Linux and OS390 USS: Where, When, Why ?


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  • CECMG: Ulm Germany UKCMG: Murrayfield, Edinburgh PHILACMG: Philadelphia PA June 8, 2001 NCACMG 9/12/2001 -- cancelled NYCMG 9/14/2001-- cancelled KCCMG 9/24,2001 -- cancelled SCMG 9/27/2001 -- cancelled Boston 11/8/2001 NYCMG 11/9/01 CMG2001 12/6/2001 session 5402b
  • Copyright 2002 Robert H. (Bob Johnson
  • Copyright 2002 Robert H. (Bob Johnson
  • Copyright 2002 Robert H. (Bob Johnson
  • Copyright 2002 Robert H. (Bob Johnson I do not claim to be an OpenEdition guru. Much of the information in this presentation is gathered from the OpenEdition listserv. IBM is doing a wonderful job contributing to the information in this arena. As such, you should accept that they too are doing their best to develop the procedures and techniques to make the computing community successful using OpenEdition. (Translation: Don’t blame them if the information provided does not work in your environment!) OpenEdition is a brave new world and delivers on the promises of true enterprise interconnectivity. If we work it together, the entire industry will benefit. Good luck.
  • Approximately 70-80 people showed up at the CMG presentation and another 40 people at the birds of a feather (BOF) later in the evening. 20 people (28%) had Linux running on their s/390!
  • Many other people contributed to this presentation. Aaron Cain, Senior Systems Engineer at Landmark Systems Corporation, provided much input.
  • What is the genesis for all of this activity? IBM is rebranding all of their hardware and bringing out a new class of machines to have the mainframe be THE server of choice.
  • The code name for the “zSeries” was “Freeway” and this takes over from the 9672 just as it took over from the “System 390” and it took over from the “ System 370” and it took over from the “System 360.”
  • But our focus is on what runs Linux and z/OS. The IRD is an integral part of the future. Not that you will be running Linux in an IRD partition, necessarily, but that you will have a box that can be partitioned and controlled by z/OS. WLM manages the allocation of resources in z/OS. PR/SM manages the processing resources among the Logical Partitions (LPs). IRD is the communication between WLM and PR/SM. If you don’t run Linux in a IRD partition, think of IRD as an enabler for Linux CPs to run outside those clusters managed by IRD.
  • The z/Series is a very scalable environment but you have to pick your end point carefully. There are two versions: one with 12 Processing Units (9 CPUs) (Models 101 through 109) which take you from 41 MSUs through 265 MSUs) and one with 20 Processing units (16 CPUs) (models 110 through 116) which take you from 327 MSUs through 441 MSUs)
  • Many applications just need a machine that runs UNIX. The major problem is that the “machine” does not have “RAS” -- reliability, availability, serviceability. Even the largest and best of the SUN and HP boxes have trouble making it to three to four “9’s -- 99.9 to 99.99% up time. I BM has been working on this for 40 years and pretty much has it down pat. You want a box that stays up, call IBM. 3 “9’s is 525 minutes outage per year 4 “9”s is 52 minutes outage per year 5 ‘9’s is 5 minutes outage per year IBM is betting that they can provide something people will buy -- hardware that does not fail. This is a box that can run lots of stuff -- OS/390, z/OS, UNIX, Linux, and even NT. Yes, the mainframe suffers outages, but they are not as frequent nor are they are of the duration of the long, publicized outages of the distributed environments in recent months.
  • Yes, this is real Linux. The comment was made that less than one percent of the Linux code was modified (as it usually is for a new platform) to run on OS/390.
  • Copyright 2002 Robert H. (Bob Johnson
  • Now you can have workload manager functions channeling resources to a group of Linux applications to meet goals.
