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  • Baud was the prevalent measure for data transmission speed until replaced by a more accurate term, bps (bits per second). One baud is one electronic state change per second. Since a single state change can involve more than a single bit of data, the bps unit of measurement has replaced it as a better expression of data transmission speed. The measure was named after a French engineer, Jean-Maurice-Emile Baudot. It was first used to measure the speed of telegraph transmissions.
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    1. 1. pdm and erp and computer Integrated manufacturing Industrial & Manufacturing Enterprise Department The Wichita State University http://www. mrc . twsu . edu / whitman /classes/ie775 Larry Whitman [email_address] (316) 691-5907 (316) 978-3742
    2. 2. What is pdm? <ul><li>computer Integrated manufacturing is (or at least starts with) data integration on the shop floor. </li></ul><ul><li>But what about data from engineering (how does it get organized?) </li></ul><ul><li>How does it get routed? </li></ul>
    3. 3. PDM <ul><li>PDM is an acronym for Product Data Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls the relationships between elements of engineering information for a company’s products throughout the life-cycle of those products. </li></ul><ul><li>EDMS - Engineering document management systems (EDMS) </li></ul><ul><li>can include imaging, capture and output </li></ul><ul><li>Product Information Management (PIM). (sometimes Plant Information Management) </li></ul><ul><li>Image Management System (IMS) </li></ul>
    4. 4. PDM drivers <ul><li>ENGINEERING CHANGE (EC/ECN/ECO) still manual forms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in finding the appropriate CAD file and related models and analysis data? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty assessing the impact of a proposed change on other designs and on the manufacturing operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are drawing changes completed and distributed? </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. PDM Characteristics <ul><li>Manage relationships between items or objects. Objects usually include native file formats such as CAD models or word processor files. </li></ul><ul><li>Manage structures throughout life-cycle (in different forms or configurations). For example, the configuration of a complex product may change as it progresses through design review, manufacture and service. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain different variants and release levels within a product range. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate or integrate with document management systems for storage, retrieval and process automation. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Design focus <ul><li>Think retrieval of design information </li></ul><ul><li>Think changes </li></ul><ul><li>Think communication </li></ul><ul><li>Think “build-to” package </li></ul>
    7. 7. Package contents (possible) <ul><li>NC machining instructions, </li></ul><ul><li>MRP item master, </li></ul><ul><li>process plan, </li></ul><ul><li>task within a work schedule, </li></ul><ul><li>multiple views (not CAD based) different disciplines need differing information </li></ul><ul><li>EBOM vs MBOM (single?!) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Life Cycle (Interfaces) <ul><li>From “An Overview of Product Information Management,” by Shou-kuo Scott Tsao 1993 Pan Pacific Conference on Information Systems </li></ul>
    9. 9. PDM/PIM Tasks <ul><li>Release Management - Provides a set of functions similar to a physical drawing vault or library card catalog: allowing users to register a set of data (files) as a single dataset, enter pertinent administrative information about the dataset, check it out for modification, prevent other users from checking out the same dataset, and check it in after the modification is complete; automatically creating a new version of the dataset after each check-in; allowing certain users to review the dataset for approval before release according to a pre-defined release procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Change Management - Provides a set of functions to control the change of a registered product dataset: defining the release procedures for various types of data; allowing users to initiate change requests against certain datasets, issue change orders in response to certain change requests, and automatically generate change notices after the change is complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Notification/Distribution - Provides a set of functions to send messages and/or datasets to users upon the occurrence of certain events: creating distribution lists; defining events; automatically acknowledging to the sender when the messages and/or datasets are received . </li></ul><ul><li>Administration - Provides a set of functions similar to the database administration functions provided by a conventional database management system (DBMS): assigning user access privileges; providing archive/restore facilities; allowing automatic backup/recovery. </li></ul><ul><li>From “An Overview of Product Information Management,” by Shou-kuo Scott Tsao 1993 Pan Pacific Conference on Information Systems </li></ul>
