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Motivation research by Mrs. Khadija Zegnoun & Mr. Rachid Mazouz

Motivation research by Mrs. Khadija Zegnoun & Mr. Rachid Mazouz
Agadir ELT Inspectorate
2014

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Motivation research Document Transcript

  • 1. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 1 Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge This study is submitted by: Mrs Khadija Zegnoun & Mr Rachid mazouz School year: 2012- 2013
  • 2. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 2 Table Of Content 1- Rationale of The Study : 2- Goals of The Study : 3- Theoretical background : A- Definitions B- Theories about motivation: Content Theories and Process Theories: 1- The Behavioural Perspective 2- The Humanistic Perspective 3- The cognitive Perspective 4- The social learning Perspective C- Types of Motivation: 1- Intrinsic / Extrinsic Motivation: a- Defintions b- Intrinsic / extrinsic motivation and learning 2- Instrumental / Integrative motivation 4- Underlying Principles: 5- The challenge / The Issue: 1- Desirable and Undesirable behaviours 2- Causes of unmotivation 3- Motivational beliefs 6- Classroom motivation : Tips and Recommendations : 1- Techniques and Strategies 2- Motivation and Technology 7- Glossary of Key Terms 8- Bibliography / Webliography
  • 3. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 3 1- Rationale of The study: No one can deny that motivation is the backbone of all learning situations. Most motivation theorists believe that it is part of all learner’s responses and performances. Behaviour will not take place unless it is boosted by other forces or energies and since the classroom is the place where students spend most of their time, the values acquired within that classroom setting are automatically retained by the students. Actually, all teachers aim to make their students excel in life; and motivating them is the magical secret to help them achieve their goals and succeed in their life. That could be achieved via encouraging them to become autonomous learners, making them recognize their strengths and weaknesses, challenging their ICT skills and most importantly boosting their perceptions to achieve their goals. In addition and for successful learning to take place, teachers must not only focus on changing the materials and adapting the curriculum, but there are key variables that highly shape and empower students’ personalities , abilities and skills manifested in the cognitive, affective and social variables embracing the classroom life and the social life of students. 2- Goals of the Study: The study aims to: • Shed lights on a theoretical research about motivation. • Explain the importance and complexity of motivation in classroom situations. • Analyse students’ behaviours and motivational beliefs. • Describe strategies and techniques that boost students’ motivation. • Stress the importance of technology as an effective motivational tool. .
  • 4. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 4 3- THEORETICAL BACKGROUND A- Definitions: A variety of psychology textbooks assume that motivation is an internal state or condition (portrayed sometimes as desire, need or want) that energizes behaviour or gives it direction. (See Kleinginna and Kleinginna, 1981a). • internal state or condition that activates behaviour and gives it direction. • desire or want that energizes and directs goal-oriented behaviour. • influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behaviour. Franken (1994) provides an additional component in his definition: • The arousal, direction, and persistence of behaviour. Motivation refers to “the reasons underlying behaviour” (Guay et al., 2010, p. 712) while Gredler, Broussard and Garrison (2004) broadly define it as “the attribute that moves us to do or not to do something” (p. 106).
  • 5. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 5 B - THEORIES OF MOTIVATION “There are three things to remember about education. The first one is motivation. The second one is motivation. The third one is motivation.” Terrell H. Bell Over the last decade, much concern and revival was spotted in dealing with L2 motivation (see Dornyei, 1998, oxford 1996) .several L2 theorists and researchers made great advances on existing models of L2 acquisition; hence and from a psychological perspective, motivation is portrayed in four different ways. Let us explore these perspectives which are: behavioural, humanistic cognitive and social perspective.