  • Copyright 2002 Robert H. (Bob Johnson USS is and always will be a part of the operating system (called MVS, then OS/390, now “z/OS” -- the ‘z” stands for “zero down time. USS will be the primary platform for UNIX implementation where the application needs access to data already on z/OS (approximately 75% of the mission critical data) or where the application already exists on z/OS and the new application is only an extension. Linux will be the primary platform where cost is the primary consideration and the data center will be building everything from scratch -- everything. There is no security, tape, data file structures, etc. The customer will either download and customize it or pay a vendor to build it for them.
  • Copyright 2002 Robert H. (Bob Johnson 4010view: This is a logical view of OpenEdition. Standards compliance means that applications written on one platform can be “ported” (whatever that means: usually recomplilation) from one to another. Another thing to notice is that the mainframe and UNIX terms are mixed. The “operating system” on the left uses the term “kernel” to mean the operating system. The “operating system” on the right uses “supervisor” to mean the operating system.
  • Whether an organizations knows it or not, OS/390 starts USS at initialization time and cannot run without it. Likewise, USS depends on OS/390 TCP/IP stack itself runs processes in USS IBM’s new brand name for e-commerce solutions- WebSphere- runs on USS or Linux on MVS. This brand name is an umbrella for a Web application server, Web application development tools, Web site monitoring software and other products that help design and deploy web sites. If an organization wants high reliability, availability and security for their web site and other e-business activities, WebSphere is the leading solution.
  • Copyright 2002 Robert H. (Bob Johnson It’s the data stupid.
  • See Session 1745, SHARE 97, July 26, 2001, Minn, MN Mike Kearney, Washington Systems Center,
  • December 6, 2000 First Major Commercial Linux installation in Europe enables Telia to host more than 1500 web servers on a single, scalable IBM mainframe server Copenhagen, December 6, 2000 - IBM and Telia, Scandinavia's largest telecommunications and internet service provider, today announced that Telia will be the first European company to deploy a major commercial IT system based on Linux. Telia will install a combination of IBM mainframe and Shark storage technology, both running on Linux, to host and run their business and consumer Internet services operations across Scandinavia. Using this technology, Telia will also offer customers in the Nordic countries IP-VPN (Internet Protocol/Virtual Private Network) services. Telia will replace its 70 existing web hosting unix servers with a single IBM S/390 G6 enterprise server, which will host more than 1500 virtual internet Linux servers simultaneously. Each virtual server acts as a web server for individual Telia-hosted business customers. Telia will also move data from its current storage servers to a 11.4 Terabyte IBM Enterprise Storage Server ("Shark"). (p.s. I just display this very long link address to see how long IBM will support it! A very long time, it seems!
  • Korean Air is implementing IBM's Websphere and Tivoli systems through an eServer z900 mainframe running Linux. The system gives more than 3,000 pilots and flight attendants real-time online flight schedule information that they can update at any time. The airline has a fleet of 111 airplanes that service 77 cities in 29 countries. "We decided to deploy our flight scheduling systems on Linux because we were able to consolidate workloads that had been running on a variety of different servers," said Yong-Seung Hwang, chief information officer at Korean Air. "A single IBM eServer z900 running Linux can do the work of an entire server farm. Multiple copies of Linux can run side by side on a server, allowing for highly scalable and manageable environments that can handle unpredictable spikes in Internet activity."
  • Metal: who would run Linux on a multi-million dollar box? LPARs: who would run Linux on a LPAR when this is a really valuable resource VIF is a stripped down VM that allows Linux to be run on hidden CPUs in a box. As a virtual machine. ISX is OEM software to run software as a task under os/390.
  • Monitoring Linux also has a number of options. BMC has a fee-based monitor and there are a number of Open source (free) monitoring solutions.
  • There are a number of Unix Systems Services monitors on the market. The scope of these is beyond this paper.
