Petrocapita Feb 2010 Energy Briefing


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Petrocapita is an energy investment trust and is the second in a family of hard asset funds co-founded by the investment team. We believe that demand for energy will continue to move prices higher over the long-term. Petrocapita was created to allow investors to add professionally managed oil production directly to their portfolios. Petrocapita provides investors 10.25% interest and 10% profit participation.

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Petrocapita Feb 2010 Energy Briefing

  1. 1. Petrocapita Energy Update February 2010 1
  2. 2. Summary Global demand for oil is projected to increase up to 60% by 2030. To achieve this production level we would have to find the equivalent of 6 Saudi Arabia’s in the next 20 years. The major driver of this demand growth is China. China is undergoing a once in a life-time industrialization that is expected to increase its consumption from its current lows of around 2-3 barrels per person per year to developed nation levels of around 20 barrels per person per year. Despite this challenging supply/demand environment, oil is trading well below its inflation-adjusted peak of around US$105/bbl from the 1970s. Contents 2 Inflation Adjusted Oil Prices 2 China’s Oil Demand 3 Peak Oil 4 Commodity bull market - CRB SP 500 Ratio 1
  3. 3. Energy Update InflatIon adjusted oIl PrICes Chart 1 shows inflation adjusted oil prices and (South Korea level) in 30 years (significantly slower its clear that even though the global supply and than South Korea) global production will have to demand situation is very different from the 1980s oil increase 22% from 84 million BOPD to 102 million is currently trading significant discount to its 1979 BOPD the next 10 years. inflation adjusted high of around $105/bbl. Taking into account production decline rates we will ChIna’s oIl demand have to replace 26 million BOPD to maintain supply - 30% of current production levels and almost 3 times China will be the key future driver of incremental Saudi Arabia’s output. energy demand. Petrocapita’s research indicates that if you assume China moves from 2.5 barrels per capita per year to 17 barrels per capita per year Chart 2: ChIna Per CaPIta oIl demand Chart 1: InflatIon adjust monthly Crude PrICe (june 2009 dollars) $140 Dec. 1979 Monthly Ave. Peak June 2008 Monthly Ave. Oil Price $120 $124.62 in June 2009 Dollars $106.86 in June 2009 Dollars $100 $80 Nominal Peak $38 (Mo. Ave. Price) $60 Intraday Prices peaked much higher $40 Inflation Adjusted Oil Price $20 Nominal Oil Price China: 2 bbls South Korea: 17 bbls US: 24 bbls $0 1946 1947 1949 1951 1953 1954 1956 1958 1960 1961 1963 1965 1987 1968 1970 1972 1974 1975 1977 1979 1981 1982 1984 1986 1988 1989 1991 1993 1995 1996 1998 2000 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 Source: IEA - annual consumption per capita Source: CPI-U inflation index, 2
  4. 4. Energy Update (continued) Peak oIl The current oil markets, are dramatically different – Approximately 1 million BOPD must be added from their 1980s counterparts. China is now second each year to meet demand growth largest oil consumer in the world but still at the – More than 2/3 of existing capacity must be early stages of increasing its per capita energy replaced by 2030 to prevent production declines consumption and some experts believe that global – A peak in conventional oil production before 2030 peak oil is occurring or will occur within next 10 years. appears likely with a significant risk of a peak Third party research indicates that: before 2020 – Average decline rate of post-peak fields is at least 6.5% per year Petrocapita’s research indicates that if you assume a – Average decline rate of all currently producing 2020 peak oil production at approximately 100 million fields is at least 4%per year BOPD prices could increase by up to 250% in real – Approximately 3 million BOPD must be added terms in the next 10 years. each year to maintain production levels In 1981: In 2009: Global consumption - 69 million bopd - 84 million bopd OPEC spare capacity - 10 million bopd - 2-3 million bopd Decline rate - existing production rate - existing production rate increasing approximately 1% pa decreasing approximately 4% pa China consumption - 2 million bopd or approximately - 8 million bopd or approximately 1 bbl/person/year 2-3 bbls/person/year US consumption - 24 bbls/person/year - 24 bbls/person/year 3