  • 6. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 6 1. The Behavioural Perspective: The behaviourists believe that the key factor to motivate students is by giving them reinforcement, rewards and praise or a gold star for performing well. That will perfectly stimulate them to engage in whatever kind of tasks. In other words, their view of learning consists in the use of extrinsic reinforcement to guarantee students’ commitment and engagement in different activities ranging from a smile, praise to a loss of privileges. 2. The Humanistic Perspective : A- Maslow (1954) stressed the importance of needs and relates motivation to a hierarchy of needs that have to be satisfied .likewise when an individual satisfies one level of needs ,he aspires to reach the higher order need
  • 7. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 7
  • 8. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 8 B- Roger’s Motivation Theory: Roger believed that people should listen to their inner voices to decide on what is good or bad for them instead on relying on whatever kind of feedback from external resources. 3. The Cognitive Perspective :
  • 9. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 9 A- Achievement motivation: Atkinson suggests that some of us possess a high need for achievement and success and a great desire for accomplishment while others just lack that zeal and have a low need for achievement. B- Weiner Attribution Theory: Weiner’s theory incorporates cognitive theory and self efficacy theory and stresses the fact that learners ‘current self perceptions will strongly influence the ways they interpret failure or success. According to him success or failure is explained in 3ways: The cause of failure or success may be internal or external. The cause of failure or success may be stable or unstable. The cause of success or failure may be controllable or uncontrollable. Weiner (1980) states: "Causal attributions determine affective reactions to success and failure. For example, one is not likely to experience pride in success, or feelings of competence, when receiving an ‘A’ from a teacher who gives only that grade, or when defeating a tennis player who always loses...On the other hand, an ‘A’ from a teacher who gives few high grades or a victory over a highly rated tennis player following a great deal of practice generates great positive affect." 4. The Social Learning Perspective: From a social learning perspective, motivation is perceived as a goal directed behaviour that is highly associated with feelings of personal competence and effectiveness .Likewise, those students who always experience success believe in their competences in contrast to those who regularly experience failure. Yet, it may not always be the case with those students who may resort to extra factors to attribute their success like (good luck or chance) and their failure to hard luck and not to their personal inadequacies. In addition, students’ self-evaluation also involves observation and comparison of their achievements with their peers.
  • 10. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 10 According to Krause “Factors that can influence students’ motivation to learn include their observation of peer achieving success or failure, their ability to regulate their own behaviour and their need for personal fulfilment.” (Krause, et al 2003) Motivation is conceived as a complex of variables. More explicitly, it is “The combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning plus the favourable attitudes towards learning the language.”(Gardner, 1985:10).
  • 11. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 11 Hence, motivation is conceptualized as a key framework that highly influences L2 achievement given those psychological variables. There are other experts and psychologists who, broadly speaking, profiled motivation from 2 angles: content theories and process theories. Content Theories - such as those of Maslow and Herzberg, define motivation in terms of needs and stress the satisfaction of those needs .more explicitly content theories emphasize the nature of those needs and suggest ways to profile the individual and hence identify those needs. Process theories - such as Porter and Vroom, -define motivation in terms as a rational cognitive process occurring within the individual , they changed the focus from the needs to the goals and process by which people are motivated.i.e how they start , what directs their motivation; analysing all the variables that lead to motivation: direction , degree and persistence of effort.
  • 12. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 12 - define motivation in terms as a rational cognitive process occurring within the individual , they changed the focus from the needs to the goals and process by which people are motivated.i.e how they start , what directs their motivation; analysing all the variables that lead to motivation: direction , degree and persistence of effort. (Such as Vroom)
  • 13. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 13 C- TYPES OF MOTIVATION: Deci and Ryan (1985) identified 2 types of motivation intrinsic or extrinsic: 1- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Intrinsic motivation is when the force comes from within the individual; It ‘emerges spontaneously from psychological needs, personal Curiosities, and innate strivings for growth’ (Reeve, 2005, p. 134). Likewise, students are intrinsically motivated when they show interest in learning tasks and outcomes for their won sake and that results in internal feelings of self determination and Competence.
