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COMPUTED RADIOGRAPHY (CR) IS NOW A WELL-ESTABLISHED PROCESS FOR CAPTURING...

COMPUTED RADIOGRAPHY (CR) IS NOW A WELL-ESTABLISHED PROCESS FOR CAPTURING
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGES. CR HAS BEEN WIDELY ACCEPTED IN RADIOLOGY BECAUSE
IT REPLACES FILM AND FILM PROCESSING, PRODUCES HIGH-QUALITY DIGITAL IMAGES, AND
DOES NOT REQUIRE EXPENSIVE CHANGES TO EXISTING X-RAY EQUIPMENT.

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    CR History CR History Document Transcript

    • August 2005 Kodak Continues Its Computed Radiography Innovation COMPUTED RADIOGRAPHY (CR) IS NOW A WELL-ESTABLISHED PROCESS FOR CAPTURING DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGES. CR HAS BEEN WIDELY ACCEPTED IN RADIOLOGY BECAUSE IT REPLACES FILM AND FILM PROCESSING, PRODUCES HIGH-QUALITY DIGITAL IMAGES, AND DOES NOT REQUIRE EXPENSIVE CHANGES TO EXISTING X-RAY EQUIPMENT. What is CR? Getting Here From There Computed radiography (CR) includes the entire process of The use of penetrating radiation in radiography dates to creating a digital image—acquisition, processing, image December 1895 when the German scientist Wilhelm presentation, and managing image data. CR offers image Roentgen discovered X-rays while experimenting with quality, control and diagnostic confidence. high-voltage electricity in vacuum tubes. Within two months At the heart of computed radiography are the special of Roentgen’s announcement, hospitals throughout the phosphors that capture and “store” radiation. Like a piece of world were using X-ray pictures to aid in surgery. Not long film, the storage phosphor imaging plate is placed in a after, the industrial sector began applying the same cassette or used in its original flexible state and when technology in non-destructive examinations. exposed to radiation, creates a latent image. That latent Within a few years, the discovery that uranium ore and image is then “read” by the CR scanner. A laser beam in the radium also emitted penetrating radiation gave birth to CR reader excites the energy stored on the plate, and the gamma radiography, although a few decades passed before visible energy released is captured as a digital image. its use in industry became practical. Industrial radiography Because visible (“photo”) light excites (“stimulates”) the grew tremendously during World War II, as part of the US phosphors to glow (“luminescence”), this process is known Navy’s shipbuilding program, and was boosted further in as photostimulated luminescence. 1946 with the availability of man-made gamma sources. Unlike the “prompt-emitting” phosphors used in Modern computed radiography, using storage phosphor conventional fluorescent and fluorometallic imaging plates, can be traced to 1973, when George Luckey, phosphor-intensifying screens, these storage phosphors a research scientist at Eastman Kodak Company, filed a retain the latent image for hours, even sometimes for days patent application titled Apparatus and Method for (depending on the screen phosphor material and the amount Producing Images Corresponding to Patterns of High Energy of exposure to white light). Also unlike conventional Radiation. His abstract states, “A temporary storage intensifying screens, CR storage phosphor plates have to be medium, such as an infrared-stimulable phosphor or “erased” before they can be reused. thermoluminescent material, is exposed to an incident pattern of high energy radiation. A time interval after exposure, a small area beam of long wavelength radiation or heat scans the screen to release the stored energy as light. An appropriate sensor receives the light emitted by the screen and produces electrical energy in accordance with the light received.” In 1975, when George’s patent (US 3,859,527) was approved, Kodak also patented the first scanned storage phosphor system, thus giving birth to modern computed radiography. During the 1980’s, a rash of patents followed that referenced George’s now-legendary invention. While Fuji was the first to actually commercialize a complete CR system (1983), many other companies also filed patents that referenced George’s: 3M, Agfa, Fujistu, Siemens, Toshiba, The KODAK INDUSTREX ACR-2000i Digital System, for and of course, more from Kodak. portable computed radiography in non-destructive testing. ©Eastman Kodak Company, 2005
    • Kodak Continues Its Digital Radiography Innovation 1998 Lumisys launches desktop CR system 1980's Research and 2004 innovation Kodak Aerial & Industrial Markets unit launches CR products 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 late 80's market acceptance in medical community 2005 1983 Fuji commercializes a complete CR system Kodak acquires OREX Kodak patents the first 1975 scanned storage KODAK DIRECTVIEW CR 800 phosphor system System introduced 2000 F010_0337HA Kodak purchases Lumisys A time line showing the history of computed radiography. Acceptance of these systems has grown steadily, first in In 2005, Kodak acquired OREX Computed Radiography the late 1980s among the medical community and now in the Ltd., a leading provider of compact, high-quality CR industrial community. systems that enable non-destructive testing facilities and Lumisys introduced the first desktop-sized CR system in specialty medical markets to acquire images digitally in a 1998, which became the ACR-2000 in the Kodak product compact, portable unit. The technology and innovation portfolio after Kodak purchased Lumisys in 2000. The year behind the hardware and software that make up OREX small 2000 was a banner year for Kodak’s Health Imaging unit, format CR products have resulted in one of the most versatile having introduced 45 new products, including the KODAK and flexible compact CR systems on the market. DIRECTVIEW CR 800 System. The KODAK In an ongoing commitment to digital imaging, Kodak DIRECTVIEW CR 850 System came in 2002, followed by continues to refresh CR technology quickly, applying its the KODAK DIRECTVIEW CR 500 and CR 950 Systems in innovation and expertise to meet the needs of hospital 2003. radiology centers, diagnostic facilities, dental offices and In 2004, Kodak’s Aerial and Industrial Markets unit non-destructive testing services—whether they are joined the digital arena by adapting medical technology with high-traffic, cutting-edge teaching schools, or low-volume software designed specifically for use in industrial operations with constrained cost requirements. applications. The image visualization and analysis software is designed specifically for industrial radiographic inspections such as aircraft, welding, corrosion, construction, plant maintenance, castings, and pipelines. KODAK INDUSTREX Digital Systems are supported by Kodak’s worldwide force of more than 4,000 service and support professionals. Aerial and Industrial Markets EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY • ROCHESTER, NY 14650 Kodak, Directview, and Industrex are trademarks. New 8-05 Printed in U.S.A.