  5. 5. Energy Update (continued) CommodIty Bull market - CrB sP 500 Chart 3: CrB Index Vs. s&P 500 ratIo 4 The ratio of the Commodity Research Bureau Total Return Index and the S&P 500 is basically the value of a standardized basket of commodities compared 3 to the value of a basket of stocks – in simple terms how much stock you can buy with a fixed amount of commodities. 2 It is noteworthy that: – The 50-year average for this ratio is around 1.1 1 times – During the commodity bull market in the 1970s, 0 the ratio peaked at over 3 times 1964 1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 2006 2009 – The ratio is currently at a 50 year low of around 0.2 times. In other words, we are at a very low Source: Commodity Research Bureau Total Return Index, relative valuation between “hard assets” vs. Agcapita Research “stocks.” 4
  6. 6. Petrocapita Macro Update February 2010
  7. 7. Summary Complacent, comfortable and sitting on an economic fault line - that’s what I see when I visualize the West. Over the next 20 years as the baby boomers try to retire, the effects of the poor decisions our society has been making over the last 20 years will come back to damage the foundation of our affluent lifestyles. Why? – Low savings rates – Western economies are heavily skewed to consumption with commensurately low savings rates while the emerging economies are skewed towards capital accumulation and have extremely high savings rates. China saves 40% of household disposable income, the US saves 6%. Only savings can create capital and because of this our capital pool CONTENTS is shrinking while the emerging economies’ are growing. Capital, not consumption, drives growth M3 Subsidizing failure – is this really the so we should expect growth to continue to slow path to prosperity? in the west and continue to accelerate in the emerging world. M3 Debt to GDP – Inflation – The money supply in the west M3 Inflation the Insidious, Hidden Tax continues to grow more rapidly than any other time in history driven by fiscal deficits, currency M4 There’s no God-given gift of a ‘AAA’ interventions and bailouts. Financial assets tend sovereign debt rating to perform poorly in periods of high inflation and a large part of western wealth is tied up in these M6 Yuan is now the linchpin of the global types of investments. financial system – Debt – Debt to GDP levels are at all time highs M6 US current account deficit with $200 and growing. Unfortunately we have borrowed oil? to support consumption so we have not created assets that generate cash flow to service our M6 US Oversight Committee Says... debts. Our options are tax, repay, default or inflate. Which do you think is most likely? M7 Who Do Mainstream investment Funds – Demographics – Aging populations and large Actually Benefit? unfunded social programs with a diminishing number of workers to pay for them. On top of this M1
  8. 8. Summary (continued) we are increasingly competing with younger, well- educated work forces in emerging economies. – Energy – Western lifestyles are dependent on low cost energy with the highest per capita usage on the planet (think – long commutes, large houses etc). How do you protect your retirement in this environment? – Protect and enhance your intellectual capital - continually strive to build unique, high value skills otherwise your only competitive advantage in the global market for services will be price. – Protect the purchasing power of your savings and assets - place a portion of assets away from effects of local currency devaluation and inflation – Energy price hedges – Under consume and over-save – Make demographics your ally and invest in countries that have young populations and high savings rates – Start now – don’t delay and don’t rely on the government or house price appreciation to pay for it M2