  • Probing for: General knowledge of USS to ensure you are talking to the right person- we’ve found that MVS systems programmers have responsibility for USS Comfort level with USS and Unix- we’ve found that MVS systems programmers find the Unix environment foreign and are welcoming of a product like TMON/USS that masks Unix to display performance statistics in the familiar TMON style Recognition that USS shares resources with MVS- USS uses MVS resources as needed and our customers are noticing that USS activities are showing up more and more on TMVS. You can navigate from TMVS to our USS monitor and drill down through the job, process and thread levels to find bottlenecks and fix them
  • Probing for: Knowledge that USS activities can affect performance of other sub-systems (DB2, CICS, IMS)- MVS resources are shared with USS, USS may be consuming more resources than appropriate and need parameters adjusted to contain activities Understanding that USS is active even if no applications are running- USS is built into MVS, turning MVS “on” requires USS activity
  • Probing for: Nervousness about installing application in unfamiliar Unix environment- without a USS monitor, the user will need to know a number of Unix commands in order to get parameters set up and check if they are appropriate Worry about ability to keep critical business applications running smoothly- exception reporting and “on the fly” tuning are must haves when your business success is at risk. Suggest: Would it make sense to start a trial of TMON/USS prior to doing the application installation?
  • Probing for: Frustration and inefficiency during the install process- one of our early trial customers installed TMON/USS right after installing Domino and is convinced that the monitor would have make them much more productive during the Domino application implementation Pressure from users whose jobs aren’t getting run and don’t know why- TMON/USS is interactive, you can kill activities at the job and process level right from the monitor Inability to use Unix commands to check threshold parameter settings- TMON/USS displays parameters in the familiar TMON environment and allows you to alter setting right from the monitor
  • Jim Elliott is the Product Manager for Linus in the Americas and has a pointer web page.
  • As referenced by Joan Kelly at SHARE in Long Beach, Feb 2001
  • Linux and OS390 USS: Where, When, Why ?

    1. 1. Linux and OS/390 USS: Where, When, Why? NCACMG Reston, VA February 13, 2002
    2. 2. Linux and OS/390 USS: Where, When, Why? Robert H. (Bob) Johnson 703.715.0823 703.608.8376 (cell) [email_address]
    3. 3. Permission <ul><li>Copyright  2001, 2002 Robert H. (Bob) Johnson. Permission is granted to attendees to make copies of this material for their publications and for attendees’ one-time usage. All other rights reserved. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Copyrights MVS Concepts and Facilities (ISBN 0-07-032673-8, Spanish translation = 84-481-092-1, McGraw-Hill Madrid) is copyright 1989 Robert H. Johnson Jr. DASD IBM's Direct Access Storage Devices (ISBN 0-07-032674-6 copyright 1992 Robert H & R. Daniel Johnson). UNIX as a Second Language (ISBN 0-9650929-1-7) is copyrighted 1995, 2001 by Robert H. Johnson . All other products and brand names mentioned are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. Contents may settle during shipment. Your mileage may vary. Warning, contents under pressure.
    5. 5. Disclaimer <ul><li>The information contained in this presentation is distributed on an “as-is” basis without any warranty either express or implied. The use of this information or the implementation of any of these techniques is the reader's responsibility. Neither the authors nor this conference is responsible in any way for the reader's application of this information. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Disclaimer-2 This presentation is designed to start a dialogue within the industry on the future of UNIX in mainframe computing. This area is one of the most important arenas for the 21st century. In order for us to be successful, we need understanding and discussion on the topic. I share what I know and discover. I challenge you to do the same.