  • 14. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 14 Extrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from external factors. When students are motivated extrinsically; their actions depend on the incentives that could be praise, grades, rewards etc or to avoid a penalty like a failing grade (Lumsden) Self –determination theory: Examples of L2 motivational orientations:
  • 15. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 15 Students’ Motivational orientation: Intrinsic motivation Learning a second language - IM –knowledge: “for the satisfied feeling I get in finding out new things.” - IM Accomplishments: “for the sensation I get to master a task or achieve a goal” - IM Simulation: “for the high that I experience while speaking the second language.” - Integrated Regulation: “Because I think it is important for my personal development.” - Introjected Regulation: “Because I would feel guilty if I didn’t know a second language.” - External Regulation: “In order to get a more prestigious job later on.” - Ammotivation: “I don’t know, I don’t understand what I am doing studying a second language.” Note: Examples are based on scale items designed by Noels and her associates (eg. Noels et al, 1999, 2000) Actually, teachers should wisely and thoughtfully exploit those incentives to boost students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The following techniques and tips would make learning enjoyable and would capture students ‘attention and curiosity and undoubtedly empower their energy and zeal towards learning.
  • 16. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 16 Intrinsic Extrinsic • Explain or show why learning a particular content or skill is important • Create and/or maintain curiosity • Provide a variety of activities and sensory stimulations • Provide games and simulations • Set goals for learning • Relate learning to student needs • Help student develop plan of action • Promote mastering a subject over grades • Show enthusiasm when teaching • Be intrinsically motivated about your teaching career. • Build self -confidence • Provide clear expectations • Give corrective feedback • Involve students in a competition where everyone benefits • Provide valuable rewards • Make rewards available • Praise students and give them recognition Further examples about enhancing students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
  • 17. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 17 NB : It’s futile trying to motivate your students if you are not motivated yourself. Teachers should always bring an enthusiastic and positive attitude to the classroom. 2 – Instrumental and Integrative motivation: Gardner and Lambert (1972) identify two types of motivation: instrumental and integrative. Students with instrumental motivation acquire a language for get a job for instance, to read a technical material or to study in the country where the language is spoken. Integrative motivation is held by students who want to join acquire “the culture of the second language group and become involved in social interchange in that group.” (Brown 2000, 162)
  • 18. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 18 4- UNDERLYING PRINCIPLES It’s true that numerous cross disciplinary theories tried to profile motivation from their own perspectives ; favouring rewards and reinforcement , focussing on enriching the environment , stressing the role of recognition and satisfying students’ needs , but no single theory can adequately and broadly explain human motivation since human beings are complex creatures with complex needs and interest. So, how can we judge a student’ motivation? Is the motivated student the one who pays attention, asks questions? Or is he the one who appears to be happy and eager while learning or engages in tasks immediately? Actually, there are 5 key ingredients affecting students’ motivation: 1- Student 2- Teacher 3- Content 4-Method/ Process 5–Environment The STUDENT: Students should not be passive consumers of learning according to the traditional view of education but active learners that can take risks, feel autonomy and take part in their learning. “Students are the raw materials for education and the primary products of educational transformations; and most important...students are key members of the labour force involved in creating education” (Lengnick-Hall and Sanders, 1997, p. 1335). THE TEACHER: The teacher must be well trained, dedicated and responsive to his / her students’ needs. In addition, bonding good relationships with learners in classroom setting facilitates learning and empowers students’ motivation. Last but not least, the teacher should also discuss contemporary topics, be inspirational to encourage students to have a chance to enhance their creativity, practical work experience and critical thinking. THE CONTENT: In addition to the roles of teacher and student, the content should be stimulating and pertinent to students’ needs and interests. It should satisfy their need for 1-feeling in control of learning 2- feeling competent 3- feeling connected to others. Novelty in designing the content is very crucial by creating amazing facts, videos and demonstrations.