    10. 10. Lifecycle (phases) <ul><li>From “An Overview of Product Information Management,” by Shou-kuo Scott Tsao 1993 Pan Pacific Conference on Information Systems </li></ul>
    11. 11. Configuration Management <ul><li>Product Data Management without Configuration Management is not complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration Management is the &quot;glue&quot; which maintains synchronization between parts, documentation and change data from design to manufacture and support. </li></ul><ul><li>most manufacturers could cut costs fifty percent if they could get product configuration information under control. Institute of Configuration Management </li></ul><ul><li>Making information available to the user at the time it is needed does not guarantee that the information is correct. </li></ul><ul><li>From “PDM Industry White Paper: Focus on Configuration Management: A White Paper” by CMstat </li></ul>
    12. 12. PDM elements <ul><li>process reengineering, </li></ul><ul><li>data vault, </li></ul><ul><li>change management, </li></ul><ul><li>workflow, </li></ul><ul><li>configuration management? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Applicability to Concurrent Engineering <ul><li>&quot;concurrent engineering is a systematic approach to integrated, concurrent design of products and their related processes, including manufacturing and support. This approach is intended to cause the developers, from the outset, to consider all elements of the product life cycle from conceptual design through disposal, including quality, cost, schedule, and user requirements.” </li></ul><ul><li>Institute for Defense Analysis </li></ul>
    14. 14. Product Development Management II (PDM II) <ul><li>PDM II enables companies to achieve quality, time, and cost benefits by addressing the widely varying requirements for management of product information throughout the entire product lifecycle, and across the extended enterprise. (IBM and Dassault) </li></ul><ul><li>PDM II Includes both virtual Product Development Management (VPDM) and Product Data Management (PDM). VPDM enables new levels of collaboration during the product development process. It allows ideas to be shared and discussed by those from both within and outside of the design community, increasing a company's ability to innovate and increase revenue from new products. </li></ul>
    15. 15. PDMII IBM info <ul><li>As a product definition matures, PDM ensures that the correct design information is distributed to and accepted by enterprise organizations responsible for transforming the design into a finished product. This reduces development costs and enables products to reach the market more quickly. PDM helps companies to become more competitive by increasing profit margins and helping them win in the marketplace. Combining VPDM and PDM, PDM II enables a smooth transition from design to manufacturing, despite differing data management requirements, by integrating data and activities within each domain. It enables customers to define, configure, manage, and optimize: </li></ul><ul><li>product development, which includes product designs, manufacturing and maintenance processes, and all associated product information </li></ul><ul><li>manufacturing resources definition </li></ul><ul><li>plant definition, which includes plant designs, plant manufacturing and maintenance processes, and all associated plant information </li></ul>
    16. 16. ENOVIA Product Development Management II solutions - (IBM and Dassault) <ul><li>Product Modeling users are responsible for defining and optimizing the product, its manufacturing processes and maintenance. They may be engineers from design, digital mock-up, manufacturing or maintenance departments, technical publishers, subcontractors or others. ENOVIA solutions are not only CAD independent, but will actively support major CAD systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Product Data Management users control and manage products. They include program and project managers, configuration engineers, corporate process managers, product life cycle managers, classification engineers, cost engineers, purchasing officers and industrial engineers controlling global operations. ProductManager applications incorporate industry-recognized &quot;best practices&quot; for such users. </li></ul><ul><li>Casual users need to access product information and possibly update product status. They may include managers, customers, secretaries, and anyone else. Web-based technologies will provide easy access to product data through a 4D &quot;virtual reality&quot; window on the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>ERP engineers deal with production operations such as planning and control. They will be able to access detailed product data through their own &quot;4D product window&quot; directly from their ERP environment. </li></ul>http://www.clearlake.ibm.com/MFG/solutions/PDMpaper.html
