Chapter 14: Resource Planning


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Chapter 14: Resource Planning

  1. 1. Chapter 14 – Resource Planning Operations Management by R. Dan Reid & Nada R. Sanders 2nd Edition © Wiley 2005 PowerPoint Presentation by R.B. Clough - UNH
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe enterprise resource management </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the evolution of ERP Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the benefits and costs of ERP systems </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an overview of MRP </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the different types of demand </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the objectives of MRP </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the inputs needed for MRP </li></ul><ul><li>Explain MRP operating logic </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Describe action notices </li></ul><ul><li>Use different lot size rules with MRP </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the role of capacity requirements planning (CRP) </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the work loads at critical work centers using CRP </li></ul>
  4. 4. Enterprise Resource Planning <ul><li>What Is ERP? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software designed for organizing and managing business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modules share information across all business functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can share customer sales data with the supply chain to help with global replenishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All modules are fully integrated and use a common database – some PC based </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Integration of ERP
  6. 6. ERP Modules-4 Categories <ul><li>Finance and accounting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment, cost, asset, capital, and debt management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budgets, profitability analysis, and performance reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales and marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles pricing, availability, orders, shipments, & billing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production and materials management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process planning, BOM, product costing, ECN’s, MRP, allocates resources, schedules, PO’s, & inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workforce planning, payroll & benefits, & org. charts </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Evolution of ERP <ul><li>First generation ERP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managed all internal business activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Generation ERP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late 1990’s software integrated supply chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems focused on decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCM modules include LP and simulation support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCI capability allows collection of intelligence along the entire supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASP suppliers set-up and run systems for others </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Integrating ERP and E-Commerce <ul><li>Many companies with ERP use e-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>E-commerce needs to interface with ERP </li></ul><ul><li>Cybex International is a good example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed to integrate B2C and B2B transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cybex installed a Peoplesoft, Inc. ERP system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced BOM’s from 15,200 to 200, suppliers from 1000 to 550, paperwork by 2/3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced supplier material shortages and customer order-to-ship time from 4 to 2 weeks </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Benefits of ERP Implementation <ul><li>ERP presents a holistic view of the business functions from a single information and IT architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Increases organizational information flow </li></ul><ul><li>Increases ability to incorporate better management control, speedier decision making, and cost reductions </li></ul><ul><li>Allows replacement of disparate systems </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ExxonMobile used ERP to replace 300 different systems </li></ul><ul><li>A study of ERP implementations reports that benefits typically start 8 months after implementation with median annual savings of $1.6 million </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cost and Implementation Issues <ul><li>Major suppliers are SAP, Peoplesoft, Oracle, and Baan. Also smaller PC based suppliers. </li></ul><ul><li>Costs for larger ERP systems range from hundreds of thousands to several million dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>Outside consultants are usually involved in selection, configuration, and implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant costs can run up to 3 times the cost of the system itself according to a Gartner Group study. </li></ul><ul><li>Added costs also include additional people, new computer hardware, and the cost to develop a new, integrated database </li></ul><ul><li>Successful implementation requires leadership and top management commitment to a vision for the business </li></ul>
  11. 11. Evolution of Material Planning Systems <ul><li>Back in the sixties, manufacturing planning systems were reorder point systems that simply determined when and how much to order </li></ul><ul><li>First MRP systems translated a master schedule of final products into time-phased net requirements for subassemblies, assemblies, and parts </li></ul><ul><li>Closed-loop MRP included production planning, master scheduling, and capacity requirements </li></ul><ul><li>In mid 1970’s, MRPII systems added functionality to plan and execute all internal functions </li></ul>
  12. 12. An Overview of MRP <ul><li>MRP uses the concept of backward scheduling to determine how much and when to order and replenish </li></ul><ul><li>The CPR module checks to make sure the scheduled work load profile is feasible </li></ul><ul><li>The MPS module contains the authorized schedule </li></ul><ul><li>The BOM module contains the product structure for each unique product </li></ul><ul><li>The Inventory Record module keeps track of the inventory status for each item in the database </li></ul><ul><li>MRP output includes schedules for all internal activities and parts as well as orders for all supply chain items </li></ul>
  13. 13. Input/Output - MRP Process