  • 19. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 19 THE METHOD/PROCESS: The method is the way in which the content is exploited. It should provide tools applicable to students ‘real life .It should also be encouraging, interesting and inventive. More clearly; what contributes to maximizing students’motivation are incentives (praise and encouragement), making students understand the goals and objectives of the lesson and empowering social interactions. THE ENVIRONMENT: students should be exposed to different sources of motivation in their learning experience (Palmer, 2007; Debnath, 2005; Souza and Maheshwari, 2010). Besides, the teacher should create an effective environment which fosters peer social interaction and exchange .Moreover; students should be given the chance to develop positive attitudes by encouraging voluntary parental and community support in involvement in the school life. In fact, teachers , administrators and counsellors must set the right structures to provide an optimal learning environment; In addition to creating an emotionally literate environment by equipping students with some life skills and learning behaviours such as self –awareness, motivation, empathy and social skills .
  • 20. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 20 5- THE CHALLENGE: To spot the challenge in our classroom setting, teachers should diagnose the causes of unmotivation, examine the undesirable behaviours and profile the motivational beliefs. In this part ,we will try to answer the following questions about students and motivation: • How to motivate learners? • How does motivation develop? • What are students’ choices and motivational beliefs? • How do teacher practices and peer behaviour affect students’ motivation? • What are the things said by teachers to learners that would inhibit their motivation? • How can we make our students feel the importance of personal responsibility? • What learning strategies can boost students’ motivation and enhance their determination to learn? • How does project based learning motivate student? • How can learning strategies improve my students’ motivation to learn? • How does the school environment affect students’ motivation? 1- SOME CAUSES OF UNMOTIVATION Low self-esteem / feeling of inadequacy. Lack of support and encouragement from family and the surrounding environment. Absence of high expectations in classroom settings and no support afforded by teachers; some students may believe that schooling is not related to their lives and has nothing to offer to them. Lack of challenging, authentic and meaningful activities. Interpersonal experiences that may highly affect their attitudes towards learning the language.
  • 21. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 21 2- Behaviours in Classroom Setting : Motivational problems are highly reflected in students’ behaviours. is a list of behaviours that identify high motivation and highly de behaviours.. If a student fails to exhibit many of these behaviour lacks motivation. 12 IMPORTANT BEHAVIORS • Pays attention to the teacher. • Begins working on tasks immediately. • Follows directions on tasks. • Maintains attention until tasks are complete. • Completes work. • Turns in assignments on time. • Persists rather than gives up when problems appear difficult. • Works autonomously. • Volunteers answers in class. • Has test performance that reflects the skill level demonstrated on assignments. • Seeks help when it is needed. • Is not upset by initial errors or difficulties.
  • 22. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 22 10 HIGHLY DESIRABLE BEHAVIORS • Enjoys challenging work. • Works intensely. • Asks questions to expand knowledge. • Engages in learning activities that are not required. • Is reluctant to stop working on tasks when highly engaged. • Engages in learning activities after assignments are complete. • Appears happy, proud, enthusiastic, and eager. • Strives to improve skills, even when already performing well relative to classmates. • Initiates challenging learning activities on his or her own. • Works hard on un-graded tasks. Stipek, Deborah. Motivation to Learn. 1998. Allyn and Bacon. 3- MOTIVATIONAL BELIEFS: When we expose students to varied content and social context in the classroom setting, this involves them in unfamiliar learning situations which would create ambiguity and uncertainty for some students while it may challenge the others. Hence, to understand those unfamiliar situations, students resort to their motivational beliefs. The latter refer to “the opinions, judgements and values that students hold about objects, events or subject- matter domains”. Likewise, teachers must be aware of favourable or unfavourable motivational beliefs that students develop before coming to class. This will help teachers plan activities that exploit favourable motivational beliefs and reconsider the unfavourable ones, especially that students are very cautious and careful in hiding their feelings and opinions which would create a kind of misconceptions on the part of teachers. In brief, knowing students’ motivational beliefs highly affects students ‘involvement and engagement in classroom setting. (skinner1995, Stipek1988, Pintrich 2001, Vermeer 2000)
