Survey Tools for
Collecting Time Use Data
Hazel Malapit
Research Coordinator
Poverty, Health and Nutrition Division
Intern...
Time
Why collect time use?
• Time use data can be used to construct
indicators along two pathways:
– Workload (one of the 10 in...
Sampling design and selection
• Sampling household members
– more than one household member?
– how should they be selected...
“Yesterday (or last week), how much
time did you spend on activity x?”
Types of survey instruments
• Time diary

OR

– Rep...
Designing the time diary
• Exhaustive activity list
– Level of detail
– What context variables to include in activity
desc...
EXAMPLE: CARE-BANGLADESH
STRENGTHENING THE DAIRY
VALUE CHAIN PROJECT
Overall objective of the SDVC project
• Goal: Double the dairy-related incomes of smallholder farmers in
northwest Banglad...
Study Design
• Longitudinal quant impact evaluation (2008
and 2012); propensity weighted regressions
•

Treatment group

•...
Key Questions
Questions

Quant

Qual

Did the SDVCP increase women’s and/or men’s
ownership of assets? What types of asset...
Time costs and tradeoffs
Dairy activities

Household activities
Dairy plus hh activities
Impact on time allocation
• Key results:
– Adult women increase time on dairy activities
– Adult men and young boys contri...
EXAMPLE: WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT IN
AGRICULTURE INDEX (WEAI)
The Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture
Index (WEAI)
• Developed by USAID, IFPRI and OPHI as a monitoring
tool for the US g...
Five domains of empowerment

Indicators are used to build individual empowerment profiles
Five domains of empowerment

Indicators are used to build individual empowerment profiles
Features of the WEAI time module
• Sampling design
– Population-based survey representative of FTF zone
– Respondents are ...
Training and prerequisites
• How do people tell time/duration of activities?
– Referring to certain events of the day (eg,...
Ask respondent to narrate their activities in the previous day
from the time they woke up to the time they went to bed.
MO...
“Yesterday, when did you wake up in the morning?”
MODULE G6: TIME ALLOCATION - continued
“Yesterday, when did you wake up in the morning?”
6:30 am
MODULE G6: TIME ALLOCATION
“And then what did you do?”
MODULE G6: TIME ALLOCATION - continued
“And then what did you do?”
I spent about 45 minutes with using toilet/bathroom, washing face, including prayer.
MODULE G6...
“And then what did you do?”
I ate breakfast for 30 minutes, then I worked on my farm for about 6 hours.
MODULE G6: TIME AL...
“And then what did you do?”
I ate breakfast for 30 minutes, then I worked on my farm for about 6 hours.
MODULE G6: TIME AL...
“Workload” is defined as time
spent in categories E - P
•

•

Includes unpaid or non-market
activities (eg, subsistence
pr...
Common questions
• How well does it capture seasonality?
– Past 24-hours may not be a typical day

• How well does it capt...
EXAMPLE: NEPAL SUAAHARA PROJECT
Nepal Suaahara Project: Introduction


Timing and Funding: 5 year USAID-funded multisectoral program in
20 food & nutriti...
Suaahara’s Program Districts
HUMLA
DARCHULA
BAJHANG

MUGU

BAITADI

BAJURA
JUMLA

DOTI

ACHHAM

DOLPA

KALIKOT

MUSTANG
DA...
Suaahara’s Intervention Areas








Maternal and child nutrition
Maternal, newborn, and child health services
Fami...
The Evaluation Question


What is the impact of Suaahara on:
• Stunting and anemia among children under five
years of age...
Modified WEAI time module
• Nepal Suaahara Baseline Survey 2012
– survey included 8 intervention districts where
Suaahara ...
Nepal Suaahara Baseline Survey 2012
Nepal Suaahara Baseline Survey 2012
Nepal Results: Summary from OLS and IV regressions
Maternal outcomes
Diet
diversity
Workload (hours) +

Child outcomes

BM...
Energy Expenditure
• Detailed time diary
• Convert time data to
energy expenditures:
WHO (1985). Energy and
protein requir...
Kinabo et al (2003), “Seasonal variation in physical activity patterns, energy
expenditure and nutritional status of women...
Final thoughts on using the tool
• What are your analytical objectives?
• Resource constraints?
Day2 session11 malapit_time use model
Day2 session11 malapit_time use model
Day2 session11 malapit_time use model
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Day2 session11 malapit_time use model

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Gender Nutrition Methods Workshop- 2013

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Day2 session11 malapit_time use model

