1. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
Theoretical and Practical
Answers to Classroom
This study is submitted by:
Mrs Khadija Zegnoun
Mr Rachid mazouz
School year: 2012- 2013
2. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
Table Of Content
1- Rationale of The Study :
2- Goals of The Study :
3- Theoretical background :
B- Theories about motivation:
Content Theories and Process Theories:
1- The Behavioural Perspective
2- The Humanistic Perspective
3- The cognitive Perspective
4- The social learning Perspective
C- Types of Motivation:
1- Intrinsic / Extrinsic Motivation:
b- Intrinsic / extrinsic motivation and learning
2- Instrumental / Integrative motivation
4- Underlying Principles:
5- The challenge / The Issue:
1- Desirable and Undesirable behaviours
2- Causes of unmotivation
3- Motivational beliefs
6- Classroom motivation : Tips and Recommendations :
1- Techniques and Strategies
2- Motivation and Technology
7- Glossary of Key Terms
8- Bibliography / Webliography
3. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
1- Rationale of The study:
No one can deny that motivation is the backbone of all learning situations.
Most motivation theorists believe that it is part of all learner’s responses and
performances. Behaviour will not take place unless it is boosted by other forces
or energies and since the classroom is the place where students spend most of
their time, the values acquired within that classroom setting are automatically
retained by the students. Actually, all teachers aim to make their students excel
in life; and motivating them is the magical secret to help them achieve their
goals and succeed in their life. That could be achieved via encouraging them to
become autonomous learners, making them recognize their strengths and
weaknesses, challenging their ICT skills and most importantly boosting their
perceptions to achieve their goals. In addition and for successful learning to
take place, teachers must not only focus on changing the materials and adapting
the curriculum, but there are key variables that highly shape and empower
students’ personalities , abilities and skills manifested in the cognitive, affective
and social variables embracing the classroom life and the social life of
2- Goals of the Study:
The study aims to:
• Shed lights on a theoretical research about motivation.
• Explain the importance and complexity of motivation in classroom
• Analyse students’ behaviours and motivational beliefs.
• Describe strategies and techniques that boost students’ motivation.
• Stress the importance of technology as an effective motivational tool.
4. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
3- THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
A variety of psychology textbooks assume that motivation is an internal state or
condition (portrayed sometimes as desire, need or want) that energizes
behaviour or gives it direction. (See Kleinginna and Kleinginna, 1981a).
• internal state or condition that activates behaviour and gives it
• desire or want that energizes and directs goal-oriented behaviour.
• influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of
Franken (1994) provides an additional component in his definition:
• The arousal, direction, and persistence of behaviour.
Motivation refers to “the reasons underlying behaviour” (Guay et al., 2010, p.
712) while Gredler, Broussard and Garrison (2004) broadly define it as “the
attribute that moves us to do or not to do something” (p. 106).
5. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
B - THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
“There are three things to remember about education. The first one is
motivation. The second one is motivation. The third one is motivation.” Terrell
Over the last decade, much concern and revival was spotted in dealing with L2
motivation (see Dornyei, 1998, oxford 1996) .several L2 theorists and
researchers made great advances on existing models of L2 acquisition; hence
and from a psychological perspective, motivation is portrayed in four different
ways. Let us explore these perspectives which are: behavioural, humanistic
cognitive and social perspective.
6. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
1. The Behavioural Perspective:
The behaviourists believe that
the key factor to motivate students
is by giving them reinforcement,
rewards and praise or a gold star
for performing well. That will
perfectly stimulate them to engage
in whatever kind of tasks.
In other words, their view
of learning consists in the use
of extrinsic reinforcement
to guarantee students’ commitment
and engagement in different activities
ranging from a smile, praise to a loss of privileges.
2. The Humanistic Perspective :
A- Maslow (1954) stressed the importance of needs and relates
motivation to a hierarchy of needs that have to be satisfied
.likewise when an individual satisfies one level of needs ,he
aspires to reach the higher order need
7. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
8. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
B- Roger’s Motivation Theory:
Roger believed that people should listen to their inner voices to
decide on what is good or bad for them instead on relying on
whatever kind of feedback from external resources.
3. The Cognitive Perspective :
9. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
A- Achievement motivation:
Atkinson suggests that some of us possess a high need for achievement
and success and a great desire for accomplishment while others just
lack that zeal and have a low need for achievement.