    7. 7. Background <ul><li>CMG 2000 wanted a panel on IBM’s support of Linux on z/900 platforms and what that meant. </li></ul><ul><li>I “volunteered” to chair the panel. </li></ul><ul><li>The experts took over from there! </li></ul><ul><li>Over the rest of 2001, I filled in the pieces with my own research. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Abstract <ul><li>How is Linux different from USS? What performance and capacity metrics are available (or planned?)? What workloads run on S/390 Linux? In terms of eCommerce, which UNIX system is &quot;better&quot; for WebServer- USS or Linux? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Disclaimer The basis of this presentation was a summary of a panel on the topic at CMG/2000 in Orlando Florida, USA, December, 2000, AND my extensions of these findings. If there are errors or omissions, then the problems are mine. If there is good stuff, then it must have been provided by the panelists: Peter Enrico, Mark Cathcart, IBM; Ross Patterson, Computer Associates <>, or Tim Kane,
    10. 10. Agenda <ul><li>0001 - Rebranding of families: z/Business and e/Server </li></ul><ul><li>0010 - Why UNIX on S/390 and z/900 </li></ul><ul><li>0011 - Will the real UNIX stand up </li></ul><ul><li>0100 - Linux? What Linux? </li></ul><ul><li>0101 - Unix Systems Services </li></ul><ul><li>0110 - Which UNIX to Pick </li></ul><ul><li>0111 - Should You Run Linux on VM or VIF? </li></ul><ul><li>1000 - Application Considerations </li></ul>
    11. 11. 0001 Re-Branding of CPU families
    12. 12. eServer Family <ul><li>zSeries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a.k.a “Freeway” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supercedes 9672 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>iSeries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supercedes AS/400 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>pSeries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supercedes RS/6000 and Sequent NUMA-Q </li></ul></ul><ul><li>xSeries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supercedes Netfinity </li></ul></ul>Linux available for full suite of eServer machines
    13. 13. “Freeway” - The z900 Series <ul><li>64-bit zArchitecture with z/OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built on new copper technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 64GB of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“above the line” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“above the bar” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregate I/O bandwidth up to 24Gb/sec -- that’s GIGABYTE! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>z/OS Intelligent Resource Director (IRD): Linux enabler? </li></ul>
    14. 14. “Freeway” - 2 <ul><li>Up to 640 processors in a Parallel Sysplex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 x 32 (up to 16 Central Processors, 3 System Assist Processors, and 1 spare CP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20%-30% faster than G6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“not even close to maximizing out Moore’s Law” </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. “Freeway” - 3 <ul><li>Intelligent Resource Director (IRD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages LPAR cluster (within a single CEC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stripped down WLM: assigned workload goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves resources TO and FROM workloads not workloads to and from resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IRD requires WLM in each LPAR and z/OS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HiperSockets and Linux Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual TCP/IP network within a CEC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very fast </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Freeway - 4 <ul><li>New IBM Pricing Options - Linux for S/390: XSLM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workload License Charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable-Charge Products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flat-Charge Products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM and ISV must build license installation, policy and system installation, reporting, logs, and contract management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires z/OS in 64-bit mode on z/Series server </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Freeway - 5 Linux World in New York, February 1, 2001: VM's and Linux/390's own Jim Elliott walked up to the podium at the VIP reception to accept an award on IBM's behalf. It seems the IBM zSeries model z900 won the &quot;Best Hardware&quot; category - not bad for a dead dinosaur platform, eh?
    18. 18. 0010 Why UNIX on S/390, z900, z/VM, VIF, and z/OS <ul><li>“z” is for “zero downtime” </li></ul><ul><li>“Reliability, Availability, Serviceability (RAS)” was invented here </li></ul><ul><li>“WebServer” “Commercial” </li></ul>
    19. 19. Why UNIX on S/390 z900 - 2 <ul><li>“SUN UE10000 (Sun Cap) is about where 3084 was in 1984 for RAS” </li></ul><ul><li>“Major online systems suffer 11 hours downtime due to back-end storage failure.” </li></ul>