  • 23. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 23 Research has indicated that motivational beliefs result from: 1- Direct learning experiences: (e.g. most math problems are too difficult for me to get the right first time. However, when somebody gives me a hint I can solve a lot of problems). 2- Observation learning: (e.g. Stefano: ‘The math teacher gets annoyed when students do not offer help to each other’.) 3- Verbal statements: (e.g. Sandra: ‘My father thinks it is nonsense to learn poetry in school; he says mathematics is far more important’) 4-Social comparisons: (‘Why do I always get scolded, while the teacher never Says anything to other students?’). Similarly other psychologists and experts highly consider that caring Classroom practices cultivate students’ motivational beliefs: 1- Instructional strategies: “if I can’t solve a problem, my math teacher asks me questions that help me understand what to do”. 2- Emotional care: “My math teacher considers my feelings.” 3- Respect in classrooms: “In math class, we are told to respect each others’ opinions.” 4- Expectations of success: “My math teacher believes I can do well in his /her class.” (Karen Strobel and Graciela Borsato)
  • 24. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 24 5- CLASSROOM MOTIVATION: TIPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: a- TECHNIQUES AND STRATEGIES Motivation is the scapegoat for all learning failures. Hence, it’s not only knowing where to go and believing in your ability to achieve this goal but also possessing the energy and vigour to go there. Part A: According to Davis (1993) what would make students motivated are 3 things: A well organized course; A teacher who is enthusiastic about the material and about teaching; A teacher who shows he or she cares about the students and their learning. Generally and apart from their past experiences vis-à-vis learning and their attitudes towards learning in general or learning a foreign language in particular , there are other factors that make some students feel reluctant , careless, or just bored by the school subject which would increase their motivation.
  • 25. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 25 • Vary your materials and resources: Teachers are expected to bring additional resources to class that meet the curriculum and also meet students’ needs and interests. Likewise, by bringing a different perspective to the class, this will automatically re-engage those students who are turned off by the materials already used. It’s also an opportunity to challenge others who think that success lies only in the assigned curriculum.
  • 26. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 26 • Create an accepting /supportive atmosphere/ self esteem: Praising students can be a wonderful motivational tool if well exploited by the teacher. In fact, the teacher should praise the good qualities of the students, provide emotional support in times of difficulty and mustn’t in anyway overcorrect them. He/ or she may also resort to humour to create a low anxiety situation. Hence, by bonding with students and displaying respect, care, encouragement and boosting their self confidence, this will increases their motivation and their achievement too .In addition to boosting students’ self- esteem, we have to create an atmosphere that tolerates mistakes and where errors are perceived as tools to teach not only to evaluate and not an occasion where some students would feel belittled by their peers. As Bernard Mbaruch said: ” I have found that failure is a far better teacher than success.”
  • 27. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 27 Provide Clear Instructions and Interesting/Challenging and Engaging Tasks: The nature of the instruction and tasks given in addition to the perceived expectations highly affect students’ motivation. In fact, teachers should opt for challenging, meaningful and interesting activities. That is to say ,when the teacher introduces plain, easy activities or tasks many students would feel bored, and when it doesn’t appeal to their interest, they would feel reluctant in involving in those tasks .for instance, motivating students to read must not necessarily be taxing and stressful. In brief, the teacher should increase the quantity and quality of learners’ engagement in different learning activities. When adolescents are challenged and perceive themselves as having a high degree of skill, FLOW is most likely to occur. When operating in flow, students are having optimal life experiences and this typically assist the individual in becoming highly motivated in school. When adolescents' skills are high but the activity provides little challenge, the result is BOREDOM. When challenge and skill are low, APATHY occurs. When adolescents perceive themselves as inadequate in mastering a challenging task, they face ANXIETY.