B- Weiner Attribution Theory:
Weiner’s theory incorporates cognitive theory and self efficacy theory
and stresses the fact that learners ‘current self perceptions will strongly
influence the ways they interpret failure or success. According to him
success or failure is explained in 3ways:
The cause of failure or success may be internal or external.
The cause of failure or success may be stable or unstable.
The cause of success or failure may be controllable or
Weiner (1980) states: "Causal attributions determine affective reactions to
success and failure. For example, one is not likely to experience pride in
success, or feelings of competence, when receiving an ‘A’ from a teacher who
gives only that grade, or when defeating a tennis player who always loses...On
the other hand, an ‘A’ from a teacher who gives few high grades or a victory
over a highly rated tennis player following a great deal of practice generates
great positive affect."
4. The Social Learning Perspective:
From a social learning perspective, motivation is perceived as a goal
directed behaviour that is highly associated with feelings of personal
competence and effectiveness .Likewise, those students who always experience
success believe in their competences in contrast to those who regularly
experience failure. Yet, it may not always be the case with those students who
may resort to extra factors to attribute their success like (good luck or chance)
and their failure to hard luck and not to their personal inadequacies. In addition,
students’ self-evaluation also involves observation and comparison of their
achievements with their peers.
10. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
According to Krause “Factors that can influence students’ motivation
to learn include their observation of peer achieving success or failure,
their ability to regulate their own behaviour and their need for personal
fulfilment.” (Krause, et al 2003)
Motivation is conceived as a complex of variables. More explicitly, it
“The combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning plus the
favourable attitudes towards learning the language.”(Gardner, 1985:10).
11. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
Hence, motivation is conceptualized as a key framework that highly
influences L2 achievement given those psychological variables.
There are other experts and psychologists who, broadly speaking,
profiled motivation from 2 angles: content theories and process
Content Theories - such as those of Maslow and Herzberg, define
motivation in terms of needs and stress the satisfaction of those needs .more
explicitly content theories emphasize the nature of those needs and suggest ways
to profile the individual and hence identify those needs.
Process theories - such as Porter and Vroom, -define motivation in
terms as a rational cognitive process occurring within the individual , they
changed the focus from the needs to the goals and process by which people are
motivated.i.e how they start , what directs their motivation; analysing all the
variables that lead to motivation: direction , degree and persistence of effort.
12. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
- define motivation in terms as a rational cognitive process occurring
within the individual , they changed the focus from the needs to the
goals and process by which people are motivated.i.e how they start ,
what directs their motivation; analysing all the variables that lead to
motivation: direction , degree and persistence of effort.
(Such as Vroom)
13. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
C- TYPES OF MOTIVATION:
Deci and Ryan (1985) identified 2 types of motivation intrinsic or extrinsic:
1- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation:
Intrinsic motivation is when the force comes from within the individual; It
‘emerges spontaneously from psychological needs, personal Curiosities, and
innate strivings for growth’ (Reeve, 2005, p. 134). Likewise, students are
intrinsically motivated when they show interest in learning tasks and outcomes
for their won sake and that results in internal feelings of self determination and
14. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
Extrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from external factors.
When students are motivated extrinsically; their actions depend on the
incentives that could be praise, grades, rewards etc or to avoid a penalty like a
failing grade (Lumsden)
Self –determination theory: Examples of L2 motivational orientations:
15. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
Students’ Motivational orientation: Intrinsic motivation
Learning a second language
- IM –knowledge: “for the satisfied feeling I get in finding out new things.”
- IM Accomplishments: “for the sensation I get to master a task or achieve a
- IM Simulation: “for the high that I experience while speaking the second
- Integrated Regulation: “Because I think it is important for my personal
- Introjected Regulation: “Because I would feel guilty if I didn’t know a
- External Regulation: “In order to get a more prestigious job later on.”
- Ammotivation: “I don’t know, I don’t understand what I am doing studying a
Note: Examples are based on scale items designed by Noels and her associates
(eg. Noels et al, 1999, 2000)
Actually, teachers should wisely and thoughtfully exploit those incentives to
boost students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The following techniques
and tips would make learning enjoyable and would capture students
‘attention and curiosity and undoubtedly empower their energy and zeal
16. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
• Explain or show why learning
a particular content or skill is
• Create and/or maintain
• Provide a variety of activities
and sensory stimulations
• Provide games and
• Set goals for learning
• Relate learning to student
• Help student develop plan of
• Promote mastering a subject
• Show enthusiasm when
• Be intrinsically motivated
about your teaching career.