  9. 9. Global Macro Update SUBSIDIZING FAILURE – IS THIS REALLY THE PATH TO PROSPERITY? Despite widespread belief to the contrary, The situation is not much better in most other government intervention into broad swathes of the western nations. Chart 2 shows the impact of economy to support “too big to fail” companies unfunded social obligations for ageing populations is not a positive for future growth. There is an across the developed world. economic truism that whatever you subsidize you get more of – hence by subsidizing failure we are INFLATION THE INSIDIOUS, HIDDEN TAX ensuring bigger failures in the future and worst of all penalizing well run businesses. The firms that were Just 3% annual inflation over the course of a 45- prudently managed leading up to the crisis should year working career can cause a 75% reduction in have benefited from the demise of their poorly run the purchasing power of your money. Of course, competitors – in a free economy capital would have inflation has been running much higher than a “mere” flowed to the profitable businesses rather than the 3%. The US government, like most others, regularly loss making ones. The fact that this didn’t happen recalibrates its inflation indicators to make the creates a perverse “if you can’t beat’em, join’em” numbers seem less alarming. Chart 3 highlights the mentality with respect to risky and imprudent disparity between the CPI-U produced by America’s business practices. Bureau of Labour Statistics and the SGS Alternate CPI produced by Shadow Government Statistics DEBT TO GDP using older, less massaged methodologies. Up and away into the wild blue yonder… CHART 2: IMPACT OF AGING CHART 1: TOTAL US DEBT TO GDP 300 380% 360% 2009 Q3=369.7 250 340% 320% 1933=299.8 300% 2003=301.1 200 280% 260% 150 240% 220% 100 200% 180% 1875=156.4 50 160% 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 140% 1916=170.4 Advanced G20 economies, government debt / GDP ratio 120% 100% projected as % GDP 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Source: BEA, Federal Reserve and Census Bureau Source: IMF M3
  10. 10. Global Macro Update (continued) As you can see, over the past 20 years, prices have money and inflating asset classes versus the rest of been rising much faster than government numbers the participants in the economy. The net result is would have you believe. If you are searching for a that wealth is redistributed from the inflatees to the possible explanation for such a disparity Marc Faber inflators. summed it up succinctly when he said, “Never ask the barber if you need a haircut. Never ask the realtor THERE’S NO GOD-GIVEN GIFT OF A ‘AAA’ if the house you are considering buying is a bargain SOVEREIGN DEBT RATING at the price offered. And never ask the government to calculate the rate of inflation when it can save millions As has been predicted by the extensive financial crisis of dollars in cost-of-living adjustments.” research of Kenneth Rogoff, sovereign credit ratings are coming under pressure as fiscal deficits grow In addition to a general erosion of purchasing power, rapidly and tax bases shrink. The following is some inflation also has another more insidious effect. anecdotal evidence of this trend. Because inflation does not happen in the aggregate – does not increase the price of all goods and services – Portugal - “If Portugal wants to avoid a at the same rate at the same time - inflation benefits downgrade, it is going to have to take meaningful, the groups who have first access to newly created credible steps to get the deficit under control,” said Anthony Thomas of Moody’s credit rating agency. Financial Times - January 10, 2010 – Iceland - Standard & Poor’s put Icelandic debt CHART 3: CURRENT GOVERNMENTS under negative credit watch after Iceland’s CPI V. SGS ALTERNATE president blocked a bill of compensation for the failure of Icesave bank. The agency said “as a 15 CPI-U SGS Alternate CPI result, we could lower our ratings on Iceland by one to two notches within a month”. Fitch credit 10 rating agency downgraded Iceland’s long-term Year-to-Year Change (%) debt rating from BBB- to BB+ citing a “renewed wave of domestic political, economic and financial 5 uncertainty.” The Telegraph - January 6, 2010 – France and United Kingdom - Fitch Ratings 0 warned Britain and France that they risk losing their AAA status unless they map out a clear path to budget discipline over the next year. Telegraph -5 - December 22, 2009 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 – Mexico - Standard & Poor’s reduced Mexico’s Source: John Williams’ Shadow Government Statistics credit rating one notch to BBB from BBB-plus. M4