    20. 20. z/800: Baby “z” “ I-series” 1-15 “ z-series” 20-hundreds “ z/VM virtualization technology”
    21. 21. IBM’s strategy for Linux <ul><li>Application development on a widely available, volume platform. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the volume platform for initial deployment with minimal barriers, and </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal barriers for scale from low to high (IBM S/390 Bulletin 28, August 2000, page 16-18) </li></ul>
    22. 22. 0011 Will the Real Unix Stand Up <ul><li>UNIX is really hundreds of variants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX 95/98, etc is a collection of subsystem calls that must be honored to be “UNIX” all of them have these </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUN (SOLARIS), IBM (AIX), HP (HP/UX) have these and lots more but cost money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux has all of them, but is “free” </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. 0100 Linux? What Linux? <ul><li>This is the real Linux -- the one written by Linus Torvalds. “Bigfoot” </li></ul><ul><li>Same as the one you download from </li></ul><ul><li>gnu toolkit was used to write microcode for s/390 </li></ul><ul><li>“ less than 1% of Linux is modified” </li></ul>
    24. 24. Linux -2 <ul><li>Linux meets IBM’s objective of selling RAS hardware for UNIX: z/900 </li></ul><ul><li>Linux is just like what you can download to your PC -- a real primitive operating system. </li></ul><ul><li>Linux on z/900 gives IBM customer true choice. </li></ul>
    25. 25. S/390 Linux Benefits <ul><li>Based on z/Architecture which allows unlimited addressing </li></ul><ul><li>zSeries servers automatically direct resources to priority work through Intelligent Resource Director (IRD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workload Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical Partitioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel Sysplex clustering technology </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Results: <ul><ul><li>Numerous operating systems images managed as a single dynamic workload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dynamic CPU weight (only--Linux does not have a “vary CPU offline”, no dynamic channel paths, channel control paths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HiperSockets (four, VM allows sharing) let TCP/IP traffic travel between partitions at memory speed (Gigabyte) rather than network speed: one gigabit per second per pipe (of 24) </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Results: <ul><ul><li>Virtual Internet Protocol Addressing (VIPA) provides transparent failover from device, interface or network failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel Subsystem Priority Queuing and Dynamic Channel Path Management are part of normal S/390 or z/900 implementation. </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Linux Scalability <ul><li>Naspa Article: November 2000; Page 24: Adam Thornton on David Boyes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two G5 Class S/390 Processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EMC disk unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250 to 10,000 users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>41,400 servers: did not crash, just ran out of VM resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VM design goals: 100,000 simultaneous virtual machines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Update: almost reached 100,000 servers! </li></ul>
    29. 29. 0101 USS: Introduction <ul><li>Integral part of OS/390 since 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Known by Different names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenEdition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenMVS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OMVS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OS/390 UNIX </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. USS: Integral to Operating System <ul><li>Unix Systems Services (USS) is an integral part of the OS/390 operating system and provides UNIX services to OS/390 applications and users </li></ul><ul><li>USS provides access to either UNIX files or regular “MVS” files or both from the same program. </li></ul>
    31. 31. USS: Always There <ul><li>USS will always be a part of z/OS </li></ul><ul><li>USS will continue to be used for primary z/OS components that need USS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP, Websphere Commerce Suite, Domino, Webserver, Java, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most improvements of USS by IBM will most likely be targeted for these products/components </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. View of USS Interface
    33. 33. What’s Running on USS? <ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>WebSphere </li></ul><ul><li>Lotus Domino- Go Server & Lotus Notes </li></ul><ul><li>ERP programs- Baan, SAP </li></ul><ul><li>PeopleSoft </li></ul>