• Build self -confidence
• Provide clear expectations
• Give corrective feedback
• Involve students in a
competition where everyone
• Provide valuable rewards
• Make rewards available
• Praise students and give
Further examples about enhancing students’ intrinsic and extrinsic
17. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
NB : It’s futile trying to motivate your students if you are not motivated
yourself. Teachers should always bring an enthusiastic and positive attitude to
2 – Instrumental and Integrative motivation:
Gardner and Lambert (1972) identify two types of motivation:
instrumental and integrative. Students with instrumental motivation acquire a
language for get a job for instance, to read a technical material or to study in the
country where the language is spoken. Integrative motivation is held by students
who want to join acquire “the culture of the second language group and become
involved in social interchange in that group.” (Brown 2000, 162)
18. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
4- UNDERLYING PRINCIPLES
It’s true that numerous cross disciplinary theories tried to profile
motivation from their own perspectives ; favouring rewards and reinforcement ,
focussing on enriching the environment , stressing the role of recognition and
satisfying students’ needs , but no single theory can adequately and broadly
explain human motivation since human beings are complex creatures with
complex needs and interest.
So, how can we judge a student’ motivation? Is the motivated student the
one who pays attention, asks questions? Or is he the one who appears to be
happy and eager while learning or engages in tasks immediately?
Actually, there are 5 key ingredients affecting students’ motivation:
1- Student 2- Teacher 3- Content 4-Method/ Process 5–Environment
The STUDENT: Students should not be passive consumers of learning
according to the traditional view of education but active learners that can take
risks, feel autonomy and take part in their learning. “Students are the raw materials
for education and the primary products of educational transformations; and most
important...students are key members of the labour force involved in creating education”
(Lengnick-Hall and Sanders, 1997, p. 1335).
THE TEACHER: The teacher must be well trained, dedicated and responsive
to his / her students’ needs. In addition, bonding good relationships with learners
in classroom setting facilitates learning and empowers students’ motivation. Last
but not least, the teacher should also discuss contemporary topics, be
inspirational to encourage students to have a chance to enhance their creativity,
practical work experience and critical thinking.
THE CONTENT: In addition to the roles of teacher and student, the content
should be stimulating and pertinent to students’ needs and interests. It should
satisfy their need for 1-feeling in control of learning 2- feeling competent 3-
feeling connected to others. Novelty in designing the content is very crucial by
creating amazing facts, videos and demonstrations.
19. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
THE METHOD/PROCESS: The method is the way in which the content is
exploited. It should provide tools applicable to students ‘real life .It should also
be encouraging, interesting and inventive. More clearly; what contributes to
maximizing students’motivation are incentives (praise and encouragement),
making students understand the goals and objectives of the lesson and
empowering social interactions.
THE ENVIRONMENT: students should be exposed to different sources of
motivation in their learning experience (Palmer, 2007; Debnath, 2005; Souza
and Maheshwari, 2010). Besides, the teacher should create an effective
environment which fosters peer social interaction and exchange .Moreover;
students should be given the chance to develop positive attitudes by encouraging
voluntary parental and community support in involvement in the school life. In
fact, teachers , administrators and counsellors must set the right structures to
provide an optimal learning environment; In addition to creating an emotionally
literate environment by equipping students with some life skills and learning
behaviours such as self –awareness, motivation, empathy and social skills .
20. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
5- THE CHALLENGE:
To spot the challenge in our classroom setting, teachers should diagnose the
causes of unmotivation, examine the undesirable behaviours and profile the
In this part ,we will try to answer the following questions about
students and motivation:
• How to motivate learners?
• How does motivation develop?
• What are students’ choices and motivational beliefs?
• How do teacher practices and peer behaviour affect students’
• What are the things said by teachers to learners that would inhibit
• How can we make our students feel the importance of personal
• What learning strategies can boost students’ motivation and enhance
their determination to learn?
• How does project based learning motivate student?
• How can learning strategies improve my students’ motivation to
• How does the school environment affect students’ motivation?
1- SOME CAUSES OF UNMOTIVATION
Low self-esteem / feeling of inadequacy.
Lack of support and encouragement from family and the surrounding
Absence of high expectations in classroom settings and no support
afforded by teachers; some students may believe that schooling is not
related to their lives and has nothing to offer to them.