  • 28. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 28 LOW SKILL HIGH SKILL LOW CHALLENGE APATHY BOREDOM HIGH CHALLENGE ANXIETY FLOW The teacher must choose activities where all students can be engaged to learn from each other and support each other. That would decrease the fear of individual judgement and pressure students may experience if they can’t perform perfectly. Moreover, students like the kind of activities that would allow much action, interaction; they don’t like just to sit down and learn. The teacher should also opt for self- discovery activities that boost their high order thinking skills. Kind of activities that would motivate students: Team building activities School field trips Classroom contests Relate the school to their present and their future: The teacher should give real world or authentic examples and create a kind of excitement when presenting new concepts and ideas to give students a chance to relate the lesson to their lives. In fact, Students need to understand and grasp the relevance of what is taught to their personal lives and surroundings.
  • 29. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 29 Make sure to teach all the learning styles in the classroom: “Realize that each student is an individual and, as such, no two students will be motivated in exactly the same way. Some need more encouragement and different techniques than others. The demographics of a classroom are sometimes extremely varied, and you will have a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds to work with. Something that can mean the world to one student may be totally meaningless to another”. Lisa Myers
  • 30. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 30 In addition, some students could show good results after giving them a few words of praise while others would need prolonged assistance to enable them to excel in their tasks. Hence, teachers should treat students equally by making no discrimination between them except for understanding their styles and boosting them with the needed assistance and support.
  • 31. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 31 • Decrease the focus on individual grades: When the teacher concentrates more on the effort made by the students in fulfilling whatever task instead of the grade, the students will feel comfortable especially if the teacher equips them with formative assessment; giving comments to promote their learning. Yet, to reach the goal which is developing their skills, abilities and knowledge must be students’ worry in order to progress and get a good grade. • Provide praise/ rewards : “Praise students often. Don't wait until a student has accomplished something major to give him a pat on the back. Always couple constructive criticism with a praise. You must realize that no matter how nice you make it sound criticism is criticism and many students view it as negative. Don't deliver correction for something done wrong without praising your student for something he has done right.”
  • 32. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 32 Notes Home: Candies and prizes highly motivate students but they can’t replace in any way the magnificent role of praise. Hence, and even for more difficult students (behaviour- lack of motivation), sending notes to show appreciation make students more collaborative and supportive. It’s also a tool appreciated by the parents instead of getting just negative feedback on the phone or in a face to face conversation eg: parent teacher meetings. Praise is an influential feedback” good job” or ”that’s great”… Class Store: Bribing students with candies may be practical for kids but with other levels, a class store is an amazing motivational tool: students get points for participation, good behaviour and positive attitudes in class while the teacher may extract points for tardies and disruptions. Share and discuss the expectations “Let students know that you have high expectations of them and that you feel each student is important and has the ability to learn something from being in your classroom”.Lisa Mayers
  • 33. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 33 b- MOTIVATION AND TECHNOLOGY “Using computers and every kind of technological equipment gives students the sense of freedom and encouragement” (Wang, 2004, 156), The time, energy, enthusiasm and the implementation of the lesson could be perfectly invested by using technology in the classroom and spotting different reasons to convince your students that technology is a useful, practical and effective component of the course. Actually, students of this generation possess a life-long experience with technology. They automatically have confidence in using it. Hence, their self efficacy would certainly increase their productivity. So, how can we make use of technology as a motivational tool? Make it relevant: (content) Integrate it in the lesson or part of the lesson. Use it to consolidate and expand concepts.
  • 34. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 34 Tell students why it is relevant (objectives) and not to assume it is already obvious. Make students record their work. Use it as a basis for review or follow up Make sure it is appropriate: To students’ level in mastering computer literacy. Boost students with encouragement in case of difficulties. Make it an experience: Plan the integration of the materials. Make your ways of presentation and interaction rich and varied. Make use simulations / interactivity/and clips. Make it supportive: Know where and for what reasons to use it (set targets) Help students in case of need Offer follow up test support sessions Don’t expect all students to be computer literate Don’t all assume all students to enjoy dealing with computers? Make it assessed: As a part of summative assessment/ formative assessment Assess a group work / presentation/ project Give students ownership: Give students enough control on what pace and sequence in dealing with the materials Boost students to use and enter their own data. Allow students some choice on the topics to be taught.
