2008 10
                                                              NGOs                   113
            11 3 - 1 4 6
...
114             2008   10




                            NGO

      GONGO



          NGO
NGOs                 115




    1978


                 neo-traditionalism
                                              ...
116             2008    10




                                                         NGO


                            ...
NGOs                  117




                                                     Non-Governmental
Organization, NGO
    ...
118            2008   10




                                                           NGO




 NGO


      NGO


       ...
NGOs                        119

1965                                                                    6000




        ...
120         2008   10




                      1




      NGO




               2004       118~145




                ...
NGOs                      121

375~396         Coston          1998: 358~382
                                             ...
122                   2008   10




                                                                      differential
con...
NGOs                     123

                                  1




                                               Post-...
124    2008   10




                   Armstrong, 2002: 56~64   2004
1~60
NGOs             125

     3




                    NGO




                          3




         2




2.
126              2008   10




                                                        Mann,
1993: 54~63




             ...
NGOs                127

             20                                         BBC
2008/09/15


                        ...
128   2008   10




      GONGOs
NGOs   129




2004
                     2006a   293~326




       3




           1999




3.



           2005   59~60
130                 2008       10


                                              1




                                  ...
NGOs              131

                    7    20
                KTV
                                           7   27
 ...
132      2008   10




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 NGO




       2006   2007   5~15   2007   8   30




          ...
NGOs             133

                                        NGO


                 Minxia Pei        1998: 285~318
     ...
134               2008   10


      5




2005      30~32                                               2
                ...
NGOs   135




                         2


        GONGOs


                   NGO
                                     *...
136         2008   10




             8




                                                           9




            ...
NGOs   137




                                  3
                      NGO


      11
                  3




          ...
138          2008   10


        birdcage economy doctrine
              birdcage society
                                ...
NGOs   139
140                   2008    10




                                  2005


         2005
                        14    ...
NGOs                       141

35~36
    2002                                                                       2    ...
142                 2008     10


             6      12            1~8
             2004
                                ...
NGOs                    143

     2 (June), pp. 113~130.
Mann, Michael. 1993. The Sources of Social Power: The Rise of Cla...
144                 2008   10


      vernment in Taiwan’s Industrialization Princeton (NJ: Princeton University
      Pre...
NGOs                           145


   In Search of NGOs in Contemporary China:
       The Two Approaches and Dilemmas
  ...
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尋找中國NGOs:兩種路徑與困境