Lack of challenging, authentic and meaningful activities.
Interpersonal experiences that may highly affect their attitudes towards
learning the language.
21. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
2- Behaviours in Classroom Setting :
Motivational problems are highly reflected in students’ behaviours.
is a list of behaviours that identify high motivation and highly de
behaviours.. If a student fails to exhibit many of these behaviour
• Pays attention to the teacher.
• Begins working on tasks immediately.
• Follows directions on tasks.
• Maintains attention until tasks are complete.
• Completes work.
• Turns in assignments on time.
• Persists rather than gives up when problems
• Works autonomously.
• Volunteers answers in class.
• Has test performance that reflects the skill level
demonstrated on assignments.
• Seeks help when it is needed.
• Is not upset by initial errors or difficulties.
22. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
10 HIGHLY DESIRABLE BEHAVIORS
• Enjoys challenging work.
• Works intensely.
• Asks questions to expand knowledge.
• Engages in learning activities that are not
• Is reluctant to stop working on tasks when
• Engages in learning activities after
assignments are complete.
• Appears happy, proud, enthusiastic, and eager.
• Strives to improve skills, even when already
performing well relative to classmates.
• Initiates challenging learning activities on his
or her own.
• Works hard on un-graded tasks.
Stipek, Deborah. Motivation to Learn. 1998. Allyn and Bacon.
3- MOTIVATIONAL BELIEFS:
When we expose students to varied content and social context in the
classroom setting, this involves them in unfamiliar learning situations which
would create ambiguity and uncertainty for some students while it may
challenge the others. Hence, to understand those unfamiliar situations, students
resort to their motivational beliefs. The latter refer to “the opinions, judgements
and values that students hold about objects, events or subject- matter domains”.
Likewise, teachers must be aware of favourable or unfavourable motivational
beliefs that students develop before coming to class. This will help teachers plan
activities that exploit favourable motivational beliefs and reconsider the
unfavourable ones, especially that students are very cautious and careful in
hiding their feelings and opinions which would create a kind of misconceptions
on the part of teachers. In brief, knowing students’ motivational beliefs highly
affects students ‘involvement and engagement in classroom setting.
(skinner1995, Stipek1988, Pintrich 2001, Vermeer 2000)
23. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
Research has indicated that motivational beliefs result from:
1- Direct learning experiences: (e.g. most math problems are too difficult for
me to get the right first time. However, when somebody gives me a hint I can
solve a lot of problems).
2- Observation learning: (e.g. Stefano: ‘The math teacher gets annoyed when
students do not offer help to each other’.)
3- Verbal statements: (e.g. Sandra: ‘My father thinks it is nonsense to learn
poetry in school; he says mathematics is far more important’)
4-Social comparisons: (‘Why do I always get scolded, while the teacher never
Says anything to other students?’).
Similarly other psychologists and experts highly consider that caring
Classroom practices cultivate students’ motivational beliefs:
1- Instructional strategies: “if I can’t solve a problem, my math teacher
asks me questions that help me understand what to do”.
2- Emotional care: “My math teacher considers my feelings.”
3- Respect in classrooms: “In math class, we are told to respect each others’
4- Expectations of success: “My math teacher believes I can do well in his
(Karen Strobel and Graciela Borsato)
24. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
5- CLASSROOM MOTIVATION: TIPS AND
a- TECHNIQUES AND STRATEGIES
Motivation is the scapegoat for all learning failures. Hence, it’s
not only knowing where to go and believing in your ability to achieve
this goal but also possessing the energy and vigour to go there.
According to Davis (1993) what would make students motivated are 3 things:
A well organized course;
A teacher who is enthusiastic about the material and about teaching;
A teacher who shows he or she cares about the students and their
Generally and apart from their past experiences vis-à-vis learning and their
attitudes towards learning in general or learning a foreign language in
particular , there are other factors that make some students feel reluctant ,
careless, or just bored by the school subject which would increase their
25. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
• Vary your materials and resources:
Teachers are expected to
bring additional resources to
class that meet the curriculum
and also meet students’ needs
and interests. Likewise, by
bringing a different perspective
to the class, this will
automatically re-engage those
students who are turned off by
the materials already used. It’s
also an opportunity to challenge
others who think that success lies
only in the assigned curriculum.
26. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
• Create an accepting /supportive atmosphere/ self esteem:
Praising students can be a wonderful motivational tool if well exploited by
the teacher. In fact, the teacher should praise the good qualities of the students,
provide emotional support in times of difficulty and mustn’t in anyway
overcorrect them. He/ or she may also resort to humour to create a low anxiety
situation. Hence, by bonding with students and displaying respect, care,
encouragement and boosting their self confidence, this will increases their
motivation and their achievement too .In addition to boosting students’ self-
esteem, we have to create an atmosphere that tolerates mistakes and where
errors are perceived as tools to teach not only to evaluate and not an occasion
where some students would feel belittled by their peers. As Bernard Mbaruch
” I have found that failure is a far better teacher than success.”
27. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
Provide Clear Instructions and Interesting/Challenging and
The nature of the instruction and tasks given in addition to the perceived
expectations highly affect students’ motivation.
In fact, teachers should opt for challenging, meaningful and interesting
activities. That is to say ,when the teacher introduces plain, easy activities or
tasks many students would feel bored, and when it doesn’t appeal to their
interest, they would feel reluctant in involving in those tasks .for instance,
motivating students to read must not necessarily be taxing and stressful. In
brief, the teacher should increase the quantity and quality of learners’
engagement in different learning activities.
When adolescents are challenged and perceive themselves as having a high
degree of skill, FLOW is most likely to occur. When operating in flow, students
are having optimal life experiences and this typically assist the individual in
becoming highly motivated in school.
When adolescents' skills are high but the activity provides little challenge, the
result is BOREDOM.
When challenge and skill are low, APATHY occurs.
When adolescents perceive themselves as inadequate in mastering a challenging
task, they face ANXIETY.
28. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
LOW SKILL HIGH SKILL
LOW CHALLENGE APATHY BOREDOM
HIGH CHALLENGE ANXIETY FLOW
The teacher must choose activities where all students can be
engaged to learn from each other and support each other. That would
decrease the fear of individual judgement and pressure students may
experience if they can’t perform perfectly. Moreover, students like the kind
of activities that would allow much action, interaction; they don’t like just
to sit down and learn. The teacher should also opt for self- discovery
activities that boost their high order thinking skills.
Kind of activities that would motivate students:
Team building activities
School field trips
Relate the school to their present and their future:
The teacher should give real world or authentic examples and create
a kind of excitement when presenting new concepts and ideas to give
students a chance to relate the lesson to their lives. In fact, Students need
to understand and grasp the relevance of what is taught to their personal
lives and surroundings.
29. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
Make sure to teach all the learning styles in the classroom:
“Realize that each student is an individual and, as such, no two
students will be motivated in exactly the same way. Some need more
encouragement and different techniques than others. The demographics of
a classroom are sometimes extremely varied, and you will have a wide
range of socio-economic backgrounds to work with. Something that can
mean the world to one student may be totally meaningless to another”.
30. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
In addition, some students could show good results after giving
them a few words of praise while others would need prolonged
assistance to enable them to excel in their tasks. Hence, teachers
should treat students equally by making no discrimination between
them except for understanding their styles and boosting them with the
needed assistance and support.
31. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
• Decrease the focus on individual grades:
When the teacher concentrates more on the effort made by the students in
fulfilling whatever task instead of the grade, the students will feel comfortable
especially if the teacher equips them with formative assessment; giving
comments to promote their learning. Yet, to reach the goal which is developing
their skills, abilities and knowledge must be students’ worry in order to progress
and get a good grade.
• Provide praise/ rewards :
“Praise students often. Don't wait until a student has accomplished
something major to give him a pat on the back. Always couple
constructive criticism with a praise. You must realize that no matter how
nice you make it sound criticism is criticism and many students view it as
negative. Don't deliver correction for something done wrong without
praising your student for something he has done right.”
32. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
Notes Home: Candies and prizes highly motivate students but
they can’t replace in any way the magnificent role of praise. Hence, and
even for more difficult students (behaviour- lack of motivation), sending
notes to show appreciation make students more collaborative and
supportive. It’s also a tool appreciated by the parents instead of getting
just negative feedback on the phone or in a face to face conversation
eg: parent teacher meetings. Praise is an influential feedback” good job”
or ”that’s great”…
Class Store: Bribing students with candies may be practical for
kids but with other levels, a class store is an amazing motivational tool:
students get points for participation, good behaviour and positive attitudes
in class while the teacher may extract points for tardies and disruptions.