  1. 1. Survey Tools for Collecting Time Use Data Hazel Malapit Research Coordinator Poverty, Health and Nutrition Division International Food Policy Research Institute h.malapit@cgiar.org A4NH Gender-Nutrition Methods Workshop December 6-7, Nairobi, Kenya
  2. 2. Time
  3. 3. Why collect time use? • Time use data can be used to construct indicators along two pathways: – Workload (one of the 10 indicators in the WEAI) – Female energy expenditure • Time allocated to agriculture also influences other pathways • What is impact of your program on how men and women allocate time, and does it matter for nutrition?
  4. 4. Sampling design and selection • Sampling household members – more than one household member? – how should they be selected? – for gender analysis, need to be able to compare male and female’s time • Sampling time units – should survey cover all seasons of the year? – which day/week should be sampled for each respondent? (eg, typical day)
  5. 5. “Yesterday (or last week), how much time did you spend on activity x?” Types of survey instruments • Time diary OR – Report all activities done over a prescribed period of time “How many hours endingday of each activity, per time (or per week) including beginning and description of activity, and contextual information do you usually spend on activity x? required for analysis • Stylized analogues of time diaries – Respondents are asked to recall the amount of time allocated to specified activities over a period (day, week or year) – Only total time spent on the activity is reported, not the specific time of day activity is performed
  6. 6. Designing the time diary • Exhaustive activity list – Level of detail – What context variables to include in activity descriptions (paid/unpaid, location, with whom, etc) • Time intervals – Open or fixed (eg, 15-min intervals) • Simultaneous activities – If collected, will they be prioritized as primary and secondary?
  7. 7. EXAMPLE: CARE-BANGLADESH STRENGTHENING THE DAIRY VALUE CHAIN PROJECT
  8. 8. Overall objective of the SDVC project • Goal: Double the dairy-related incomes of smallholder farmers in northwest Bangladesh by addressing the major challenges to improving smallholder participation in the value chain by • • • Mobilizing farmers through formation of small holder dairy farmer groups Building capacities of selected farmer group leaders, dairy collectors, livestock health workers, AI workers Increasing access to milk markets and productivity enhancing inputs • Targeted Beneficiaries: 36,400 smallholder dairy farmers of NorthWest Bangladesh • • • • with weak dairy value chains prone to natural disasters such as floods functionally landless (less than 0.5 acres of cultivable land) and earning about USD 20 – 30 equivalent per month
  9. 9. Study Design • Longitudinal quant impact evaluation (2008 and 2012); propensity weighted regressions • Treatment group • Control 1: same unions (with chilling plant) but not SDVC area • Control 2: unions without chilling plant • Qualitative research on gender related topics including ownership and control over agricultural assets
  10. 10. Key Questions Questions Quant Qual Did the SDVCP increase women’s and/or men’s ownership of assets? What types of assets?   Did increases in some types of assets change gender norms around ownership/control of those assets?  Did participation in specific nodes of the dairy value chain change gender norms regarding decisionmaking in these areas?   Were there time costs? What were the tradeoffs involved?  
  11. 11. Time costs and tradeoffs Dairy activities Household activities
  12. 12. Dairy plus hh activities
  13. 13. Impact on time allocation • Key results: – Adult women increase time on dairy activities – Adult men and young boys contribute to dairy activities but not to household activities – Young girls contribute to household activities but not to dairy activities • Adult women are likely to experience some disproportionate time burden from program participation • In absolute terms, adult women still contribute the largest amount of time in the household to both dairyrelated and household maintenance activities.
  14. 14. EXAMPLE: WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT IN AGRICULTURE INDEX (WEAI)
  15. 15. The Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) • Developed by USAID, IFPRI and OPHI as a monitoring tool for the US government’s Feed the Future (FTF) Initiative • New survey-based tool designed to measure women’s empowerment and inclusion in the agriculture sector • Men and women from the same household are interviewed • Index components designed to be applicable across countries and cultures
  16. 16. Five domains of empowerment Indicators are used to build individual empowerment profiles
  17. 17. Five domains of empowerment Indicators are used to build individual empowerment profiles
  18. 18. Features of the WEAI time module • Sampling design – Population-based survey representative of FTF zone – Respondents are primary male and primary female decision makers in HH • Survey instrument – Time diary with 18 activity categories • Mode of collection – Interview – 24-hour recall with 15 minute time intervals – Primary and secondary activities are collected