    17. 17. Top 10 Reasons Why Companies Do Not Implement PDM Well...or At All Presented by: Tom Captain, Deloitte & Touche LLP at Management Roundtable's PDM Decisions 1996 Conference <ul><li>10 Management won't fund it </li></ul><ul><li>9 A better product is coming out next year </li></ul><ul><li>8 Our CAD package does enough PDM for us already </li></ul><ul><li>7 Management doesn't understand the benefits </li></ul><ul><li>6 We're different! No COTS solution will work for us </li></ul><ul><li>5 We're waiting for our IS department to finish the long-range system plan. </li></ul><ul><li>4 Our corporate re-engineering project needs to finish first, before we start a PDM project </li></ul><ul><li>3 We'll let other companies fix the bugs and make the mistakes first, before we jump in </li></ul><ul><li>2 We already bought one but had trouble implementing it and they fired the leader & promoted the uninvolved </li></ul><ul><li>1 We're spending all of our time and money implementing SAP </li></ul>
    18. 18. More PDM info <ul><li>PDM overview (required reading) http://www.pdmic.com/undrstnd.html </li></ul><ul><li>Best of Both Worlds (PDM and MRPII)(read it too!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.pdmic.com/articles/bestboth.html#what </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT - PDM or ERP: Making the Connection,“ Manufacturing engineering. (1999) VOL 122(5), 125-144 Many articles about ERP and PDM </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating PDM and ERP - This special report examines issues related to linking product data management (PDM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) JOURNAL NAME: Computer-aided engineering (1999) Vol. 18(3) (also Volume 17, Number 10) </li></ul><ul><li>Another PDM overview http://www.pdmic.com/articles/whatspdm.html </li></ul><ul><li>The Integration of Product Data Management and Enterprise Resource Planning Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.pdmic.com/articles/misscrit.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interesting software perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.pdmic.com/articles/pdm_rsm.shtml </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. More PDM info (continued) <ul><li>Good Q&A for APICS (pdm/mrp/CM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.pdmic.com/articles/artplct.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metaphase Web Site (leader in PDM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.metaphasetech.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PDM spec from the OMG ftp://ftp.omg.org/pub/docs/mfg/98-02-02.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration Mgmt http://www.pdmic.com/articles/wppdmfcm.html </li></ul><ul><li>International Product Data Management Users Group White Paper Integrating/Interfacing PDM (Product Data Management) with MRP II http://www.pdmic.com/IPDMUG/wpipdmug.html </li></ul>
    20. 20. PDM summary
    21. 21. ERP - History <ul><li>20s and on - Inventory Control (inventory in the factory) </li></ul><ul><li>70s MRP (more than inventory) </li></ul><ul><li>80s MRPII (added long range planning and shop floor control (PAC)) </li></ul><ul><li>MRP expanded to beyond the factory </li></ul><ul><li>ERP!!! </li></ul><ul><li>MRPIII - Money Resource Planning </li></ul>
    22. 22. ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) <ul><li>many, many modules to: </li></ul><ul><li>automate business processes (and integrate?) </li></ul><ul><li>share data across enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>access data in real-time </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software is a set of applications that automate finance and human resources departments and help manufacturers handle jobs such as order processing and production scheduling. ERP systems such as SAP AG's R/3 are notoriously complex, and installing the software often forces users to change their internal processes. </li></ul>
    23. 23. ERP <ul><li>software solution that addresses enterprise needs taking the process view of an organization to meet organizational goals tightly integrating all functions of the organization (ERPFANS.com) </li></ul><ul><li>INTEGRATION </li></ul>
    24. 24. Is ERP that big of a deal? <ul><li>Almost 40% of all companies with more than $1 billion in annual revenue have implemented ERP systems - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merrill Lynch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>$500 million today, and project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it to grow to $8 billion by 2002. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merrill Lynch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>70% of Fortune 1000 firms have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>or will soon install ERP systems </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Expectations?
