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  • 1. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE ANCIEN RÉGIME
  • 2. The 18th century: the Early Modern and Modern Ages
  • 3. The 18th century: the Early Modern and Modern Ages Read the text and look for the answers to the following questions: Voltaire 1.- What is the importance of the 18th century? 2.- What happened during this period? 3.- What was one of the main developments in the 18th century? 4.- What did the supporters of the Enlightenment want? 5.- What was the consequence of the ideas of the Enlightenment?
  • 4. The 18th century: the Early Modern and Modern Ages • Transformation of the basic structures of the Ancien Régime:
  • 5. The Enlightenment: a change in thinking.
  • 6. The Enlightenment Read the text and answer the following questions: Voltaire 1. What was Enlightenment? 2. What was Enlightenment thinkers´ opinion about the Ancien Régime? 3. What did Enlightenment thinkers want? 4. Name the main principles of Enlightenment thought. 5. What did Enlightenment thinkers say about reason? 6. What did Enlightenment thinkers say about learning and thinking? 7. What did Enlightenment thinkers say about equality and liberty? 8. How were enlighted ideas spread? 9. Where did Enlightenment thinkers organised meetings? 10. Describe the picture on page 53. 11. What did the intellectuals D´Alembert and Diderot do? 12. What was the importance of the Encyclopaedia?
  • 7. Enlightenment Principles of Enlightenment Reason versus tradition or superstition Learning and teaching Educate and «enlighten» society. Natural rights of the human being: power can´t eliminate individual freedom and property. Tolerance to coexist in society. Social equality: - Oposition to the estates of the realm. - Every person could progress in society thanks to his/her abilities, in stead of the economic privilegies of noble families. Equality and liberty under the law: All people should enjoy the same legal rights and freedoms.
  • 8. Enlightenment • The salon of Madame Geoffrin in Paris gathered wise men, politicians, soldiers, nobles, philosophers and aristocrats.
  • 9. Enlightenment • The Encyclopaedia o It summarised knowledge from many areas of study, including science, philosophy, art and grammar.
  • 10. Enlightenment criticisms and proposals. Montesquieu He argued for the separation of powers. The three branches of power should be separated from one another (not in the same person or institution). Voltaire He supported the existence of parliaments. Rousseau He introduced the idea of popular sovereignty. Citizens establish a treaty with the State in the Constitution: - Citizens allow the State to govern in their name. - The power is not the monarch´s but the citizens´. - The king is just a representative of the nation.
  • 11. Enlightenment criticisms and proposals. • • • Phsiocracy versus Mercantilism A nation should reach the full agricultural production to be rich. Phisiocrats argued that agriculture was the true source of wealth of a country. o Industry just transformed the agricultural products. o Trade just exchanged them. They proposed to eliminate the lands of the Church and the Nobility which weren´t exploded. Some ministers such as Turgot in France and Jovellanos in Spain tried to carry out this policies but they didn´t succed because of the oposition of the privileged people. The phisiocrat Quesnay
  • 12. Enlightenment criticisms and proposals. • Enlightenment thinkers criticised the social inequalities of the estates system: o No group should have special privileges under the law.
  • 13. The Enlightenment in Spain • Spanish Enlightenment thinkers Spain had declined during the reigns of the Lesser Hapsburgs. Jovellanos We wanted to use Enlightenment ideas to improve economic, social and cultural conditions in Spain. The count of Floridablanca
  • 14. The Enlightenment in Spain • To communicate Enlightenment ideas: We published scientific and literary papers. We established schools, academies and special associations known as sociedades económicas de amigos del país in Madrid. Ruta por el Madrid de los Borbones Imágenes del Madrid de los Borbones. Jovellanos The Count of Floridablanca
  • 15. Enlightenment politics in Europe, America and Spain
  • 16. ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM • Who is a despot?
  • 17. ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM Definition It was a new form of government that developed in some European countries in the 18th century. Objective Charles III of Spain To improve quality of life by combining: To modernise the country Absolute monarchy Enlightened ideas They are despots (absolute monarchs) who use the enlightened ideas to improve society but imposing their laws to the people without asking.
  • 18. ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM Characteristics How did absolute monarchs introduced the Enlightenment to their politics? Centralised governements To consolidate their power Enlightened thinkers as ministers To promote reform Making changes pacefully, through education and law To avoid challegnes to their power This system didn´t succeed as a form of government because it maintained the privileges of the estates system.
  • 19. Which monarchs in Europe were Enlightened despots? These monarchs implemented various enlightened reforms, such as: Unification of the legal system. Carlos III Catherine the Great of Russia Modernisation of the army. Promotion of agriculture, industry, education and culture. Joseph II of Austria Frederick II of Prusia
  • 20. Enlightened despotism • Famous sentences that summarize the Enlightened despotism: Everything for the people, nothing by the people. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Argue as much as you will and about whatever you will, but obey! Frederick II of Prusia