  19. 19. Training and prerequisites • How do people tell time/duration of activities? – Referring to certain events of the day (eg, sunrise, sunset, call for prayer, school bell, etc) – OR, clock time – easier now with mobile phones • Enumerators are trained to memorize the list of activities and know how to classify responses • Administer the HH questionnaire first, so enumerators already know the respondent’s main livelihood activities • Ideally, interview both male and female respondents simultaneously and in private
  20. 20. Ask respondent to narrate their activities in the previous day from the time they woke up to the time they went to bed. MODULE G6: TIME ALLOCATION - continued
  21. 21. “Yesterday, when did you wake up in the morning?” MODULE G6: TIME ALLOCATION - continued
  22. 22. “Yesterday, when did you wake up in the morning?” 6:30 am MODULE G6: TIME ALLOCATION
  23. 23. “And then what did you do?” MODULE G6: TIME ALLOCATION - continued
  24. 24. “And then what did you do?” I spent about 45 minutes with using toilet/bathroom, washing face, including prayer. MODULE G6: TIME ALLOCATION 1 2
  25. 25. “And then what did you do?” I ate breakfast for 30 minutes, then I worked on my farm for about 6 hours. MODULE G6: TIME ALLOCATION 1 2
  26. 26. “And then what did you do?” I ate breakfast for 30 minutes, then I worked on my farm for about 6 hours. MODULE G6: TIME ALLOCATION 1 2
  27. 27. “Workload” is defined as time spent in categories E - P • • Includes unpaid or non-market activities (eg, subsistence production, childcare) Includes primary and secondary activities Workload = sum of primary + 0.5(sum of secondary) Inadequate achievement if: Workload > 10.5 hours per day
  28. 28. Common questions • How well does it capture seasonality? – Past 24-hours may not be a typical day • How well does it capture intensity of women’s workloads? – Collects simultaneous activities, but enumerators must be welltrained to get good data – Inadequacy cutoff 10.5 can be adapted to context – Can analyze which activities are done simultaneously • How well does it capture intrahousehold dynamics? – Collects data from primary male and female only, no info on other household members’ time use • How long does it take and how much does it cost? – According to DATA (Bangladesh) the WEAI time module takes only 15 mins to administer – A less detailed time diary takes more time
  29. 29. EXAMPLE: NEPAL SUAAHARA PROJECT
  30. 30. Nepal Suaahara Project: Introduction  Timing and Funding: 5 year USAID-funded multisectoral program in 20 food & nutrition insecure districts (2011-2016)  Suaahara’s Objective: to improve the nutritional status of pregnant and lactating women and children under two years of age directly addressing the vulnerable points of development which result in stunting.  Partners: Save the Children, Helen Keller International, JHPIEGO, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Communication Programs, Nepali Technical Assistance Group, Nutrition Promotion and Consultancy Service and Nepal Water for Health.
  31. 31. Suaahara’s Program Districts HUMLA DARCHULA BAJHANG MUGU BAITADI BAJURA JUMLA DOTI ACHHAM DOLPA KALIKOT MUSTANG DAILEKH JAJARKOT KAILALI RUKUM MANANG SURKHET MYAGDI SALYAN BARDIYA KASKI ROLPA BANKE LAMJUNG GORKHA RASUWA GULMI DANG TANAHU NUWAKOT PALPA BKT CHITWAN LALIT TAPLEJUNG KAVRE SAVE OKHALDHUNGA HKI NPCS NEWAH MAHOTTARI KHOTANG BHOJPUR DHANKUTA ILAM SIRAHA SAPTARI JHAPA
  32. 32. Suaahara’s Intervention Areas       Maternal and child nutrition Maternal, newborn, and child health services Family planning services Water, sanitation, and hygiene Agriculture/homestead food production Key aspects of all programming: • Behavior Change Communication • Gender and Social Inclusion • Monitoring and Evaluation • Capacity Building
  33. 33. The Evaluation Question  What is the impact of Suaahara on: • Stunting and anemia among children under five years of age • Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices among children 0-24 months of age
  34. 34. Modified WEAI time module • Nepal Suaahara Baseline Survey 2012 – survey included 8 intervention districts where Suaahara planned to implement programs, and 8 matched comparison districts – implemented the WEAI modules • Refer to previous day if typical, if not use day before • Modified time intervals: log activities in 30min intervals on a blank sheet, then enumerator sums up time in the table
  35. 35. Nepal Suaahara Baseline Survey 2012
  36. 36. Nepal Suaahara Baseline Survey 2012
  37. 37. Nepal Results: Summary from OLS and IV regressions Maternal outcomes Diet diversity Workload (hours) + Child outcomes BMI Diet diversity WAZ WHZ HAZ - (OLS), n.s. (IV) - (OLS) +, - for < 2 +, + - for < 2 Higher workload is significantly associated with dietary diversity for mothers and children, and children’s height-for-age z-scores
  38. 38. Energy Expenditure • Detailed time diary • Convert time data to energy expenditures: WHO (1985). Energy and protein requirements, WHO Tech Rep Ser 1985; No. 724.
  39. 39. Kinabo et al (2003), “Seasonal variation in physical activity patterns, energy expenditure and nutritional status of women in a rural village in Tanzania”
  40. 40. Final thoughts on using the tool • What are your analytical objectives? • Resource constraints?

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