    34. 34. 0110 Which Unix to Pick to run application code <ul><li>Data centers already have USS running when they bring up OS/390 or z/OS 1.1. Everybody has USS. </li></ul><ul><li>If data centers want to run Linux, they must plan for, and dedicate resources to Linux. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Pick Linux <ul><li>If you need ANSI Standard C++ with standard template libraries (STL) </li></ul><ul><li>If you want all of the gnu tools and anything else you can get downloaded and fixed up on your own </li></ul><ul><li>You want porting speed and cost: You must recompile your application. It is an ASCII environment after all. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Pick Linux - 2 <ul><li>You want complete ASCII support including multiple byte character set (MBCS). (i.e., If you are in or like Pacific rim companies who will be early adopters -- 64-bit is ideal for languages such as kanji). </li></ul><ul><li>You want horizontal scalability </li></ul>
    37. 37. Pick Linux -3 <ul><li>Key middleware deployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WebSphere Application Server - Advanced Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Java connectors to - DB2, IMS, CICS, MQSeries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DB2 UDB, workstation DB2, not Sysplex capable, IBM DB2 connect??? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> application on UNIX; DB2 on z/OS; HiperSockets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tivoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you want Hardware benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation, integrity, unique, scalable, deployment environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you want No OS/390 baggage: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Security, integrity, recovery, transactional infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Pick USS for data access <ul><li>Co-Locality of data: USS will be used where data needs to be moved from UNIX to z/OS (it is just a move command). </li></ul><ul><li>“ 70% of important data is on mainframe”? </li></ul><ul><li>Data was and is in EBCDIC. Conversion to/from ASCII is most difficult (big endian, little endian). </li></ul><ul><li>If you want 2-phase commit via RRS (open systems are 3-5 years late getting to this level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EJBs into CICS or IMS *and* DB2 ? </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Pick USS for Data Access - 2 <ul><li>Speed of Database Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiper access, but DB2 multiple access still beats all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you want Speed of Database access (I/O per second ) </li></ul>
    40. 40. Pick USS for Deployment and Runtime Considerations <ul><li>Quality of service, functional richness, speed of implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All key considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workload Manager (WLM) needed to control service levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need thread level workload management ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel Sysplex and Coupling Facility for extensibility </li></ul>
    41. 41. Pick USS - for Quality of Service <ul><li>Security level specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you like RACF ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(although Linux can be made secure) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High availability features of z/OS </li></ul>
    42. 42. C2 Security: a wash <ul><li>DOD “Orange Book” </li></ul><ul><li>Identification and Authentication (passwords) -- use shadow passwords </li></ul><ul><li>access control use ACLs </li></ul><ul><li>Object Reuse (don’t use every anywhere) </li></ul><ul><li>Audit (logging: TCP/IP wrappers: turn on if necessary) </li></ul><ul><li> Linux how to documents </li></ul>
    43. 43. What does Reliability and uptime mean? <ul><ul><li>“ Reliability and uptime are the principle reasons why many CIOs are keeping their big iron dinosaurs alive no matter how many Unix and Windows NT mammals are scurrying around underfoot.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIO article, November 15; Derek Slater </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. IBM and Telia, Scandinavia's largest telecommunications and internet service provider <ul><li>*ZE4KP1USenG?N??&request=pressreleases&parms=P%5f2000120601&xhi=pressreleases%5e&xfr=N </li></ul><ul><li>(still works 11/28/2001! Not working 1/22, 2002) </li></ul>
    45. 45. <ul><li>VM/ESA or IBM S/390 Virtual Image Facility for Linux </li></ul><ul><li>TeliaNet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S/390 G6 and Shark to run 1,500 virtual Linux servers for customer web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displaces 70 Sun servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telia is able to set up a Linux for zSeries server in less than 5 minutes as opposed to 5 hours with Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Converting from G5 to z/900 </li></ul></ul>Ringing Bells at Telia.Net Linux for S/390 images Single purpose Internet-related servers Server farms Consolidation e-business
    46. 46. <ul><li>Winnebago Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Recreational Vehicle Manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced Microsoft Mail and Novell servers with Bynari Insight Server </li></ul><ul><li>Users can still use Microsoft Outlook e-mail client </li></ul>New function and services OS/390 inter partition communication OS/390 Consolidation