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尋找中國NGOs:兩種路徑與困境

  1. 1. 2008 10 NGOs 113 11 3 - 1 4 6 In Search of NGOs in Contemporary China: The Two Approaches and Dilemmas Hsin-Hsien Wang Associate Professor of the Department of Public Administration and Policy, National Taipei University Tsung-Yi Lee Ph.D Student, Institute of Sociology, National Tsing Hua University * 2008 1 8 NSC 95-2414-H-305-010-MY2
  2. 2. 114 2008 10 NGO GONGO NGO
  3. 3. NGOs 115 1978 neo-traditionalism Walder, 1986 non-governmental organizations, NGOs market transition redistribution Nee, 1989: 663~681; 1992: 267~282; 1996: 908~949; 2002 modernization theory NGO Gordon White, 1993 NGO NGO NGO NGO NGO post-totalitarian regime
  4. 4. 116 2008 10 NGO NGO NGO NGO state-society relationship NGO NGO Government Organized NGOs GONGOs NGO NGO NGO
  5. 5. NGOs 117 Non-Governmental Organization, NGO NGO market failure government failure the third sector Non- Profitable Organization, NPO NGO civil society Salamon, 1994: 109~122 2006 109~122 post socialist states reemergence
  6. 6. 118 2008 10 NGO NGO NGO NGO Petrova Tarrow 2007: 80~83 participatory activism transactional activism NGO NGO 1949
  7. 7. NGOs 119 1965 6000 2008 6 38 21.1 17.4 1392 2008/10/05 75 300 civil society corporatism Ma, 2002: 113~130 2006b 2001 12~18 2004 3~23 2004 118~145 1
  8. 8. 120 2008 10 1 NGO 2004 118~145 NGO strategic interaction Seibel Clark 1991 Najam, 2000:
  9. 9. NGOs 121 375~396 Coston 1998: 358~382 third-party government Dennis Young 2000 149~172 Adil Najam 2000: 375~396 4C Four-C’s model strategic institutional interests Najam cooperation co-optation complementarity confrontation 2 2 NGO 4C Najam 2000: 383
  10. 10. 122 2008 10 differential control 2005 73~89 totalitarian regime authoritarian regime post-communist / post-totalitarian regime Linz, 1996; 2000 totalism 1994 204~265 2000 1~8 2007 309~335 developmental states Governing the Market
  11. 11. NGOs 123 1 Post-Totalitarian Capitalist Developmental State, PTCDS 2007 309~335 2007 1~28 despotic power Mann, 1993: 54~63 1. 1 2 3 4 Johnson 1982 Amsden 1989 Wade 1990 Woo- Cummings 1999
  12. 12. 124 2008 10 Armstrong, 2002: 56~64 2004 1~60
  13. 13. NGOs 125 3 NGO 3 2 2.
  14. 14. 126 2008 10 Mann, 1993: 54~63 2003 349~365 2005 73~89 1999 4 2004 9 2005 7
  15. 15. NGOs 127 20 BBC 2008/09/15 2008/09/15 infrastructural power 4 2006 27~51 4 NGO 3 NGO NGO
  16. 16. 128 2008 10 GONGOs
  17. 17. NGOs 129 2004 2006a 293~326 3 1999 3. 2005 59~60
  18. 18. 130 2008 10 1 2007 267~308 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 2001 5~9 53~54 OK 2006 2006 7 18 KTV OK
  19. 19. NGOs 131 7 20 KTV 7 27 OK 8 21 OK OK 2006 35~36 NGO GONGOs 4 2004 319~322 2002 42 4. 2004 8 20
  20. 20. 132 2008 10 NGO NGO 2006 2007 5~15 2007 8 30 Pfeffer and Salancik, 1978
  21. 21. NGOs 133 NGO Minxia Pei 1998: 285~318 NGO 3 3 5 75 2004 71~77 300 200 2005 8~17
  22. 22. 134 2008 10 5 2005 30~32 2 GONGO 2000 117~131 NGO 6 2007 9~15 5. 2004 2006 4 30 6. 2008 7 16
  23. 23. NGOs 135 2 GONGOs NGO * NGOs * Yang 2005 50 7 7. 2007 4 11
  24. 24. 136 2008 10 8 9 10 2007 NPO NGO 2004 36~47 8. 2007 4 09 9. 2007 4 10 10. 2008 7 16
  25. 25. NGOs 137 3 NGO 11 3 12 13 Saich, 2000: 138~139 11. 2008 7 15 12. 2008 7 14 13. 2008 7 18
  26. 26. 138 2008 10 birdcage economy doctrine birdcage society NGO GONGO NGO O’Donnell and Schmitter, 1986: 3~5 1992 Armstrong, 2002: 56~64 2004 1~60
  27. 27. NGOs 139
  28. 28. 140 2008 10 2005 2005 14 11 11 8~17 2001 2004 2006a W 18 2 6 293~326 2006b 2007 267~308 2006 49 1 3 27~51 2004 6 12 71~77 2005 NGO 2 2 30~32 2004 NGO 6 12 36~47 2007 309~335 2006 10 10
  29. 29. NGOs 141 35~36 2002 2 2 42~45 2004 319~322 2006 1 109~122 http:// www.stnn.cc:82/china/200701/t20070104_435920.html 2008/09/15 2007 9 9 9~15 2006 2007 37 6 11 5~15 2007 50 3 9 1~28 2003 349~365 2005 6 12 73~89 2000 32 117~131 2004 NGO 1 3 118~145 1994 1992 1 11 56~64 2000
  30. 30. 142 2008 10 6 12 1~8 2004 1 3 1~60 2002 BBC http://news.bbc.co. uk/chinese/trad/low/newsid_6990000/newsid_6998200/ 6998246.stm 2008/09/15 2008 http:// cws.mca.gov.cn/accessory/200806/1201050645191.htm 2008/10/05 Amsde, Alice. 1989. Asia's Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization (New York: Oxford University Press). Armstrong, Charles K. 2002. Korean Society: Civil Society, Democracy and the State(New York : Routledge). Clark, John D. 1991. Democratizing Development: The Role of Volunteer Organi- zations. (London: Earthscan ). Coston, Jennifer. M. 1998.”A Model and Typology of Government-NPO Relationships,” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 3 (September), pp. 358~382. Johnson, Chalmers. 1982. MITI and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industri- al Policy, 1925~1975 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press). Linz, Juan, and Alfred Stepan. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and De- mocratic Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post Commu- nist Europe (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press). Linz, Juan. 2000. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes (Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner Publishers). Ma, Qiusha. 2002. “ Defining Chinese Nongovernmental Organizations,” Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, vol. 13, no.
