THE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

Material de apoyo
para los alumnos
de 4ºESO bilingüe
Why in Great Britain?
KEY ELEMENTS OF INDUSTRIALISATION
INDUSTRIALIZATION IN EUROPE
Why did the Industrial Revolution spread from
Great Britain to other countries in Europe?
Interprete this map
INDUSTRIALISATION IN SPAIN
INDUSTRIAL AREAS IN SPAIN
IN THE 19th CENTURY
The metallurgical
industry in Asturias
and Vizcaya.

The cotton
The cotton
i...
ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND
INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND
INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND
INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
What is Economic liberalism?
•It´s the theory that freedom of
production and...
ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND
INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
Adam Smith´s theory
1.- The State should not
interfere with economic activit...
ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND
INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
Adam Smith´s theory
2.- Manufactures should be free
to produce the goods tha...
ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND
INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
Adam Smith´s theory
3.- There should be free
competition between
businesses....
ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND
INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
Adam Smith´s theory
4.- Merchants should be able to
import and export goods
...
ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND
INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
What is Industrial capitalism?
It´s a system which puts the ideas of
economi...
ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND
INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
A CLASS-BASED SOCIETY
A CLASS-BASED SOCIETY
People´s social status depended on their work and their
personal wealth, and not on their family bac...
WORKING-CLASS
POLITICAL MOVEMENTS
INDUSTRIAL WORKING CONDITIONS

• Machinery was
unprotected, and
accidents and
injuries were
common.
INDUSTRIAL WORKING CONDITIONS
• A tipycal working day
ws an exhausting 14 or
16 hours long.
• Wages were low.
• Young chil...
INDUSTRIAL WORKING CONDITIONS
•

Employers could dismiss or
fine workers without
restrictions.

•

Workers did not have th...
INDUSTRIAL WORKING CONDITIONS
• There was no social
insurance or benefits to
help workers in cases of
illness, accident an...
CHILD LABOUR
1833 FACTORY ACT
•No child under the age of 9 could work in a
factory.
•Children between the ages of 9 and 13...
THE ORIGINS OF WORKING-CLASS
POLITICS
THE ORIGINS OF WORKING-CLASS
POLITICS
The proletariat in
Great Britain began
to organise itself in
opposition to both
fact...
LUDDITES
•
•

•

This movement emerged in
1811.
The luddites were hostile to
nwe technology because they
thought that mach...
TRADE UNIONS
•
•
•

This movement emerged in 1830s.
This were associations of workers in
particular types of work, for exa...
CHARTIST MOVEMENT
•

This movement emerged in 1838.

•

Chartist demanded:
• Political changes.
• Universal manhood suffra...
Results
• Factory owners and governments were
forced to introduce measures that
improved industrial working conditions.
LEFT-WING IDEOLOGIES
•

In the mid-19th century, the working-class political
struggle led to the emergence of new left-win...
MARXISM
• The most important socialist theory.
• Aim:
• Analize the contradictions
of the capitalist system.

Engels

Marx
MARXISM
Four principles:
•Historical materialism.
•Class struggle.
•The dictatorship of proletariat.
•Society without clas...
HISTORICAL MATERIALISM
• The economy is the foundation of the story.
• Society is mounted on relations of production.
• Th...
«Capital»
•

In his work "Capital" Marx notes that the extent of
exploitation of the worker by the employer was
expressed ...
CLASS STRUGGLE
• Classes are social groups that occupy a particular place in the material
production process.
• In the beg...
THE DICTATORSHIP OF
PROLETARIAT
• Marx thought that workers should carry out a revolution to
destroy capitalism and empowe...
SOCIETY WITHOUT CLASSES
• It is the last phase of the transformation of society.
• A communist society would be establishe...
ANARCHISM
•
•
•

•
•

Its main founder is Bakunin
It extends to all oppressed sections of society.
More radical Marxist so...
ANARCHISM
•

Bakunin rejected the dictatorship of the proletariat and proposed an ideal
society based on:
•

Individual fr...
THE INTERNATIONAL WORKINGMEN´S
ASSOCIATIONS (IWA)
• All labor organizations in the world tried to unite their struggles:
•...
ACHIEVMENTS OF THE WORKING
CLASS MOVEMNT
• Governments developed labor laws to stop
abuse of employers:
•
•
•
•