    26. 26. Module: FINANCE <ul><li>Modules for bookkeeping and making sure the bills are paid on time. Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>General ledger -- Keeps centralized charts of accounts and corporate financial balances. </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts receivable -- Tracks payments due to a company from its customers. </li></ul><ul><li>A ccounts payable -- Schedules bill payments to suppliers and distributors. </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed assets -- Manages depreciation and other costs associated with tangible assets such as buildings, property and equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Treasury management -- Monitors and analyzes cash holdings, financial deals and investment risks. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost control -- Analyzes corporate costs related to overhead, products and manufacturing orders. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Module: HUMAN RESOURCES <ul><li>Software for handling personnel-related tasks for corporate managers and individual employees. Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Human resources administration -- Automates personnel management processes including recruitment, business travel and vacation allotments. </li></ul><ul><li>Payroll -- Handles accounting and preparation of checks related to employee salaries, wages and bonuses. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-service HR -- Lets workers change their personal information and benefit allocations online without having to send forms to human resources. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Module: MANUFACTURING AND LOGISTICS <ul><li>A group of applications for planning production, taking orders and delivering products to the customer. Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Production planning -- Performs capacity planning and creates a daily production schedule for a company’s manufacturing plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials management -- Controls purchasing of raw materials needed to build products. Manages inventory stocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Order entry and processing -- Automates the data entry process of customer orders and keeps track of the status of orders. </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse management -- Maintains records of warehoused goods and processes movement of products through warehouses. </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation management -- Arranges, schedules and monitors delivery of products to customers via trucks, trains and other vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>Project management -- Monitors costs and work schedules on a project-by-project basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant maintenance -- Sets plans and oversees upkeep of internal facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer service management -- Administers installed-base service agreements and checks contracts and warranties when customers call for help. </li></ul>
    29. 29. ERP (the big five) <ul><li>Baan, </li></ul><ul><li>PeopleSoft, </li></ul><ul><li>SAP, </li></ul><ul><li>Oracle and </li></ul><ul><li>JD Edwards??? </li></ul>
    30. 30. SAP - R/2 Mainframe <ul><li>RS Basis System (includes ABAP/4 programming language) </li></ul><ul><li>RF Financial Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>RA Asset Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>RK Cost Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>RK-P Project Costing </li></ul><ul><li>RM-INST Plant Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>RM-MAT Materials Management </li></ul><ul><li>RM-PPS Production Planning and Control </li></ul><ul><li>RM-QSS Quality Assurance </li></ul><ul><li>RP Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>RV Sales and Distribution </li></ul>
    31. 31. SAP - R/3 Client/Server <ul><li>BC Basis (includes ABAP/4 Programming Language) </li></ul><ul><li>AM Asset Management </li></ul><ul><li>CO Controlling </li></ul><ul><li>FI Financial Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>HR Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>IS Industry Specific Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>PM Plant Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>PP Production Planning </li></ul><ul><li>PS Project System </li></ul><ul><li>QM Quality Management </li></ul><ul><li>SD Sales and Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>MM Materials Management </li></ul><ul><li>WF Business Work Flow </li></ul>
    32. 32. More buzzwords <ul><li>Go live - leave legacy systems and use (trust)ERP system </li></ul>
    33. 33. Sample Scenario for ERP <ul><li>1. Enter order into ERP. </li></ul><ul><li>2. ERP checks the BOM module to see what parts are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Inventory-management module automatically determines if enough material is on hand and sets up the purchasing procedure is materials are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Other modules determine that machines will be needed to make the “widgets”. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Finally, the shop floor module creates the work order . </li></ul><ul><li>6. Later, the billing module creates an invoice. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Further reading <ul><li>Deloitte Touch survey http://www.dc.com/services/secondwave/wave2.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>InfoWorld Article - http://www.informationweek.com/shared/printArticle?article=infoweek/704/04prerp.htm&pub=iwk </li></ul>
    35. 35. Next Class <ul><li>Wonderware in 209! </li></ul>

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