  11. 11. Global Macro Update (continued) The cut came after Fitch cut the country’s credit – Ukraine - Standard & Poor’s cut Ukraine’s rating one notch to BBB. This was Mexico’s first credit rating two levels to the lowest in Europe. downgrade in over 10 years. Reuters - December Ukraine’s long-term foreign currency rating was 14, 2009 lowered to CCC+, seven levels below investment – Dubai - Moody’s said that its rating downgrades grade. S&P left the outlook negative, indicating reflect the weakening in Dubai’s economy and a possible further cut. Bloomberg - February 25, the repercussions on its banks’ asset quality and 2009 earning power. Reuters - December 10, 2009 – United States - John Chambers, the chairman – Spain - Standard & Poor’s cut Spain’s credit of Standard & Poor’s sovereign ratings committee outlook to negative from stable. “Reducing said pressure is building on the “AAA” rating of Spain’s sizable fiscal and economic imbalances the United States. Chambers said “There’s no requires strong policy actions, which have not yet God-given gift of a ‘AAA’ rating, and the U.S. materialized,” according to Standard & Poor’s. has to earn it like everyone else.” Reuters - BBC News - December 9, 2009 September 17, 2008 – Greece - Fitch cut Greece to BBB+, outlook negative. Fitch said its move was due to “concerns over the medium-term outlook for public finances given the weak credibility of fiscal institutions and the policy framework in Greece.” CHART 4: GLOBAL SOVEREIGN Wall Street Journal Online - December 8, 2009 DOWNGRADE WATCH – United Kingdom and United States - Moody’s said U.S. and U.K debt ratings may “test the Aaa boundaries” because public finances are worsening in the wake of the global financial crisis. “The deterioration has been pretty severe,” said Pierre Cailleteau, managing director of sovereign risk at Moody’s. Bloomberg - December 8, 2009 – Japan - Moody’s removed the Japanese government’s last triple-A foreign currency credit rating. The agency described the move as a largely technical one but also said Japan was in a worse position than many other governments in its top ratings bracket. Reuters - May 18, 2009 M5
  12. 12. Global Macro Update (continued) YUAN IS NOW THE LINCHPIN OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL SYSTEM The US has been exporting inflation with China’s as underlying commercial real estate prices began cooperation for over a decade via China’s fixed to drop in late 2008. Once the bailout funds began exchange rate with the dollar – eventually all the to flow in 2009 REITs recovered rapidly and have dollars, Euros, loonies etc that China has been more than doubled from the stock market lows of last absorbing will come home to roost causing global March. inflation. Although, the Chinese government keeps the Yuan artificially depressed and appears set to do so for the immediate future, the Yuan ultimately will be CHART 5: REITS VERSUS S&P 500 INDEX revalued causing a severe downturn in the currencies of its trading partners. As part of the revaluation 300 Bloomberg Hotel REIT Index Bloomberg REIT Index process China will stop buying US treasuries causing 250 S&P 500 Index 200 interest rates to increase rapidly. Though US demand 150 for Chinese goods might rapidly decelerate this 100 could be offset by a large increase in the domestic 50 0 purchasing power of the Chinese economy and a -50 large reduction in input costs for Chinese companies 27 4/17 5/18 29 6/19 7/10 31 8/21 9/11 10/20 23 11/13 12/4 25 1/15/10 (commodity prices will fall in Yuan terms) – domestic Source: growth could accelerate in China. US CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT WITH $200 This presents something of a paradox as the OIL? NCHREIF commercial real estate price index shows that underlying commercial property prices have Assuming 10 million bopd of imports, $200/bbl fallen almost 40% and do not appear to justify such a oil would add US$ 438 billion per year to the US recovery – in fact the evidence strongly supports the current account deficit. That would increase the conclusion that conditions are still deteriorating. deficit by approximately 4% of GDP on top of already historically high levels – how would the US fund such In the spirit of sublime understatement the latest a deficit and sustain its way of life? Congressional Oversight Panel (COP) report stated that the “most serious wave of commercial real US OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE SAYS, “MOST estate difficulties is just now beginning”. The report SERIOUS WAVE OF COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE is an interesting read but here are some excerpts DIFFICULTIES IS JUST NOW BEGINNING” from the summary for those disinclined to read the entire document: Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITS”) values increased steadily from 2000 to 2007 then fell sharply M6
