The Israeli Innovations for Overcoming Water Scarcity by Novel  Water Technologies
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The Israeli Innovations for Overcoming Water Scarcity by Novel Water Technologies

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Eilon Adar. Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research. J.B. Institutes for Desrt Research. Ben Gurion University of the Negev. Foro "Promoviendo una Minería Sostenible"

Eilon Adar. Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research. J.B. Institutes for Desrt Research. Ben Gurion University of the Negev. Foro "Promoviendo una Minería Sostenible"

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    The Israeli Innovations for Overcoming Water Scarcity by Novel  Water Technologies The Israeli Innovations for Overcoming Water Scarcity by Novel Water Technologies Presentation Transcript

    • Eilon Adar Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research J.B. Institutes for Desrt Research Ben Gurion University of the Negev eilon@bgu.ac.il Colombia 2013
    • Water in the Middle East is a scarce commodity Demand and the actual consumption of water is far beyond the annual rate of replenishment, exceeding the safe yield. Annual renewable amount to about 1,400 m3 per person per year - less than 20% of the global average. Closing the Gap between Water Availability (Supply) and Demand .
    • All major water resources in the region are transboundary – Cross-Borders Water Resources
    • The Goal: Bridging Over Water Shortage Securing Sufficient & Adequate Water Supply by implementing novel water innovations and technologies 1. Improving Water utilization efficiency: irrigation & water application; water reuse; water management: supply and quality 2. New Water: Reclaimed treated sewage & Seawater and groundwater desalination Simultaneously performed !
    • Agriculture: past and present 1958 1963-1975 1985-2010 Open field cultivation- History! Colombia 2013
    • • Elevating Water Use Efficiency: • Eliminate soil water evaporation. • Sub-surface drip irrigation; Pulse-response irrigation; • Sequential use of water. Protected cultivation Net houses & Green Houses
    • Avoiding soil water evaporation and top soil salinity
    • Water use efficiency on the farm scale Isolated confined "soil root zone”
    • Developing plant species that can tolerate relatively wide range of water & soil quality under variable micro-climate conditions Colombia 2013
    • Salt resisting shoots grafted with Merlot Colombia 2013
    • New Mango plantation on sandy salty soil in the Arava Valley.
    • Olive plantation in the Southern Arava ValleyOlive plantation in the Southern Arava Valley
    • Grafted plants Commercial varieties Salt tolerant species Colombia 2013
    • BGU Grafted Melons Tolerate Salty Water
    • Mini Watermelon Tolerate Salty Water Colombia 2013
    • Will the conventional policy of Water Saving & Increasing Water-Use Efficiency enable humanity to avoid water shortages and provide water security? Will the conventional policy of Water Saving & Increasing Water-Use Efficiency enable humanity to avoid water shortages and provide water security? At most, only temporarily mitigate water scarcity!At most, only temporarily mitigate water scarcity! We shall not be able to meet the increasing demand for water (and food) by simply improving water-use efficiency. We shall not be able to meet the increasing demand for water (and food) by simply improving water-use efficiency.
    • One cannot sustain the water and food supply with a diminishing amount of water and a continuously growing population. One cannot sustain the water and food supply with a diminishing amount of water and a continuously growing population. Colombia 2013
    • Sub-Surface Water Saving Account: Enhanced Groundwater Recharge
    • Exposed Groundwater in the Arava (Timna Mine) Groundwater in the Arava Valley
    • Hatzeva Reservoir19.1.2010 ‫צילום‬:‫אלבטרוס‬ Attenuation of Floods along the Arava Wash
    • SKY VIEW Infiltration Lagoons Ein Yahav Village Groundwater production wells Water release from Nekarot Reservoir to enhance groundwater recharge
    • RAS Sludge Treatment The AGAR® Technology • Advanced Biomass Carriers • Increased effective surface area • Unique aeration design (airlift double role)