Prohibiti...
Prof. Isabel Aguña
Profesora de Geografía e Historia
Sección bilingüe
Industrial revolution.pptx
Industrial revolution.pptx
Industrial revolution.pptx
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Industrial revolution.pptx

  1. 1. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Material de apoyo para los alumnos de 4ºESO bilingüe
  2. 2. Why in Great Britain?
  3. 3. KEY ELEMENTS OF INDUSTRIALISATION
  4. 4. INDUSTRIALIZATION IN EUROPE Why did the Industrial Revolution spread from Great Britain to other countries in Europe?
  5. 5. Interprete this map
  6. 6. INDUSTRIALISATION IN SPAIN
  7. 7. INDUSTRIAL AREAS IN SPAIN IN THE 19th CENTURY The metallurgical industry in Asturias and Vizcaya. The cotton The cotton industry in industry in Cataluña. Cataluña.
  8. 8. ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
  9. 9. ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
  10. 10. ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM What is Economic liberalism? •It´s the theory that freedom of production and free trade are essential conditions for economic growth and development to take place. Adam Smith, the father of modern economics.
  11. 11. ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM Adam Smith´s theory 1.- The State should not interfere with economic activity. •This also meant that the state should not intervene to solve the problems that were created by industrialisation, such as people losing their jobs, high unemployemnt or poor working conditions. Adam Smith, the father of modern economics.
  12. 12. ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM Adam Smith´s theory 2.- Manufactures should be free to produce the goods that they want to produce: • In this way they can respond effectively to the demands of the market. The law of the The law of the support and the support and the demand. demand. Adam Smith, the father of modern economics.
  13. 13. ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM Adam Smith´s theory 3.- There should be free competition between businesses. •This will lead to better-quality products and lower prices. The law of the The law of the support and the support and the demand. demand. Adam Smith, the father of modern economics.
  14. 14. ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM Adam Smith´s theory 4.- Merchants should be able to import and export goods without restrictions, since this will increase trade and result in greater profits. Adam Smith, the father of modern economics.
  15. 15. ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM What is Industrial capitalism? It´s a system which puts the ideas of economic liberalism into practice. What is the difference between commercial capitalism and industrial capitalism? What is the difference between commercial capitalism and industrial capitalism? •Under commercial capitalism, trade had been the most important source of profits. •Under commercial capitalism, trade had been the most important source of profits. •Under industrial capitalism, industrial production became a country´s most profitable •Under industrial capitalism, industrial production became a country´s most profitable economic activity. economic activity.
  16. 16. ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
  17. 17. A CLASS-BASED SOCIETY
  18. 18. A CLASS-BASED SOCIETY People´s social status depended on their work and their personal wealth, and not on their family background.
  19. 19. WORKING-CLASS POLITICAL MOVEMENTS
  20. 20. INDUSTRIAL WORKING CONDITIONS • Machinery was unprotected, and accidents and injuries were common.
  21. 21. INDUSTRIAL WORKING CONDITIONS • A tipycal working day ws an exhausting 14 or 16 hours long. • Wages were low. • Young children often worked to increase the family income.
  22. 22. INDUSTRIAL WORKING CONDITIONS • Employers could dismiss or fine workers without restrictions. • Workers did not have the right to protest or go on strike.
  23. 23. INDUSTRIAL WORKING CONDITIONS • There was no social insurance or benefits to help workers in cases of illness, accident and unemployment.
  24. 24. CHILD LABOUR 1833 FACTORY ACT •No child under the age of 9 could work in a factory. •Children between the ages of 9 and 13 could work up to 9 hours a day. •Children had to receive at least two hours of schooling every day. •Children could not work at night.
  25. 25. THE ORIGINS OF WORKING-CLASS POLITICS
  26. 26. THE ORIGINS OF WORKING-CLASS POLITICS The proletariat in Great Britain began to organise itself in opposition to both factory owners and the government.
  27. 27. LUDDITES • • • This movement emerged in 1811. The luddites were hostile to nwe technology because they thought that machines took jobs from workers. They protested destroying machines in the factories.
  28. 28. TRADE UNIONS • • • This movement emerged in 1830s. This were associations of workers in particular types of work, for example miners or textile workers. They demanded: • Improved working conditions. • Better wages. • Support in case of accident or illness.