  • 35. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 35 Make it shared Set group tasks: group students around one computer. Give students the opportunity to feed back to the rest of the class. Ask students to submit a project work possibly electronically Make it interactive and competitive • Involve students in a test to be graded by other groups Make students prepare a poster of their findings and engage them on voting to agree on the best production. • Award prizes for the best projects. Make it understandable: • Motivate students to ask questions and set up a list of the most frequently asked questions(FAQ)or even compile a list of question; ( group questions). • Set up a discussion, forum or e-mail group for your students. Enhance students’ self confidence: • Make it understandable and easy to use. • Give positive feedback to students. • Provide constructive formative assessment. • Never underestimate students’ abilities in dealing with the material. • Avoid whatever kind of barriers between the students and the material. Make it fun: for you And for your students
  • 36. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 36 GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS: Uplifts: Minor positive events that make one feel good. Motivation: The factors that direct and energize the behaviour of humans and other organisms. Instincts: Inborn patterns of behaviour that are biologically determined rather than learned... Drive: Motivational tension or arousal that energizes behaviour in order to fulfil a need. Values: The specific attitudes, behaviours, and collective commitments that must be demonstrated in order to advance the organization’s vision. Articulated values answer the question, how must we behave in order to make our shared vision a reality? Behavior: The way people act as individual and as groups. Behavior is defined as goal oriented activities of a person. Generally the behavior of the person is determined by the goal which he wants to achieve Self-Esteem: Refers to the way a person evaluates her/himself in terms of overall worth. The way we perceive ourselves and our actions and our opinions regarding how other people perceive us. Personality: A person’s phenotype, or the interaction between an individual’s genotype (see temperament) and her or his environment (nurture, diet, socialization, etc…), which is a reflection of her or his experiences, motivations, attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviours. Personality Traits: An individual’s predispositions for responding in a certain way to various situations. Psychomotor (Behavioural) Learning: Learning that emphasizes performance of a motor act or skill.
  • 37. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 37 Performance: The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed. In a contract, performance is deemed to be the fulfilment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract. Learning factors: For EFL teachers, four factors outside aptitude and attitude affect the rate at which a student learns a second language. These are (1) the student’s motivation, including whether it is instrumental or integrative; (2) the amount of time the student spends in class and practicing the language outside class; (3) the teacher’s approach to teaching; and (4) the teacher’s effectiveness and teaching style. The most important of these motivators are the first two, which are also the two the teacher has least control over Need for achievement: A stable, learned characteristic in which satisfaction is obtained by striving for and attaining a level of excellence. Incentive approaches to motivation: The theory explaining motivation in terms of external stimuli. Drive-reduction approaches to motivation: A theory suggesting that when people lack some basic biological requirement such as water, a drive to obtain that requirement (in this case, the thirst drive) is produced. Two-factor Theory of Emotion : Schechter and Singer's theory that emotion is determined by two main factors: physiological arousal and cognitive labelling Classical Theory of Motivation: A theory of motivation that presumes that workers are motivated almost solely by money. Formative Assessment. An assessment for learning used to advance and not merely monitor each student’s learning; the assessment informs the teacher regarding the effectiveness of instruction and the individual student regarding progress in becoming proficient. Checks for understanding that individual teachers use in the classroom on a daily basis is examples of formative assessments. In a PLC, collaborative teams also use common formative assessments to (1) identify students who are experiencing difficulty in their learning, (2) provide those student with additional time and support in a way that does not remove them from new direct instruction, and (3) give them additional opportunities to demonstrate their learning.