    47. 47. <ul><li>&quot;The new IBM S/390 system runs LINUX for S/390 giving the capability for hundreds of Linux images for student and academic use. S/390 will run the Open Source Linux Operating System under the IBM VM/ESA Operating System. The provision of Linux for S/390 is one of the most significant developments in the fast-growing use of the Linux operating system.&quot; </li></ul>University Press Release Jan 2001 University of Warwick ..also in Dublin City University
    48. 48. <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start-up online game server company </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides services for virtual &quot;Dream Soccer&quot; games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaling to 15,000 concurrent Soccer game by year-end 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM ^ z900 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 partitions of Linux: for games, relays, web servers, and date updates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimise the network by adopting a mainframe-class engine server </li></ul></ul>Something Different - Dreamball
    49. 49. Korean Airlines: Flight Scheduling <ul><li>,11011,2787187,00.html </li></ul><ul><li>July 16, 2001 </li></ul>
    50. 50. Downsizing is now TO the mainframe: <ul><li>1/20 th of the floor space, </li></ul><ul><li>1/25 th of the energy </li></ul><ul><li>Best price for a volume-Linux Server “<$500> </li></ul><ul><li>Highest average resource utilization 70% vs 15% (13%) </li></ul><ul><li>100x Mean time between failure (“37 years”) </li></ul><ul><li>1/4 network equipment costs. </li></ul>
    51. 51. Pick USS - Quality of Service - 2 <ul><li>High Availability </li></ul><ul><li>portability </li></ul><ul><li>Websphere and Java </li></ul>
    52. 52. Pick USS - for Application Software <ul><li>Prepackaged software </li></ul><ul><li>Skill availability </li></ul><ul><li>Tape and offline storage </li></ul><ul><li>Shared DASD </li></ul><ul><li>hardware sharing </li></ul>
    53. 53. Pick USS - Operations <ul><li>Accounting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USS has access to SMF (OEM software gives full accounting possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux gives minimal possibilities via IOSTAT, VMSTAT, and SAR commands and write-your-own and OEM programs. </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Pick USS - Device Connectivity <ul><li>USS has all of OS/390 and z/OS connectivity. Linux must have drivers “written” for them </li></ul><ul><li>DASD: CKD and FBA is fine </li></ul><ul><li>TAPE: all fine with USS; Linux is under development </li></ul><ul><li>PRINT: JES wins; although Samba print solutions for Windows-style printing under Linux. </li></ul><ul><li>CTCA: underdevelopment </li></ul>
    55. 55. Pick USS for Human Resource reasons <ul><li>A young person can be “taught” mainframe if it is “UNIX” </li></ul>
    56. 56. 0111 Should You Run Linux on VM or VIF? <ul><li>Linux runs on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>metal (dedicated machines) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LPARs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VIF (hidden machines) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as a Virtual Machine under VM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even under MVS (SHARE presentation at SHARE 95, session 5511) </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. VIF <ul><li>VIF is subset of VM </li></ul><ul><li>VIF machines are all peers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no controls over which Linux system has control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no system backups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no systems monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires dedicated CPUs--no sharing </li></ul>
    58. 58. VIF - 2 <ul><li>very easy to clone machines (no systems programmer required) </li></ul><ul><li>Runs in Integrated Control Facility (ICF) </li></ul><ul><li>Runs on “hidden CPU’s” and is charged for usage only -- the CPUs are not part of other software billings. </li></ul><ul><li>How long will this continue? Gone. </li></ul>
    59. 59. VM <ul><li>Requires VM systems programmer resource -- very valuable </li></ul><ul><li>Much more flexible </li></ul><ul><li>“ must fix 100 hz timer pop” else 5-6% of G5 or G6 </li></ul><ul><li>96,000 under test load (David Boyes latest “plan c” </li></ul>
    60. 60. VM: Sine Nome Associates <ul><li>Dr. David Boyes </li></ul><ul><li>Task: for phone company: build customer server </li></ul><ul><li>Old way: 3 machines each customer; 18.7 miles of Ethernet; $65 million; 7 days </li></ul><ul><li>Linux on mainframe: 30 minutes; 10% </li></ul>
    61. 61. 1000 Application Conversion Considerations <ul><li>Linux may be much faster to port applications (maybe just a compile) -- weeks to days </li></ul><ul><li>Linux will be much quicker to get to 64-bit addressibility (immediately) vs 2002 (?) for USS </li></ul>
    62. 62. WIN/NT Replacement <ul><li>Run NT applications on Linux </li></ul><ul><li>WinStar programs run under Linux and almost emulate Windows environments? </li></ul>