Share and discuss the expectations
“Let students know that you have high expectations of them
and that you feel each student is important and has the ability to
learn something from being in your classroom”.Lisa Mayers
33. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
b- MOTIVATION AND TECHNOLOGY
“Using computers and every kind of technological equipment
gives students the sense of freedom and encouragement” (Wang,
The time, energy, enthusiasm and the implementation of the lesson could
be perfectly invested by using technology in the classroom and spotting different
reasons to convince your students that technology is a useful, practical and
effective component of the course. Actually, students of this generation possess
a life-long experience with technology. They automatically have confidence in
using it. Hence, their self efficacy would certainly increase their productivity.
So, how can we make use of technology as a motivational tool?
Make it relevant: (content)
Integrate it in the lesson or part of the lesson.
Use it to consolidate and expand concepts.
34. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
Tell students why it is relevant (objectives) and not to assume it is already
Make students record their work.
Use it as a basis for review or follow up
Make sure it is appropriate:
To students’ level in mastering computer literacy.
Boost students with encouragement in case of difficulties.
Make it an experience:
Plan the integration of the materials.
Make your ways of presentation and interaction rich and varied.
Make use simulations / interactivity/and clips.
Make it supportive:
Know where and for what reasons to use it (set targets)
Help students in case of need
Offer follow up test support sessions
Don’t expect all students to be computer literate
Don’t all assume all students to enjoy dealing with computers?
Make it assessed:
As a part of summative assessment/ formative assessment
Assess a group work / presentation/ project
Give students ownership:
Give students enough control on what pace and sequence in dealing with
Boost students to use and enter their own data.
Allow students some choice on the topics to be taught.
35. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
Make it shared
Set group tasks: group students around one computer.
Give students the opportunity to feed back to the rest of the class.
Ask students to submit a project work possibly electronically
Make it interactive and competitive
• Involve students in a test to be graded by other groups
Make students prepare a poster of their findings and engage them on voting to
agree on the best production.
• Award prizes for the best projects.
Make it understandable:
• Motivate students to ask questions and set up a list of the most frequently
asked questions(FAQ)or even compile a list of question; ( group
• Set up a discussion, forum or e-mail group for your students.
Enhance students’ self confidence:
• Make it understandable and easy to use.
• Give positive feedback to students.
• Provide constructive formative assessment.
• Never underestimate students’ abilities in dealing with the material.
• Avoid whatever kind of barriers between the students and the material.
Make it fun: for you And for your students
36. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS:
Uplifts: Minor positive events that make one feel good.
Motivation: The factors that direct and energize the behaviour of humans and
Instincts: Inborn patterns of behaviour that are biologically determined rather
Drive: Motivational tension or arousal that energizes behaviour
in order to fulfil a need.
Values: The specific attitudes, behaviours, and collective commitments that
must be demonstrated in order to advance the organization’s vision. Articulated
values answer the question, how must we behave in order to make our shared
vision a reality?
Behavior: The way people act as individual and as groups. Behavior is defined
as goal oriented activities of a person. Generally the behavior of the person is
determined by the goal which he wants to achieve
Self-Esteem: Refers to the way a person evaluates her/himself in terms of
overall worth. The way we perceive ourselves and our actions and our opinions
regarding how other people perceive us.
Personality: A person’s phenotype, or the interaction between an individual’s
genotype (see temperament) and her or his environment (nurture, diet,
socialization, etc…), which is a reflection of her or his experiences, motivations,
attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviours.
Personality Traits: An individual’s predispositions for responding in a certain
way to various situations.
Psychomotor (Behavioural) Learning: Learning that emphasizes performance
of a motor act or skill.
37. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
Performance: The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset
known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed. In a contract,
performance is deemed to be the fulfilment of an obligation, in a manner that
releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract.
Learning factors: For EFL teachers, four factors outside aptitude and attitude
affect the rate at which a student learns a second language. These are (1) the
student’s motivation, including whether it is instrumental or integrative; (2) the
amount of time the student spends in class and practicing the language outside
class; (3) the teacher’s approach to teaching; and (4) the teacher’s effectiveness
and teaching style. The most important of these motivators are the first two,
which are also the two the teacher has least control over
Need for achievement: A stable, learned characteristic in which satisfaction is
obtained by striving for and attaining a level of excellence.
Incentive approaches to motivation: The theory explaining motivation in
terms of external stimuli.
