Overview and Introduction toA4NH Theme 1Laurian UnnevehrIFPRIJune 6, 2013
• Diet diversity is one important measure of dietquality• A healthy dietary diversity contributes toimproved nutrition– AS...
Market Determinants of Diet Quality• Income– Diet quality improves through diversification– Outcomes improve slowly– For 1...
Market Failures inNutrition and Food Safety• Consumer knowledge about nutrition, nutrientcontent/ safety of foods is incom...
Diet Quality Improves (Slowly) withIncome Growth01020304050607080Low Income Lower Middle DevelopedDiet DiversityAnimal Pro...
BangladeshBeninBurkina FasoBurundiCameroonCentral African RepublicChadComorosCongo, Dem RepCôte dIvoireEritreaEthiopiaGamb...
20058738525538513024Bangladesh: Food Group Shares ofTotal Food Supply (kcal/capita/day)Grains, Roots, and TubersLegumes an...
159610056515752856346890China: Food Group Shares ofTotal Food Supply (kcal/capita/day)Grains, Roots, and TubersLegumes and...
• Diet diversity is one important measure of dietquality• A healthy dietary diversity contributes toimproved nutrition– AS...
Inputs into productionFood productionFood storage and processingFood distribution and transportFood retail and labelingVal...
Example: Creating economic and nutritional valuefromOrange-fleshed sweet potato(OFSP), MozambiqueSource: Coote et al. In: ...
Elements of This Approach• Each value chain study for a nutrient-rich foodshould include all of these elements:– dietary a...
Changes in Value Chains that CouldImprove Nutrition• Technologies– Improvements in production, storage, handling, processi...
Center/Value Chain/CountriesTitle How Research isImproving NutritionAVRDC/Vegetables/BangladeshEnhanced nutritional outcom...
Other New Research in Theme 1Institution/ValueChain/ CountriesTitle How Research isImproving NutritionTufts/Infant Food/Af...
Scaling Up and Out• Are there lessons across countries for thesame commodity?• How do interventions in multiple value chai...
• Purpose of the Workshop– To review research plans for new activities in theA4NH program to enhance nutrition in value ch...
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Session 1. Unnevehr Introduction

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  • Given the many market failures that can arise in nutrition, it is not surprising that improvements in diet and in nutritional outcomes do not track perfectly with development and rising incomes.
  • Wide variation at low income levels.
  • These two low income countries have different patterns of dietary diversity and show how there can be wide variation.
  • At the middle income level of development, China shows growth in “unhealthy” diet diversity along with “healthy” diet diversity, leading to rising rates of overweight.
  • Note how they address MARKET FAILURES
  • Session 1. Unnevehr Introduction

    1. 1. Overview and Introduction toA4NH Theme 1Laurian UnnevehrIFPRIJune 6, 2013
    2. 2. • Diet diversity is one important measure of dietquality• A healthy dietary diversity contributes toimproved nutrition– ASF, F&V, legumes• Diet quality improvement not uniform with risingincomes• Are there interventions that would improve dietquality more rapidly and efficiently?• Focus on value chains for nutrient rich foodsA4NH Value Chain Research Focus:How to Promote Better Diet Quality?
    3. 3. Market Determinants of Diet Quality• Income– Diet quality improves through diversification– Outcomes improve slowly– For 10% increase in GDP/cap, a6% decrease in child stunting• Prices– Relative prices– eg., staples prices declining relative tomore nutrient rich foods– Opportunity cost of time– eg., switch to more processedfoods with urbanization• Preferences and cultural norms– Shape pathway towards diet diversity, eg. ASF increaseswith income vary widely
    4. 4. Market Failures inNutrition and Food Safety• Consumer knowledge about nutrition, nutrientcontent/ safety of foods is incomplete• Supply constraints for nutrient rich foods--perishability, seasonality, variable nutrientcontent, food safety challenges• Result: market incentives under reward improvednutrition and food safety.• Public underinvestment in nutrient rich foods(focus on staple crops), and in public healthoriented food safety (focus on meeting standardsfor high income market access)
    5. 5. Diet Quality Improves (Slowly) withIncome Growth01020304050607080Low Income Lower Middle DevelopedDiet DiversityAnimal ProteinDiet diversity is the percent calories from non-staples; Animal protein is gm/cap/day.Source: FAO
    6. 6. BangladeshBeninBurkina FasoBurundiCameroonCentral African RepublicChadComorosCongo, Dem RepCôte dIvoireEritreaEthiopiaGambiaGhanaGuineaGuinea-BissauIndiaKenyaLesothoLiberiaMadagascarMalawiMaliMauritaniaMozambiqueNepalNigerNigeriaPakistanRwandaSao Tome and PrincipeSenegalSierra LeoneSudanTanzaniaTogoUgandaZambiaZimbabwe1015202530354045505560100 300 500 700 900 1100DietDiversificationIndexGDP Per Capita (US $)Dietary Diversification vs.GDP Per Capita (2007)y = 0.0086x + 30.366R² = 0.0724
    7. 7. 20058738525538513024Bangladesh: Food Group Shares ofTotal Food Supply (kcal/capita/day)Grains, Roots, and TubersLegumes and NutsDairy ProductsFlesh FoodsEggsFruits and VegetablesSugarsOils and FatsMiscellaneous1257268696521519316863Tanzania: Food Group Shares ofTotal Food Supply (kcal/capita/day)Grains, Roots, and TubersLegumes and NutsDairy ProductsFlesh FoodsEggsFruits and VegetablesSugarsOils and FatsMiscellaneousData Source: FAO Food Balance Sheets, 2009
    8. 8. 159610056515752856346890China: Food Group Shares ofTotal Food Supply (kcal/capita/day)Grains, Roots, and TubersLegumes and NutsDairy ProductsFlesh FoodsEggsFruits and VegetablesSugarsOils and FatsMiscellaneousData Source: FAO Food Balance Sheets, 2009
    9. 9. • Diet diversity is one important measure of dietquality• A healthy dietary diversity contributes toimproved nutrition– ASF, F&V, legumes• Diet quality improvement not uniform with risingincomes• Are there interventions that would improve dietquality more rapidly and efficiently?• Focus on value chains for nutrient rich foodsA4NH Value Chain Research Focus:How to Promote Better Diet Quality?
