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Day 1 Session 3 Harris and Kennedy_ Ag nutrition pathways
 

Day 1 Session 3 Harris and Kennedy_ Ag nutrition pathways

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Gender Nutrition Methods Workshop- 2013

Gender Nutrition Methods Workshop- 2013

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    Day 1 Session 3 Harris and Kennedy_ Ag nutrition pathways Day 1 Session 3 Harris and Kennedy_ Ag nutrition pathways Presentation Transcript

    • FROM AGRICULTURE TO NUTRITION (VIA GENDER!) A4NH Gender-Nutrition Methods Workshop Nairobi, December 2013 Jody Harris (IFPRI) Gina Kennedy (Bioversity)
    • 2 Overview • Why nutrition? • Why women and children? • Why agriculture? • What are the links between agriculture and nutrition? • Why gender? • What to measure?
    • 3 Malnutrition Food security: consistent access to diverse, nutritious diets (Quantity and quality) Underlying causes Women’s empowerment: decision-making power, income, time use, and knowledge Nutrient intake Food security and quality Immediate causes Health status Care resources and practices Health services and WASH Healthy environments: free from contaminants and disease vectors Institutions Political and ideological framework Basic causes Economic structure Resources Environment, technology, people Source: Adapted from UNICEF 1990
    • 4 MALNUTRITION UNDERNUTRITION HUNGER STUNTING UNDERWEIGHT WASTING OVERNUTRITION OVERWEIGHT MICRONUTRIENT MALNUTRITION OBESITY NCDs
    • 5 What is stunting? • Low height-for-age index • Globally 34% children <5y are stunted (195 million) Two girls, both 12 years old, stand in front of a wall with a black tape line indicating the normal height for a 12-year-old girl (Source: Badham & Sweet, Sight & Life Magazine, issue 3/2010)
    • PREVENT – Focus on 1st 1000 Days -9 to 24 months Europe & Central Asia LAC North Africa Near East SS Africa South Asia
    • Lifecycle approach is important
    • 8 As GDP rises, nutrition profiles shift Source: WHO “World Health Statistics 2006”
    • National economic growth National nutrition profile Enabling environment Food market environment Health environment Agricultural Production Household assets and livelihoods Natural resources Food production & gathering Processing & storage Food expenditure Food access Diet Health care Health status Agricultural income Non-food expenditure Women’s empowerment Household Child nutrition outcomes Mother’s nutrition outcomes Caring capacity & practices Female energy expenditure Nutrition and health knowledge Individual Source: Herforth and Harris 2013
    • National economic growth National nutrition profile Enabling environment Food market environment Health environment Agricultural Production Household assets and livelihoods Natural resources Food production & gathering Processing & storage Food expenditure Food access Diet Health care Health status Agricultural income Non-food expenditure Women’s empowerment Household Child nutrition outcomes Mother’s nutrition outcomes Caring capacity & practices Female energy expenditure Nutrition and health knowledge Individual Source: Herforth and Harris 2013
    • 11 Share of Energy Source & Food Budget in Rural Bangladesh Staple foods Fish and Meat Non-Staple plants Energy Source Food Budget Slide Source: Howdy Bouis; FNB Mar 2011
    • Agricultural Production Household assets and livelihoods “Potential negative impacts can occur if (1) projects increase National National economic nutrition standing water where growth parasitic disease-carrying vectors can profile breed, without also increasing access to health services and Enabling education for prevention;marketprojects increase use of a toxic (2) environment environment Food water source… (3) projects to increase irrigation in the short Health environment term result in longer-term water shortages” Herforth et al 2012 Natural resources Food production & gathering Processing & storage Food expenditure Food access Diet Health care Health status Agricultural income Non-food expenditure Women’s empowerment Household Child nutrition outcomes Mother’s nutrition outcomes Caring capacity & practices Female energy expenditure Nutrition and health knowledge Individual Source: Herforth and Harris 2013
    • National National “Stunting occurs in setting of ubiquitous Environmental economic nutrition growth profile Enteropathy; gut microbiomes of malnourished children are abnormal, and promote weight loss and malnutrition… Farm Enabling environment Food market environment practices to control spread of disease are well known – Keeping animals out of human water supplies” Ghosh etenvironment al Health 2013 Agricultural Production Household assets and livelihoods Natural resources Food production & gathering Processing & storage Food expenditure Food access Diet Health care Health status Agricultural income Non-food expenditure Women’s empowerment Household Child nutrition outcomes Mother’s nutrition outcomes Caring capacity & practices Female energy expenditure Nutrition and health knowledge Individual Source: Herforth and Harris 2013
    • National economic growth National nutrition profile Enabling environment Food market environment Health environment Agricultural Production Household assets and livelihoods Natural resources Food production & gathering Processing & storage Food expenditure Food access Diet Health care Health status Agricultural income Non-food expenditure Women’s empowerment Household Child nutrition outcomes Mother’s nutrition outcomes Caring capacity & practices Female energy expenditure Nutrition and health knowledge Individual Source: Herforth and Harris 2013
    • National economic growth National nutrition profile Agricultural Production Household assets and livelihoods “With very few exceptions, home garden programs increased the consumption of fruit and vegetables; Enabling aquaculture and small fisheries interventions increased environment Food market environment the consumption of fish; and dairy development projects Health increased the consumption of milk.” Masset et al, 2012 environment Natural resources Food production & gathering Processing & storage Food expenditure Food access Diet Health care Health status Agricultural income Non-food expenditure Women’s empowerment Household Child nutrition outcomes Mother’s nutrition outcomes Caring capacity & practices Female energy expenditure Nutrition and health knowledge Individual Source: Herforth and Harris 2013