    • Cotton plantations Drip Irrigation with treated effluents In Judea Lowland Plateau Israel: 82% Reclaimed Effluents = 68% of the water used by the agriculture Sector Israel: 82% Reclaimed Effluents = 68% of the water used by the agriculture Sector
    • Reverse Osmosis Desalination Production of Alternative New Water
    • On Sept 2006 completed first 100 Million m3/year Creating New Water: seawater, groundwater & treated sewage desalination By May 2010 - 150 Million m3/year Ashkelon Plant Hadera – 2010 Desalination plant 160 million M3/y 96”Concretepipe Two 64”HDPE Intakepipe, 1,300 m 64”HDPE outfallpipe, 800m 96”Concretepipe Palmachim 85 Mm3/y. April 2010
    • 0 36 100 130 145 160 280 305 405 505 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Development of sea water desalination plants in Israel along the national system (60)30 (100) (135) 100 Hadera Palmachim Ashdod Ashkelon Full production Since 12/05 Construction phase. Production at 10/09 Shafdan (100) Full production Since 9/07 Sea Water Desalination Cost : 0.60- 0.70 US $/m3 Sea water desalination plant Saline water desalination plant (150M/y) 605 Mm3/y in 2015! Colombia 2013
    • Colombia 2013
    • Gypsum crystals Mag x100 Calcium crystals Mag x800 Avoid sealing & damaging of membranes by minerals deposition Gypsum crystals Mag x100 Avoid sealing & damaging of membranes by minerals deposition
    • Bio-fouling Extracellular Material (Polysaccharides, Proteins)
    • Benefits of antimicrobial peptides: •Active against wide range of microorganisms •Bacteria do not acquire resistance to it; •Non toxic to humans Peptide Peptide Peptide Peptide Reverseosmosis membranesurface Covalent immobilization of peptides on RO membranes through long linkers Antimicrobial peptides kill bacteria by permeabilization of bacterial cell membrane Colombia 2013
    • In-Land RO Desalination Plant Colombia 2013
    • Colombia 2013
    • Toward Zero Liquid Discharge Wind Aided Intensified Evaporation From a Prototype to Alfa Model and Beta site Prototype Alfa Model Colombia 2013
    • WAIV Projects Around the Globe The client: Mekorot – Israel’s national water company Location: Ketziot – Israel Application: Brackish water desalination brine Colombia 2013
    • WAIV Projects Around the Globe The client: Dead Sea Works Location: Israel Application: Minerals production Colombia 2013
    • WAIV Projects Around the Globe The client: General Motors Location: Ramos Arizpe – Mexico Application: BW Desalination brine Colombia 2013
    • The Main Challenge: Safe Discharge of Surplus Flow back/Produced Water Generated During Production Large volumes Improper configuration of sewage treatment plants (STP’s) Only a small fraction of the flow back can be cut into a new frac without significant treatment to remove TDS On-site capacity limitations frequently require producers to truck excess water to alternative commercial disposal facilities which can be a major expense and risk (Hazmat spills)
    • Water Reuse Practices and Brine Management Alternatives Why Reuse? • Potential to reduce discharges • Minimize underground injection of wastewater • Conserve water resources Byproduct Brine • For now, evaporation or discharge into drainage systems are still the most common methods in North America (reuse of treated water is growing in Australia). Hence, brine minimization solution is of critical need! Colombia 2013
    • Increasing water saving and eliminating groundwater contamination associated with leaching and tailing of mining industry Eilon M. Adar & Ofer Dahan Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research at the Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Sede Boqer Campus Colombia 2013
    • Real time monitoring of the heap hydraulic and chemical properties Colombia 2013
