Partner relationship management (PRM): is designed to provide care to business partners.
Decision support systems (DSSs): support decision making throughout the enterprise.
Knowledge management (KM) systems: support knowledge creation, storage, maintenance and distribution.
Supply chain: The flow of materials, information, money, and services from raw material suppliers, through factories and warehouses to the end customer; includes the organizations and processes involved.
Supply chain management (SCM): The planning, organizing and coordinating of all supply chain’s activities.
E-supply chain: A supply chain that is managed electronically usually with Web-based software.
The Flows in the Supply Chain
Materials flows: These are all physical products, raw materials, supplies, and so forth, that flow along the chain. The concept of materials flows include reverse flows-returned products, recycled products and disposal of materials or products.
Information flows: All data related to demand, shipments, orders, returns, and schedules.
Financial flows: All transfers of money, payments, credit card information and authorization, payment schedules, e-payments and credit related data.
The Structure and Components of Supply Chains
The supply chain involves three segment:
Upstream, where sourcing or procurement from external suppliers occur
Internal, where packaging, assembly, or manufacturing take place
Downstream, where distribution or dispersal take place, frequently by external distributors
Supply chain also include the movement of a product or a service and the organizations and individuals involved, are part of the chain as well.
An Automotive Supply Chain
Types of Supply Chains
8.2 Supply Chain Problems and Solutions
Problems along the supply chain from two sources :
Need to coordinate several activities, internal units and business partners
A major source of supply chain Uncertainties is the demand forecast. The actual demand may be influenced by several activities such as competition, prices, weather conditions, technological developments, customers’ general confidence, delivery times and more.
Erratic shifts in orders up and down the supply chain. It is related to properly setting inventory levels in various parts of the supply chain
Solution to Supply Chain Problems
Vertical integration: the upstream part of the supply chain with the internal part, typically by purchasing up- steam suppliers, in order to ensure availability of supplier .
Using inventories: The most common solution used by companies to solve supply chain problems is building inventories as an “insurance“ against supply chain uncertainties.
Solutions to SC Problems cont…
Information sharing: sharing information along the supply chain can improve demand forecasts. Such sharing can be facilitated by EDI, extranets, and groupware technologies .
Vendor-managed inventory (VMI): allowing suppliers to monitor, the inventory levels of their products in the retailors’ stores and to replenish inventory when needed.
Solutions to SC Problems cont…
Changing a linear SC to a Hub: In linear supply chains, information is processed in a sequence , which slows down its flow. One solution is to change the linear chain into hub. Each partner in the supply chain can directly access the images in the data bank
Supply chain collaboration: . Proper supply chain and inventory management requires coordination of all different activities and links of the supply chain. Successful coordination enables goods to move smoothly and on time from supplier to manufacturers to customers, which enables a firm to keep inventories low and costs down
Solutions to SC problems cont…
SC Team: A group of tightly integrated businesses that work together to serve the customer; each task is done by the member of the team who is best capable of doing the task.
Virtual factory: . Collaborative enterprise application that provides a computerized model of a factory.
IT Supported Solutions to SC Problems Improve supplier relationship by using portals, web-based call center, and other CRM and PRM tools suppliers relationships Automate material , information and money flows Expedite flows in the chain Use collaboration (like CPFR) or intelligent system Forecast fluctuating demand Manufacture only after order received (online) . Use VMI and web-serviced Control inventory levels Use optimization models to decide and employ e-procurement Tool many or too few suppliers Use e-commerce tools and business intelligence models Expedite lead time for buying and selling use IT-enable outsource. Use DSS to determine what to outsource and when to buy and not make Handle peak demands Use just-in-time approach and collaboration with suppliers. Supplier arrive when needed Use DSS to determine which suppliers to use, determine how to create strategic partnerships Select and coordinate suppliers Use DSS and intelligent systems for rapid and accurate analysis Difficult product configuration Use wireless devices to find vehicle locations to expedite salespeople’s contact with headquarters. Use hub supply chain to enable online access to information Slow communication Solution Problem Area
8.3 Computerized Enterprise Systems: MRP, MRPII, SCM, and Software Integration
Material requirement planning (MRP). A planning model that integrates production, purchasing and inventory management of interrelated product.
Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II). An enhanced planning model that adds labor requirements and financial planning to MPR.
8.3 Why system integration?
Sandoe et al.(2001) list the following major benefits of systems integration:
Internal versus external integration
Internal integration refers to integration within a company between (or among) application, and/or between application and data bases.
External integration refers to integration of applications and databases among business partners.
8.4 Enterprise Resource Planning and Supply Chain Management
Enterprise resource planning (EPR): Software that integrates the planning, management and use of all resource in the entire enterprise.
SAP R/3 the leading EPR software (form SAP AG Crop.): a highly integrated package containing more than 70 business activities modules.
Generations of ERP
The first generation of ERP concentrated on activities within the enterprise that were routine and repetitive in nature.
The objective of second –generation EPR is to leverage existing information systems in order to increase efficiency in handling, transaction, improve decision making, and transform ways of doing business into e-business.
8.5 CRM and its Support by IT
Customer relationship management (CRM): An enterprise wide effort to acquire and retain customers, often supported by IT.
Type of CRM
Operational CRM: activities involving customer services, order management, invoice /billing and sale/marketing automation and management .
Analytical CRM: activities that capture, store, extract , process, interpret, and report customer data a corporate. user.
Collaboration CRM: deals with all the necessary communication coordination and collaboration between vendors and customers.
Classification of CRM Application
Customer-centric intelligence applications
Online networking applications
E-CRM (Electronic CRM)
The use of web brewers, the Internet and other electronic touchpoints to manage customer relationships.
The Scope of E-CRM
Customer Service on the Web
Search and comparison capabilities
Free products and services
Technical and other information and services
Customized products and services
Account or order status tracking
Other tools for customer service
Personalized Web pages
E-mail and automated response
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