  31. 31. NGOs 143 2 (June), pp. 113~130. Mann, Michael. 1993. The Sources of Social Power: The Rise of Classes and Nati- on-states, 1760~1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Najam, Adil. 2000. “ The Four-C's of Third Sector-Government Relations: Cooperation, Confrontation, Complementarity, and Co-optation,” Nonprofit Management and Leadership, vol. 10, no. 4 (Summer), pp. 375~396. Nee, Victor. 1989. “A Theory of Market Transition: From Redistribution to Markets in State Socialism,” American Sociological Review, vol. 54, no. 4 (Oct.), pp. 663~681. Nee, Victor. 1991. “Social Ineqalities in Reforming State Socialism: Between Redistribution and Markets in China,” American Sociological Review, vol. 56, no. 3 (June), pp. 267~282. Nee, Victor. 1996. “The Emergence of a Market Society: Changing Mechanisms of Stratification in China,” American Journal of Sociology, vol. 101, no. 4 (August), pp. 908~949. O Donnell, Guillermo and Philippe C. Schmitter. 1986. Transitions from Authori- tarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies (Baltimore Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press). Pei, Minxin. 1998. “Chinese Civic Associations: An Empirical Analysis,” Modern China, vol. 24, no. 3 (July), pp. 285~318. Petrova, Tsveta, and Sidney Tarrow. 2007. “ Transactional and Participatory Activism in the Emerging European Polity: The Puzzle of East-Central Europe,” Comparative Political Studies, vol. 40, no. 1 (January), pp. 74~94. Pfeffer, Jeffrey Pfeffer, and Gerald R. Salancik. 1978. The External Control of Or- ganizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective (New York: Harper and Row). Saich, Tony. 2000. “Negotiating the State: The Development of Social Organizations in China,” no. 161 (April), pp. 124~141. Salamon, Lester M. Salamon. 1994. “ The Rise of the Nonprofit Sector,” Foreign Affairs, vol. 73, no. 4 (July/August), pp. 109~122. Wade, Robert. 1990. Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Go-
  32. 32. 144 2008 10 vernment in Taiwan’s Industrialization Princeton (NJ: Princeton University Press). Walder, Andrew,1986. Communist Neo-Traditionalism: Work and Authority in Chi- nese Industry (Berkeley: University of California Press). White, Gordon, 1993. Riding the Tiger: The Politics of Economic Reform in Post- Mao China (Stanford: Stanford University Press). Woo-Cumings, Meredith. 1999. The Developmental State (New York: Cornell University Press). Young, Dennis. 2000. “Alternative Models of Government-Nonprofit Sector Relations: Theoretical and International Perspectives,” Nonprofit and Volunta- ry Sector Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 1 (March), pp. 149~172.
  33. 33. NGOs 145 In Search of NGOs in Contemporary China: The Two Approaches and Dilemmas Hsin-Hsien Wang Associate Professor of the Department of Public Administration and Policy, National Taipei University Tsung-Yi Lee Ph.D Student, Institute of Sociology, National Tsing Hua University Abstract Over the past three decades, the Chinese economy has moved dramatically away from the model of socialist planning and into the new world of market forces. During the process, the CCP has made a wide range of efforts to reform its institutions of economic and soical govermance. The result to all these changes is the emergence of a new set to institutional arrangements. The dramatic changes and significant consequences stirred by the development of social organizations have drawn much attention to the subject. The transitions have caused changes ont only in the economic and social structures but also in the whole perception of a proper state- society relationship, and more importantly, in how the CCP combines the introduction of market forces and the emerging social groups with tight political control. It is necessary to model and document exactly what effect are produced. This paper is discussing alternative approaches to Leninist transitions and noting some implications for further research. It develops a new framework named "Post-Totalitarian capitalist Developmental State" to analyze the changes of state- society relationship in China. Instead we employ a framework that is based on the post-totalitarian regime and development state model. Due to the capacity of social organizations to challenge the party-state authority and the public good they cna provide, the state exerts different strategies to control the emerging social forces. Accordingly, the social organizations are classified into four categories. This paper points out two possible approaches to search for the "authentic" NGOs and explore their dilemma in China. The line of analysis seeks to explain how pluralizing socio- economic changes induced by market reforms co-exist with the continued dominance of the party-state. Key words: Post-Totalitarian Capitalist Developmental State, state-society relationship, differential control, Non-Governmental Organization ( N G O ) , G o v e r n m e n t O rg a n i z e d N G O ( G O N G O ) , g r a s s r o t t s organization

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