  14. 14. Types of Demand <ul><li>There are two types of demand. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the demand for finished products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not depend on the demand of other products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to be forecasted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent Demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the demand derived from finished products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the demand for component parts based on the number of end items being produced and is managed by the MRP system </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Objectives of MRP <ul><li>Determines the quantity and timing of material requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines what to order (checks BOM), how much to order (lot size rules), when to place the order (need date minus lead time), and when to schedule delivery (on date needed) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintain priorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a changing environment, MRP reorganizes priorities to keep plans current and viable </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Building a CD Cabinet With MRP
  17. 17. MRP Inputs - Authorized MPS <ul><li>From the authorized MPS, we calculate when we need to have replenishment orders of CD cabinets; when we need a new MPS order. </li></ul>
  18. 18. MRP Inputs- Inventory Records <ul><li>System checks the inventory record for each BOM item to see if inventory is available or if a replenishment order is needed to build the cabinets. </li></ul>
  19. 19. MRP Inputs-Bills of Material <ul><li>A BOM lists all of the items needed to produce one CD cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>The BOM is exactly like a recipe for baking a cake </li></ul><ul><li>The BOM’s must be complete and accurate and can only be changed by an ECN </li></ul><ul><li>MRP BOM’s are indented bills of materials </li></ul>
  20. 20. A Product Structure Tree
  21. 21. The MRP Explosion Process <ul><li>Using table 14-6 and the product structure tree, we will work through an example of how the MRP explosion process would calculate the requirements for building a CD cabinet. On the next slide we start with the cabinet top to illustrate how MRP calculates the gross requirements for this component. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Inventory Records - Components <ul><li>It was noted on the previous slide that the parent item (CD Cabinet) has planned orders in periods 3, 6, and 9. </li></ul><ul><li>Its children (top, bottom, door, left & right side, shelves, and supports) have gross requirements in periods 3, 6, and 9. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Inventory Records - Components
  24. 24. Inventory Records– Components (cont.)
  25. 25. Inventory Records – Remaining Components
  26. 26. Inv. Records – Remaining Components (cont.)
  27. 27. MRP Action Notices <ul><li>Action Notices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate items that need a production planner’s attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are created when a planned order needs to be released, due dates need to be adjusted, or when there is insufficient lead time for normal replenishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often require planners to rush or expedite orders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action Bucket: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the current period where we take actions such as releasing, rescheduling, or canceling orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A positive quantity in current period’s planned order row means that an order must be released </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Example Comparing Lot Size Rules: Three common lot sizing rules used within MRP Systems are fixed order quantity (FOQ), lot for lot (L4L), and period order quantity (POQ). Cost comparison is based on Inventory holding costs ($0.10 per period) and ordering cost ($25 per order). In this example POQ is best at $133.50.
  29. 29. Rough Cut Capacity Example: The CRP module uses data from MRP. We calculate workloads for critical work centers based on open shop orders and planned shop orders. These shop orders are translated into hours of work by work center and by time period. Table 14-11 show items scheduled for work Center 101. <ul><li>Available = 4 machines x 2 shifts x 10 hours x 5 days x 0.85 utiliza- x 0.95 effi- </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity per shift per wk. tion ciency </li></ul><ul><li>Available = 323.0 standard hours </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity </li></ul>
  30. 30. Workload Graph for Work Center 101 : CRP enables a company to evaluate both the feasibility of the MRP system and how well the company is using its critical work centers.
  31. 31. Chapter 14 Highlights <ul><li>ERP is software designed for organizing and managing all business processes by sharing information across functional areas using a common database and a single computer system. </li></ul><ul><li>First generation ERP systems (MPR) managed manufacturing activities only. Second generation systems or SCM –software incorporated the supply chain. The current trend is integrating e-commerce and ERP. </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible benefits from ERP include control of operations and a host of information to manage all financial aspects of a business. Systems can be very expensive. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Chapter 14 Highlights (cont.) <ul><li>MRP systems are designed to calculate material requirements from dependent demand items. MRP uses backward scheduling to determine activity start dates. </li></ul><ul><li>The objective of MRP are to determine quantity and timing of material requirements to keep schedule priorities updated and valid. </li></ul><ul><li>MRP needs three inputs: the authorized MPS, the BOM file, and the inventory records file. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the MPS has been input, MRP checks inventory availability. If a need is determined, MRP checks the BOM file for material needed, then generates planned orders. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Chapter 14 Highlights (cont.) <ul><li>MRP output includes actions notices to release planned orders, reschedule orders, or adjust due dates. </li></ul><ul><li>Different lot sizing rules (FOQ, Period Q, L4L) generate different order quantities and order frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>The CPR module uses planned orders and open shop orders to see if available capacity is sufficient to meet schedules. </li></ul><ul><li>CPR calculates the workloads at critical work centers by using planned orders generated by MRP. These planned orders are multiplied by the standard times to calculate individual work center loads. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United State Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. </li></ul>The End