    • The tailing dumps, the piles of waste material, and the superficial channels of effluents increase the rate of contamination of the aquifers, affecting all the downstream rivers and groundwater reservoirs with negative impact on agricultural activities that take place downstream. Objectives Increasing water use efficiency for saving on water application by the mining industry. Eliminating deep percolation of polluted water to protect local aquifers and eliminating further contamination of downstream groundwater reservoirs. The goals are: Introducing an efficient water application method that decreases losses by evaporation and eliminates un-necessary deep percolation; Improving leaching efficiency in the heap-leaching production processes; Containing the already polluted groundwater to avoid further contamination of the downstream aquifers; Assessing the hydro-chemical evolution of the percolating water along the vadose zone; Assessing the hydro-chemical evolution within the sub-aquifer unites along the groundwater flow trajectories. Colombia 2013
    • Methodology In order to face the aforementioned objectives one has to determine the following parameters: • Developing of combined under-cover high-low pressure sprinkling-dripping water application system; • Identifying the precise subsurface flow paths within the unsaturated (vadose) zone from the on-surface treatment heap leaching piles and floatation and tailing lagoons down to the local aquifers; • Identifying the groundwater flow trajectories within and in-between sub-aquifer units; • Identifying the hydraulic connectivity among the water bearing formations and the neighboring aquifers; • Quantify the water fluxes across the vadose (unsaturated) zone; • Quantify the groundwater fluxes within and in-between sub-aquifer units. Colombia 2013
    • Optimization of heap leach productivity while reducing environmental pollution
    • The concept Forming HYDRAULIC CONNECTIVITY between the SOIL WATER and the sampler
    • Direct contact Vadose zone Sampling Ports
    • Colombia 2013
    • Real time monitoring of the heap hydraulic and chemical properties Colombia 2013
    • Colombia 2013
    • Chloride concentration in soil water extracts (right hand profile), water samples collected by the VSP (left hand four profiles), and in shallow groundwater under a natural sand dune overlying the Coastal Aquifer, Israel. Colombia 2013
    • Colombia 2013
    • Tortolas Area – Sources of Groundwater Recharge X ? Groundwater BarrierGroundwater Barrier Mountain-Front Recharge ? Colombia 2013
    • Moavian Desert Dead Sea Negev Desert Sedom The Arava Valley A complex hydrogeological systems with scarce hydrological information Yotvata Ya’alon UOA 2013 Tucson, 10, 2013
    • Colombia 2013
    • Exposed Groundwater in the Arava (Timna Mine)
    • dt dp dp d V dt d dt dp dp d V nn                =)( dt d V nnn n )( 111 nnnnn R r rnr J j njn I i ini dt d VWQqq     Water Balance Expression for Cell n dt dh SWQqq nn R r rn J j nj I i in     111 The Mathematical Description dt dh g dt dp ghp   dt dh dp d gV dt dp dp d V nn     2 nnn =)( dt d V  n n nn dp d gVS  * dt dh Sn  * nnn =)( dt d V Colombia 2013
    • nCnk C4k nCIk C2k C1k C3k C3k CIIk CIIIk CR4k CR3k CR2k CR1k Cnk Mass balance expression for every "k" dissolved species dt dc dt d cc nkVnV=)( dt d V nnnknnknn     dt dc dt dh c nk* nVn* nS nknnkrn R 1r rknj J 1j nkin I 1i ik WcQc)q(c)q(c   (k=1,2,3,...,Kn) )c( dt d VWcQc)q(c)q(c nknnnnkrn R 1r rknj J 1j nkin I 1i ik   dt dc dt n dp dp d cc nkVnV=)( dt d V nnnknnknn     dt dh g dt dp ghp   dt dc dt n dh dp d cc g nkVnV=)( dt d V nnnknnknn      n n nn dp d gVS  * nnn VV * Colombia 2013
    • The Mixing Cells Modeling (MCM) concept Water Balance Expression 0 11 1 )1(      n J j nj R r I i inrn WQQS nn n All potential sources are identified nn J j nj R r I i inrn WQQS nn n      11 1 )2( Leakage from the clay & marls formations Wn Colombia 2013
    • Mass Balance Expression nk I i J j nnjnkinink r rnrnk WQCQCSC nR           1 11 )3( rnrkQC inkC inkC nkC Every source is designated by a unique hydro-chemical composition
    • N ALMATY GARKENT TALDYKORGAN I l y STUDY AREA StorageWater BALKHASH South-East Kazakhstan Sand dune terrain Illi River Irrigated RICE fields Colombia 2013
    • 52 11 { { O1 O2 { { O3 O4 22 00 40 0 20 0 20 00 18 00 16 00 14 00 12 00 10 00 80 0 60 0 gQII-III 5-7-3.5 6.1 -7 .1 apQII apQIV 33 17 30 8 0.0 5-65 N2il 52 06 0.3 10 00 90 0 80 0 70 0 60 0 20 0 10 0 Qo u t 0.2 -1 4 40 .8-33 .3 apQI N2il 0.4 apQII 0.4 -9 0.3 01 03 04 02 0.2 -1 5 45 .1-64 .2 49 .1-35 30 -2 2.6 0.5 0.2 apQIII 83 .1 S S Qo u t 58 -3 .2 0.2 0.3 -1 1 50 36 36 1 apQIII S 0.1 +4 0.2 R 20 0 40 0 60 0 80 0 10 00 B C C 70 0 60 0 20 0 10 0 50 0 40 0 30 0 S +1 6.5 A 50 33 30 1 S R +2 4.8 35 8 50 0 40 0 30 0 0.3 -1 0 48 .8-44 VESNOVKA River 0.1 14 .8-23 .7 SCA LE : HORIZONTAL 1: 2 00 0 00 VERTICA L 1 : 20 0 00 05 05 R R R 13 18 50 19 50 20 50 21 Qo u t Pm Pm Almaty Basin, Kazakhstan Colombia 2013