    63. 63. 1001 Monitoring UNIX on the Mainframe <ul><li>UNIX on the mainframe will need monitors that understand things not seen by standard monitoring techniques. There are ASIDs and Tasks, but you will need to see processes, threads, HFS, etc. </li></ul>
    64. 64. Monitoring Linux <ul><li>BMC: “ Linux for S/390 Management” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 Feb 2002: Patrol agent, Control M (scheduling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Patrol agent and Linux Knowledge module” (KM on the Linux for S/390 platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It requires Mainview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The problem is that Patrol can only gather information that Linux provides and that is very little. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IOSTAT, VMSTAT, etc: lots of freeware </li></ul>
    65. 65. Monitoring USS <ul><li>Candle </li></ul><ul><li>BMC </li></ul><ul><li>Landmark </li></ul>
    66. 66. 3 Levels of USS Pain <ul><li>Not running any applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be unfamiliar with USS and resources it is consuming- In the dark </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future plans to install applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discomfort becoming real - Dawn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currently running applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance at risk- Wake up! </li></ul></ul>
    67. 67. 1010 Q&A CMG has a tradition of holding “Birds-of-a-feather (BOF)” sessions at the end of the day where attendees can discuss current topics in an ad hoc manner. Since I expected some discussion to continue, I scheduled a BOF session. Sure enough, 40 people showed up! Six installations had Linux running (maybe some were duplicates) The following were questions (and answers) as noted. Many of the comments were worked into the notes above.
    68. 68. Q & A <ul><li>What about Shared DASD under Linux? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There we go again. -- probably not in near future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux needs to have device drivers written for it. It may never have shared DASD unless it is implemented by Storage Area Network (SAN) architecture . </li></ul></ul>
    69. 69. How in the dark are you? <ul><li>Do you have a good understanding of what’s going on in your USS/Open Edition environment? </li></ul><ul><li>What applications are you running on USS/Open Edition? </li></ul>
    70. 70. How in the dark are you? <ul><li>Have you been seeing more and more USS activities showing up on your MVS monitor? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know if USS is using 5, 10 or 50% of your MVS resources? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you tell which tasks are using, or maybe abusing, your USS resources? </li></ul>
    71. 71. How are you with UNIX? <ul><li>Are you comfortable with USS file structures and Unix commands? </li></ul><ul><li>How critical to your business will the applications running on USS be? </li></ul>
    72. 72. Wake up! <ul><li>How did the installation of the USS application you are running go? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you had any jobs get hung up that you needed to kill? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think that your thresholds are set properly at this point? </li></ul>
    73. 73. Bibliography <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unix as a Second Language (Bob Johnson - self published) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Articles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Linux on S/390 or z/Series: Getting Started” Lionel B. Dyck; NASPA September 2001 pp36-41 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SHARE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux Security: Session 1745, SHARE 97, July 26, 2001, Minn, MN Mike Kearney, Washington Systems Center, </li></ul></ul>
    74. 74. References <ul><li>The Linux/390 list: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Linux/390 Community website: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWW.LinuxVM.Org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IBM’s Linux/390 website: “Free z” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWW.IBM.Com/ servers /eserver/zseries/os/linux/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>get yourself a free Lunux machine! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jim Elliott: </li></ul><ul><li>Who’s using Linux? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://LinuxToday.Com/news_story.php3?ltsn=2000-09-15-001-06-NW-BZ-LF </li></ul></ul>
    75. 75. White Papers <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Linux for 390 redbook </li></ul>
    76. 76. Web sites <ul><li>Http:// -- </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> -- mailing list </li></ul><ul><li> LINUX home page </li></ul>
    77. 77. IBM References <ul><li>SG24-5952: Redbook: z/OS Intelligent Resource Director, look under </li></ul><ul><ul><li>redbooks online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>search button for “Intelligent” </li></ul></ul>