled from Lombardy. ▫ Lombardy was given to Piedmont.
    • ITALIAN UNIFICATION • Process: ▫ The Piedmontese gradually conquered and annexed the rest of the Italian Peninsula with the help of Garibaldi, including Venetia and the Kingdom of the Two Siciles. ▫ 1859: Garibaldi and the «Red Shirts» conquered the Southern States.
    • GERMAN UNIFICATION • Starting point: ▫ 1815:  German territory was divided in 39 states. The Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia.
    • GERMAN UNIFICATION • Starting point: ▫ 1834: Prussia created a customs union.  This was the first unifying step given by Prussia. Austria didn´t take part. ▫ 1848: the nationalist Revolution  It failed because the king didn´t accept the throne of a unified Germany in the parliament of Frankfurt.  But it consolidated the nationalism.
    • GERMAN UNIFICATION Main characters from 1862: King Wilhelm I Chancellor Bismarck
    • GERMAN UNIFICATION • Process: ▫ Bismarck started the German unification process with a conflict with Denmark over the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. ▫ 1864: Denmark was defeated.
    • GERMAN UNIFICATION • Process: ▫ 1866:  Prussia defeated Austria in the battle of Sadowa and created the Northern German Confederation.
    • GERMAN UNIFICATION • Process: ▫ 1870:  France was defeated in the Franco-Prussian War.  France didn´t accept Prussian influence.  Result:  France had to surrender the region of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany.  The Southern states joined to the German Confederation.
    • GERMAN UNIFICATION • Process: ▫ 1871:  Bismarck established the Second Reich, or German Empire, with Wilhem I as its kaiser.
    • SPAIN: FROM LIBERAL MONARCHY TO REPUBLIC
    • THE REIGN OF ISABEL II • What happened in 1833? ▫ Fernando VII died. ▫ Isabel II became Queen of Spain, but she was only 3 years old. ▫ Fernado VII´s widow, María Cristina, became the regent. ▫ At the same time, Fernando VII´s brother, Carlos María Isidro de Borbón, proclaimed himself as king of Spain:  This was the beginning of the First Carlist War. (1833-1840). María Cristina of Bourbon
    • THE REIGN OF ISABEL II • What were the Carlist Wars? The Carlist Wars were military conflicts between: the supporters of Isabel II, called liberals. and those who believed that her uncle Carlos was the legitimate heir to the Spanish throne. They were called carlists. They defended the absolutism and the Ancien Régime.
    • THE REIGN OF ISABEL II • The First Carlist War ▫ In 1833 Carlos Mª Isidro proclaimed himself king of Spain. ▫ It lasted 7 years (1833-1840) ▫ The Carlists were defeated. ▫ The «Abrazo de Vergara» put an end to the war.  But the conflict continued through the rest of the 19th century.
    • THE REIGN OF ISABEL II • • • • • • • • • • • • • What´s the importance of the reign of Isabel II? Complete these table about the two liberal political parties that supported Isabel II: What kind of suffrage existed during the reign of Isabel II? What was the military´s role during the reign of Isabel II? What regents governed in Isabel II´s place when she was a child? How old was Isabel II when she reached the age of majority? Explain the political problems she had to deal with when she reached the age of majority. What did Isabel II´s government do to solve the Spain´s economic problems? What did they do with the expropriated lands? What was the money obtained at public auctions used for? ow were the “latifundios” or agricultural estates changed through this expropriation? These lands were supposed to be expropriated for small farmers to buy them. But, in fact, who had the money to buy it? What happened to many common lands, that had been used by ordinary people to collect wood or use them as pasture for their farm animals? What was the consequence of that? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What was the consequence of expropriating lands to the Church? What happened in 1868? What did Isabel II have to do? What´s the name of that revolution? Why is this revolution important in Spain? Explain the most important characteristics of the Constitution of 1869. What historical period followed to the Glorious Revolution? What were the two political systems that existed in Spain during that period? Who became king of Spain in 1871? Why did this king have to abdicate? Who was the legitimate heir of Isabel II? What political system was established in Spain in 1873? How long did it last? What dates? What were the most important problems during these period? What economic achievements were there during the Six Revolutionary Years? What happened in 1874? What was the result of this event?
    • General Espartero Amadeo de Saboya Isabel II Alfonso XII
    • AMERICA DURING THE 19th CENTURY
    • AMERICA DURING THE 19th CENTURY USA 19th century Westward expansion The American Civil War (1861-1865)
    • AMERICA DURING THE 19th CENTURY • What happened in the USA during the 19th century after the American War of Independece? American War of Independence Political and territorial changes. The USA consolidated itself as a sovereing nation and established its definitive borders. Establishmet of many new states which still exist today.
    • EXPANSION IN THE UNITED STATES • How did the USA establish the definitive borders? The 13 colonies
    • EXPANSION IN THE UNITED STATES • Why did the American people expanded westwards during the 19th century? Many inmigrants arrived from Europe •because they were looking for a better life in the New World. The population increased rapidly. This increase in population encouraged the USA to expand westwards • They reach ed North America´s Pacific coast. Watch this video about Pioneers.
    • EXPANSION IN THE UNITED STATES • What were the consequences of the Westward expansion? ▫ Conflicts with Native Americans.  Destruction of many tribes. Watch this video
    • EXPANSION IN THE UNITED STATES Some tribes were isolated on reservations.
    • THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR • Starting point: ▫ Slavery still existed in the southern states. ▫ The northern states rejected slavery. ▫ The southern states felt threatened by this. ▫ A civil war started. Watch this video
    • THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR • Consequences: ▫ The war was won by the northern states. ▫ Slavery was ended. ▫ Universal manhood suffrage.  Male citizens of all ethnic bacgrounds had the right to vote in elections.
    • LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE • When did the Spanish colonies in Central and South America began to demand independence? ▫ During the reign of Fernando VII.
    • LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE Great Britain offered supporto to the revolutionaries in order to break Spain´s trade monopoly over its colonies. The colonies´Creole upper middle classes wanted more political and economic control. Other Wars of Independence (USA, Spain) and the French Revolution. Factors
    • LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE • Who were the leaders? Simón Bolívar General José de San Martín He led Venezuela, Col ombia (including Panama at the time), Ecuado r, Peru (together with Don José de San Martín), and Bolivia to independence from the Spanish Empire. He got the Independence of Argentina and Peru.
    • LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE • Between 1810 and 1825, all the Spanish colonies in America, except Puerto Rico and Cuba, gained their independence. ▫ Venezuela, Argentina and Mexico became independent republics. • They moved from being dominated by Spain to being under the political and economic influence of Great Britain and the USA.
    • EXERCISE List the new nations in the order in which they were established. Then use the list to make a timeline.
    • Isabel Aguña Profesora de Geografía e Historia Sección Bilingüe Fuente: Oxford Education HISTORY 4ºESO