    • Colombia 2013
    • 5 cell interflow between cells interflow between levels outflow streambed infiltration source of pollution mountain front recharge pumpage 1 2 5 36 4 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 1 6 2 3 4 5 7 1 4 6 5 2 3 300 43 134200 51 0 75 24 403 48251071 7 8 7 3600045000 50600 29300 57800 423007932 39713 17546 49447 11621 0 0 6205 56241 0 17670 500 17900 22000 5870 12300 1440011400 9848 20484 1578917345 254611338 62567 20000 0 0 0 7035 0 31900 Simplified Flow Pattern And Calculated Fluxes in Almaty Basin Colombia 2013
    • Mulde coal mining area, Germany. Colombia 2013
    • Colombia 2013
    • Contaminated lakes in the flooded mining pits. Colombia 2013
    • Concerns: contaminated subsurface groundwater trajectories and polluted shallow water flow paths!!! Colombia 2013
    • 4.525.000 4.530.000 4.535.000 4.540.000 4.545.0004.520.000 5.725.000 5.720.000 5.730.000 5.735.000 5.740.000 5.745.000 5.715.000 Goit37587 Goit211 Goit455 Goit385 Goit432 HyO37/69up HyO36/69up HyJ23E/2.2 Grob880 HyO27/69 Germany Level 1-2 Cells configuration I II III VI V IV VII VIII IX X XI S-2 S-2 S-2 S-1 S-2 S-3 S-2 S-4 S-5 S-3 S-4 S-5 S-6 S-5 S-6 S-5 External source Intermediate flow Pumping rate(%) 662 894 618 650 644 620 660 772 877 570 894 EC (S/cm) OUTFLOW 552 Colombia 2013
    • The groundwater flow pattern and connectivity among sub- aquifer units in the Mulde groundwater basin Colombia 2013
    • Basic Assumptions for the Transient Mixing Cell Model (MCMtr) The spatial structure, geometry, size and volume of the cells remain constant along the entire duration of the model; The isotopes and the dissolved minerals are inert and do not compose any chemical reactions within the aquifer; The dissolved ions are in pseudo-equilibrium with the rocks and soil minerals; All potential unknown fluxes (groundwater fluxes between compartments of the system and discharge of external contributors to the compartments) have been identified in terms of its hydrochemical and isotopic composition. Spatial and temporal variations in chemical and isotopic composition within the aquifer is exclusively due to 1) variable mixing ratios among the recharge components, and 2) dilution and mixing along the groundwater flow-paths. Complete mixing of all dissolved constituents within the designated cells; No gradients of hydraulic heads, isotopic and chemical compositions are allowed within the cells, only across the cell's boundaries.
    • Groundwater and surface water resources combined with the anthropogenic impact (industry and agriculture), create a complex hydrological and hydro-chemical flow system. The spatial distribution of various sources of pollutants along rivers and within lakes is closely related to the relative contribution of each of the active sources. complex hydrological and hydrochemical flow system Diffused sources. Colombia 2013
    • Objectives Identifying active sources of recharge: fresh water & pollutants; Quantifying the amount of deep percolation into each sub- aquifer unit along every segment of the aquifer; Quantifying the groundwater fluxes within and along every water bearing sub-aquifer unit; Colombia 2013
    • Future implementation: The impact of mining on the quality of groundwater reservoirs Colombia 2013
    • Heap Leaching Piles Evaporation Lagoons
    • Deep percolation from processing And Tailing water Colombia 2013
    • Sources of Groundwater Recharge and Possible Pollutants Into the downstream Basin Colombia 2013
    • Surface reclamation does not eliminate subsurface downstream leachate and leakage! Colombia 2013
    • Summary The MCM is aimed for complex hydro-geological basins with lack of hydrological information that eliminate the possibility to solve hydrological model based on the continuity equation. The MCM model identifies and provides a quantitative assessment of deep percolation into groundwater from different sources such as mining and agriculture. Colombia 2013
    • Innovation In Water: The Origins are Already In the Bible!
    • Water needs care & attention Thank you