  29. 29. CHARTIST MOVEMENT • This movement emerged in 1838. • Chartist demanded: • Political changes. • Universal manhood suffrage. • They petitioned Parliament to pass laws which would imrpve workers´ conditions.
  30. 30. Results • Factory owners and governments were forced to introduce measures that improved industrial working conditions.
  31. 31. LEFT-WING IDEOLOGIES • In the mid-19th century, the working-class political struggle led to the emergence of new left-wing ideologies: • Interests of the working class. • Alternatives to industrial capitalism and the classbased society. • The most important: • Marxism and Anarchism.
  32. 32. MARXISM • The most important socialist theory. • Aim: • Analize the contradictions of the capitalist system. Engels Marx
  33. 33. MARXISM Four principles: •Historical materialism. •Class struggle. •The dictatorship of proletariat. •Society without classes (Communism)
  34. 34. HISTORICAL MATERIALISM • The economy is the foundation of the story. • Society is mounted on relations of production. • The economy affects the legal and political superstructure and vice versa. • The story is divided into certain modes of production by their periods: • In his day, mode of capitalist production.
  35. 35. «Capital» • In his work "Capital" Marx notes that the extent of exploitation of the worker by the employer was expressed by the surplus value: • the difference between what the worker receives for support and the value of what it produces. • The worker is alienated. (Theory of alienation) • This surplus value is the basis of capitalist accumulation.
  36. 36. CLASS STRUGGLE • Classes are social groups that occupy a particular place in the material production process. • In the beginning of History there was a classless primitive community. • With private ownership classes arise. • History is a struggle between oppressors and oppressed: • Master - Slave • Feudal Lord - Servant • In industrial societies: • The bourgeoisie (owners of the factories) and workers. The oppressed proletariat would organise itself and fight its capitalist oppressor, the wealthy bourgeoisie.
  37. 37. THE DICTATORSHIP OF PROLETARIAT • Marx thought that workers should carry out a revolution to destroy capitalism and empower workers. • The proletariat would conquer the state and impose a temporary dictatorship to remove the structures of capitalism. • The proletariat would seize political power. Once in the power, the workers´ dictatorship would control the economy and redistribute wealth equally among all members of society. • Once achieved, the state would gradually reduce its role. • Marx defended the intervention of organizations and workers' parties in the political struggle => gave rise to socialist parties, from 1875.
  38. 38. SOCIETY WITHOUT CLASSES • It is the last phase of the transformation of society. • A communist society would be established: • • Classless: everybody would be equal. Without private property => collectivization of the means of production (natural resources and machines). • The State would disappear.
  39. 39. ANARCHISM • • • • • Its main founder is Bakunin It extends to all oppressed sections of society. More radical Marxist social revolution: • Anarchists proposed immediate and total destruction of the bourgeois social order and the state and its instruments of control (police, military, government, borders). They opposed the State => substitution by some kind of voluntary association among people. They rejected politics, political parties and participation in elections.
  40. 40. ANARCHISM • Bakunin rejected the dictatorship of the proletariat and proposed an ideal society based on: • Individual freedom: • People had to fight against any authority or institution (the State or the Church, for example) that limited their freedom. • Communes: • Society would be reorganised into small, independent groups called communes. • • In these groups, all decisions would be taken by popular assemblies. Direct action: • People had to defend their interests through their own actions, not through political parties or elections. • For some Anarchists, direct action included violent attacks and even murder.
  41. 41. THE INTERNATIONAL WORKINGMEN´S ASSOCIATIONS (IWA) • All labor organizations in the world tried to unite their struggles: • 1864: the First International Workers Association (IWA) was created: • This meeting brought together workers´ organisations from various countries. • 1889: some socialist leaders created the Socialist International (Second International) => coordinate programs and activities of labor organizations of Marxist ideology. • The Second International created some of the symbols of the identity of the labor movement: • The First of May • The Hymn of the International.
  42. 42. ACHIEVMENTS OF THE WORKING CLASS MOVEMNT • Governments developed labor laws to stop abuse of employers: • • • • Prohibition of child labor. Maternity. Obligation on the employer to pay accident insurance. Reduction of the working hours to 8 hours.
  43. 43. Prof. Isabel Aguña Profesora de Geografía e Historia Sección bilingüe
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