  13. 13. Global Macro Update (continued) “Over the next few years, a wave of commercial space, have exerted a powerful downward pressure real estate loan failures could threaten on the value of commercial properties. America‘s already-weakened financial system. The Congressional Oversight Panel is deeply A significant wave of commercial mortgage defaults concerned that commercial loan losses could would trigger economic damage that jeopardize the stability of many banks, particularly could touch the lives of nearly every American.“ the nation‘s mid-size and smaller banks, and that as the damage spreads beyond individual banks that Is this prediction overly pessimistic? Japan’s it will contribute to prolonged weakness throughout experience with a commercial real estate collapse is the economy.” informative. Chart 6 shows that that land prices fell 87% over the last 20 years from their peak in 1990. Between 2010 and 2014, about $1.4 trillion in commercial real estate loans will reach the WHO DO MAINSTREAM INVESTMENT FUNDS end of their terms. Nearly half are at present ACTUALLY BENEFIT? ―underwater! – that is, the borrower owes more than the underlying property is currently worth. Michael Lee Chin founder of mutual fund company Commercial property values have fallen more than AIC Limited recently stated, “Let’s look at the history. 40 percent since the beginning of 2007. Increased If over the past 14 years you had invested $10,000 vacancy rates, which now range from eight percent in the best CI mutual fund, that would have earned for multifamily housing to 18 percent for office you $41,000, had you owned CI stock that derives its buildings, and falling rents, which have declined 40 money from revenue generated from that fund, that percent for office space and 33 percent for retail $10,000 [would be] worth $164,000.” According to Lee-Chin, the best AGF fund over the last 14 years was the AGF precious metals funds CHART 6: JAPANESE LAND PRICES - $10,000 invested in that would now be worth $35,000. But owning AGF stock would have given (Trillion yen, seasonally adjusted) (Mar. 2000=100) 800 you $56,000. Investors Group’s best fund would be 700 worth $26,000, [while] shares in IG would be worth $63,000.” Summary return data: 600 500 – CI mutual fund - $41,000 - return 22% 400 down – CI stock - $164,000 - annual return 22% Last seen 87% 300 – AGF mutual fund - $35,000 - annual return 9% in 1973 200 – AGF stock - $56,000 - annual return 13% 100 – Investors Group mutual fund - $26,000 - annual 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 return 7% – Investors Group stock - $63,000 - annual return Sources: Cabinet Office, Japan Real Estate Institute 14% M7
  14. 14. dIsClaImer: The information, opinions, estimates, projections and other materials contained herein are provided as of the date hereof and are subject to change without notice. Some of the information, opinions, estimates, projections and other materials contained herein have been obtained from numerous sources and Petrocapita Income Trust (“PETROCAPITA”) and its affiliates make every effort to ensure that the contents hereof have been compiled or derived from sources believed to be reliable and to contain information and opinions which are accurate and complete. However, neither PETROCAPITA nor its affiliates have independently verified or make any representation or warranty, express or implied, in respect thereof, take no responsibility for any errors and omissions which maybe contained herein or accept any liability whatsoever for any loss arising from any use of or reliance on the information, opinions, estimates, projections and other materials contained herein whether relied upon by the recipient or user or any other third party (including, without limitation, any customer of the recipient or user). Information may be available to PETROCAPITA and/or its affiliates that is not reflected herein. The information, opinions, estimates, projections and other materials contained herein are not to be construed as an offer to sell, a solicitation for or an offer to buy, any products or services referenced herein (including, without limitation, any commodities, securities or other financial instruments), nor shall such information, opinions, estimates, projections and other materials be considered as investment advice or as a recommendation to enter into any transaction. Additional information is available by contacting PETROCAPITA or its relevant affiliate directly. #400, 2424 4th street sW tel: +1.403.218.6506 Calgary, alberta t2s 2t4 fax: +1.403.266.1541 Canada