    10. 10. Inputs into productionFood productionFood storage and processingFood distribution and transportFood retail and labelingValue Chain ApproachConsumerProducerSupply sideTest & evaluatesolutionsDemand sideCharacterize diets, marketaccess and constraints toconsumption ofnutritious, safe foodsTest new tools to improveknowledge, awareness, and demand for nutritionand safety along the valuechainIdentify bottlenecks andproduction constraints toimproved nutrition andsafety in the entire valuechain
    11. 11. Example: Creating economic and nutritional valuefromOrange-fleshed sweet potato(OFSP), MozambiqueSource: Coote et al. In: Hawkes and Ruel, IFPRI 2020 Conference Background Paper #4, 2011↑production↑ market opportunities↑consumption↑vitamin A nutrition
    12. 12. Elements of This Approach• Each value chain study for a nutrient-rich foodshould include all of these elements:– dietary and nutritional assessment of targetpopulation– identification of key foods to improve / diversify diets– mapping of the value chain for these foods– identification of constraints to supply and to demand– developing and/or testing interventions– assessment of impact on diets of target population
    13. 13. Changes in Value Chains that CouldImprove Nutrition• Technologies– Improvements in production, storage, handling, processing, ormarketing to reduce nutritional loss, improve access, or reduce safetyrisks, eg. Greater seasonal availability for fruits• Information– Increased demand for improved safety and nutrition througheducation or improved incentives for different actors in the valuechain, eg. Nutrition education with improved vegetable seeds– Nutritional quality reflected in prices and/or made moreaffordable, eg., quality certification for locally sourced infant foods• Policies and Institutions– New contractual arrangements create incentives to deliver morenutrient rich foods or to create demand for such foods, eg. Homegrown school lunch programs
    14. 14. Center/Value Chain/CountriesTitle How Research isImproving NutritionAVRDC/Vegetables/BangladeshEnhanced nutritional outcomes ofpopulations through nutrition-sensitiveagricultural promotion by a vegetableseed companyImproved nutritionknowledge andenhanced vegetableproductivityWorldFish/ Fish/BangladeshExpanded research on dried small fish inBangladesh to improve nutrition in thefirst 1,000 days of lifeNew infant food fromnutrient dense locallyproduced foodIDS & ILRI/Dairy/BangladeshAssessing the Impacts of Efforts toEnhance Access to Nutritious Foods:Grameen Danone CaseEnhanced nutrition inan affordable foodproductILRI/ASF/Kenya The relationship between livestock valuechains and nutritional status of womenand children: a pilot study in KenyaUnderstanding role ofASF value chains innutritional outcomesICRAF/Fruit/Kenya&PeruLeveraging fruit value chains forsustainable and healthier diets in Kenyaand PeruExpanding fruit intakein diets of targetpopulationsSeed Grants Awarded to Expand Research
    15. 15. Other New Research in Theme 1Institution/ValueChain/ CountriesTitle How Research isImproving NutritionTufts/Infant Food/AfricaNutritional Composition and QualityChallenges for Locally Sourced Infant FoodsProviding affordableinfant foodsIFPRI/Dairy/India Awareness and Valuation of Nutrition andFood Safety Attributes among DairyConsumers in IndiaImproved nutritionalquality of milkU. Pretoria/F&V/S. AfricaFood safety on fresh produce wholesalemarkets in South Africa: Dual standardsdevelopment on local marketsImproved food safetyfor fruits and vegetablesGAIN/F&V/ Kenya &TanzaniaProduction and Access to ImprovedVegetablesNutrition education,improved processing forbetter accessImperialCollege/SchoolFeeding/ GhanaMeasuring the impact of "home-grown"school feeding programmes linkingagriculture, nutrition, health and educationImproved diets forschool children andenhanced local farmerincome
    16. 16. Scaling Up and Out• Are there lessons across countries for thesame commodity?• How do interventions in multiple value chainswithin one country result in overall foodsystem change?
    17. 17. • Purpose of the Workshop– To review research plans for new activities in theA4NH program to enhance nutrition in value chains;to identify synergies and gaps in the researchportfolio; and to explore potential partnerships tosupport and extend these activities.• Format– Overview of indicators and measuring impactpathways– Presentation of research plans and discussantcomments– Summary panel
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