  • 38. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 38 Summative Assessment: An assessment of learning (Stiggins, 2002) designed to provide a final measure to determine if learning goals have been met (Ainsworth & Viegut, 2006). Summative assessments yield a dichotomy: pass or fail, proficient or not proficient. Additional timely support is typically not forthcoming. Goals: Measurable milestones that can be used to assess progress in advancing toward a vision. Goals establish targets and timelines to answer the question, what results do we seek, and how will we know we are making progress? Goal-setting Theory: The theory that people perform better when they set specific, quantified, time-framed goals. SMART Goals: Goals that are Strategic & Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Results-oriented, and Timebound (O’Neill & Conzemius, 2005). High Expectations: Positive inferences teachers make about the future academic achievement of their students based on what they know about their students (Good & Brophy, 2002). “High expectations for success will be judged, not only by the initial staff beliefs and behaviours, but also by the organization’s response when some students do not learn” (Lezotte, 1991, p. 4). Professional Development: A lifelong, collaborative learning process that nourishes the growth of individuals, teams, and the school through a daily job- embedded, learner-centred, focused approach (National Staff Development Council, 2000). Teacher Indolence: Form of teacher misbehaviour epitomized by repeated teacher absence, repeated tardiness, unprepared and disorganized, deviation from syllabus, late return of work, and information overload. School Culture: The assumptions, beliefs, values, and habits that constitute the norm for the school and guide the work of the educators within it. School Structure. The policies, procedures, rules, and hierarchical relationships within the school.
  • 39. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 39 BIBILOGRAPHY - Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Research. 84, 261-271. - Carole A ; Ames .Motivation: what teachers need to know - Daniels, E., & Arapostathis, M. (2005). What do they really want? Student voices and motivation research. Urban Education. 40, 34-59. - Ginsburg, G. S., & Bronstein, P. (1993). Family factors related to children’s intrinsic/extrinsic motivational orientation and academic performance. Child Development, 64, 1461-1474. - Graham, S., Weiner, B., & Zucker, G. S. (1996). Theories and principles of motivation. Handbook of Educational Psychology, 1996, 63-8 - Larry Ferlazzo Helping students motivate themselves: practical answers to classroom challenges 4. - Mark R; Lepper Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivational orientation in the classroom: Age Differences and Academic Correlates. 2005 vol 97 N2 - Meece, J. L., Anderman, E. M., & Anderman, L. H. (2006). Classroom goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement. Annual review of psychology, 5 Huitt, W. (2011). Motivation to learn: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University 7, 487-503. - Megan, Hughes A Survey of faculty and students concerning the influence of technology on students’ motivation in the classroom. Summer 2012 - Huitt, W. (2011). Motivation to learn: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta Stat - Skinner, E. A., Furrer, C., Marchand, G., & Kinderman, T. (2008). Engagement and disaffection in the classroom: Part of a larger motivational dynamic. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 765- 781.e University - Skollingsberg, G. (2003). A comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic classroom motivational orientation of gifted and learning-disabled students. Roeper Review. 26, 53 - Stipek, D. (1984). The development of achievement motivation. In R. Ames & C. Ames (Eds.), Research on Motivation in Education, Volume 1, Student Motivation (pp. 145-174). Orlando, FL: Academic Press. - Weiner, B. (1990). History of motivation research in education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 616-622.
  • 40. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge 40 WEBLIOGRAPHY - www. Edpsyinteractive.org/topics/ interaction - www .Territh.tripod.comhttp://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation - www. YouTube. Com / watch ?v=E4AShttp - http://www.unco.edu/cebs/psychology/kevinpugh/motivation_project/reso urces/pintrich00.pdf - http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/behavior/classcnd.html - www.deepermind.com/20maslow.htm - www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/affect/affsys.htmll - www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/teacher/tcheff.htmhttp:// - www.docstoc.com/docs/92253801/relationships-of-student-motivation_- attitude_-learnin-styles-and-achievement - http://free-doc-lib.com/book/five-key-ingredients-for-improving-student- motivation-1.pdf - web.uncg.edu/soe/bf_course669/docs_session_6/Motivtion- WhatTeachersNeedtoKnow.pdf&keyword=motivation in the classroom - www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/publications/Educatio nalPracticesSeriesPdf/prac10e.pdf - www.ehow.com/how_4550201_classroom-motivation-techniques.html