Drive-reduction approaches to motivation: A theory suggesting that when
people lack some basic biological requirement such as water, a drive to obtain
that requirement (in this case, the thirst drive) is produced.
Two-factor Theory of Emotion : Schechter and Singer's theory that emotion is
determined by two main factors: physiological arousal and cognitive labelling
Classical Theory of Motivation: A theory of motivation that presumes that
workers are motivated almost solely by money.
Formative Assessment. An assessment for learning used to advance and not
merely monitor each student’s learning; the assessment informs the teacher
regarding the effectiveness of instruction and the individual student regarding
progress in becoming proficient. Checks for understanding that individual
teachers use in the classroom on a daily basis is examples of formative
assessments. In a PLC, collaborative teams also use common formative
assessments to (1) identify students who are experiencing difficulty in their
learning, (2) provide those student with additional time and support in a way that
does not remove them from new direct instruction, and (3) give them additional
opportunities to demonstrate their learning.
38. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
Summative Assessment: An assessment of learning (Stiggins, 2002) designed
to provide a final measure to determine if learning goals have been met
(Ainsworth & Viegut, 2006). Summative assessments yield a dichotomy: pass or
fail, proficient or not proficient. Additional timely support is typically not
Goals: Measurable milestones that can be used to assess progress in advancing
toward a vision. Goals establish targets and timelines to answer the question,
what results do we seek, and how will we know we are making progress?
Goal-setting Theory: The theory that people perform better when they set
specific, quantified, time-framed goals.
SMART Goals: Goals that are Strategic & Specific, Measurable, Attainable,
Results-oriented, and Timebound (O’Neill & Conzemius, 2005).
High Expectations: Positive inferences teachers make about the future
academic achievement of their students based on what they know about their
students (Good & Brophy, 2002). “High expectations for success will be judged,
not only by the initial staff beliefs and behaviours, but also by the organization’s
response when some students do not learn” (Lezotte, 1991, p. 4).
Professional Development: A lifelong, collaborative learning process that
nourishes the growth of individuals, teams, and the school through a daily job-
embedded, learner-centred, focused approach (National Staff Development
Teacher Indolence: Form of teacher misbehaviour epitomized by repeated
teacher absence, repeated tardiness, unprepared and disorganized, deviation
from syllabus, late return of work, and information overload.
School Culture: The assumptions, beliefs, values, and habits that constitute the
norm for the school and guide the work of the educators within it.
School Structure. The policies, procedures, rules, and hierarchical relationships
within the school.
39. Theoretical and Practical Answers to Classroom Motivational Challenge
- Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation.
Journal of Educational Research. 84, 261-271.
- Carole A ; Ames .Motivation: what teachers need to know
- Daniels, E., & Arapostathis, M. (2005). What do they really want?
Student voices and motivation research. Urban Education. 40, 34-59.
- Ginsburg, G. S., & Bronstein, P. (1993). Family factors related to
children’s intrinsic/extrinsic motivational orientation and academic
performance. Child Development, 64, 1461-1474.
- Graham, S., Weiner, B., & Zucker, G. S. (1996). Theories and principles
of motivation. Handbook of Educational Psychology, 1996, 63-8
- Larry Ferlazzo Helping students motivate themselves: practical answers to
classroom challenges 4.
- Mark R; Lepper Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivational orientation in the
classroom: Age Differences and Academic Correlates. 2005 vol 97 N2
- Meece, J. L., Anderman, E. M., & Anderman, L. H. (2006). Classroom
goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement. Annual
review of psychology, 5 Huitt, W. (2011). Motivation to learn: An
overview. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta
State University 7, 487-503.
- Megan, Hughes A Survey of faculty and students concerning the
influence of technology on students’ motivation in the classroom.
- Huitt, W. (2011). Motivation to learn: An overview. Educational
Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta Stat
- Skinner, E. A., Furrer, C., Marchand, G., & Kinderman, T. (2008).
Engagement and disaffection in the classroom: Part of a larger
motivational dynamic. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 765-
- Skollingsberg, G. (2003). A comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic
classroom motivational orientation of gifted and learning-disabled
students. Roeper Review. 26, 53
- Stipek, D. (1984). The development of achievement motivation. In R.
Ames & C. Ames (Eds.), Research on Motivation in Education, Volume
1, Student Motivation (pp. 145-174). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
- Weiner, B. (1990). History of motivation research in education. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 82, 616-622.