    • National economic growth National nutrition profile Agricultural Production Household assets and livelihoods Enabling “Overall, cash-cropping schemes [whether staple crops environment Food market environment or other] did not have a significant impact – negative or Health positive resources – on child nutritional status.” World bank, 2007 environment Natural Food production & gathering Processing & storage Food expenditure Food access Diet Health care Health status Agricultural income Non-food expenditure Women’s empowerment Household Child nutrition outcomes Mother’s nutrition outcomes Caring capacity & practices Female energy expenditure Nutrition and health knowledge Individual Source: Herforth and Harris 2013
    • National economic growth National nutrition profile “Women’s empowerment is linked to over 50% of reductions in all child stunting from 1970-1995” Smith and Haddad 2000 Enabling environment Food market environment Agricultural Production Household assets and livelihoods Shown in many studies, in many parts of the world: Health environment women’s income has greater impact on child nutrition Natural resources and food security than men’s UNICEF 2011; Smith et al 2003 Food production & gathering Processing & storage Food expenditure Food access Diet Health care Health status Agricultural income Non-food expenditure Women’s empowerment Household Child nutrition outcomes Mother’s nutrition outcomes Caring capacity & practices Female energy expenditure Nutrition and health knowledge Individual Source: Herforth and Harris 2013
    • National economic growth National nutrition profile Enabling environment Food market environment Health environment Agricultural Production Household assets and livelihoods Natural resources Food production & gathering Processing & storage Food expenditure Food access Diet Health care Health status Agricultural income Non-food expenditure Women’s empowerment Household Child nutrition outcomes Mother’s nutrition outcomes Caring capacity & practices Female energy expenditure Nutrition and health knowledge Individual Source: Herforth and Harris 2013
    • 19 The zero-sum game agricultura l production child care maternal health and care McGuire and Popkin, Food & Nutr Bull, 1989 incomeearning activities Slide courtesy Andy Jones
    • 20 The zero-sum game agricultural production child care maternal health and care McGuire and Popkin, Food & Nutr Bull, 1989 incomeearning activities Slide courtesy Andy Jones
    • Agricultural activities tend to make up a major share of rural National National economic nutrition women’s energy expenditure, often at high levels of effort and in growth profile addition to normal domestic duties. Enabling environment Food market environment Women are more likely than men to suffer from seasonal energy Health deficiency and seasonal weight loss. environment Natural resources Agricultural Production Household assets and livelihoods Negative impacts on children of pregnancy during hunger season Food Processing production & & storage (or famine). gathering Food Occupational health hazards in agriculture can have an impact on Diet Food access Child expenditure nutrition women, and on their children in-utero. Agricultural outcomes income Harris, forthcoming Women’s empowerment Household Non-food expenditure Health care Health status Mother’s nutrition outcomes Caring capacity & practices Female energy expenditure Nutrition and health knowledge Individual Source: Herforth and Harris 2013
    • 22 Overall Messages: Pathways to Nutrition OLD: Assumptions about nutrition impact have been challenged • Increasing production of calories • Increasing overall household incomes as a singular priority • Agriculture as an engine of overall economic growth; trickle-down effect on nutrition minimal NEW: These need more attention if we are going to reach nutrition • Increasing production of - and access to - diverse, nutrientdense foods • Increasing women’s control of income… • …and avoiding harm due to additional time demands or energy expenditure of women • Incorporating nutrition education for enhanced nutrition impact from food production and income
    • National economic growth National nutrition profile Environmental contaminants or vectors Food market environment Agricultural Production Household assets and livelihoods Food production & gathering Health environment Individual diet Food prices and availability Natural resources Production diversity diversity Target nutrient consumption Processing & storage Target food consumption Food Household Food access expenditure security food Agricultural Consumption income / Expenditure Health care Non-food expenditure Women’s Women’s Empowerment empowerment in Ag Index Household Enabling environment Caring capacity & practices Diet Health status Infant and young child feeding Time use Female energy expenditure Nutrition and health knowledge Child nutrition outcomes Anthropometry / biomarkers Mother’s nutrition outcomes Energy expenditure Individual Knowledge / attitudes
    • 24 THANK YOU!
    • HH Food security CRP / Indicator 1.1 Dryland Systems * * * * 1.2 Humidtropics * * * * 3.4 RTB 3.7 L&F 4 A4NH * 1.3 AAS * 3.2 Maize 3.5 Grain Legumes * 3.6 Dryland Cereals * * * * * * Other ‘Do no harm’ Anthropometry / biomarkers Target nutrient consumption IDDS Target food consumption Knowledge / attitudes Women’s empowerment Production diversity 25 * * 3.3 GRiSP *
    • 26 How to choose indicators…? • Which pathway(s) is your program trying to address? • Which of the boxes along that pathway (or any intermediate steps not adequately captured there) can you feasibly measure?(As many as possible!) • What (preferably validated) tools and metrics exist to measure each of these? • In what way will each of these need to be adapted to your particular context (without losing the validity of the tool)? • How does the totality of your indicators build a picture of how your agriculture program is affecting nutrition?