Summary of Survey Results on Coffee Leaf Rust (La Roya)


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In February 2013, the Sustainability and Coffee Departments at Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc. (GMCR) teamed up to conduct a survey of our supply chain partners to learn about how rust was affecting producers in their network and to understand the household-level impacts of the rust epidemic.

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Summary of Survey Results on Coffee Leaf Rust (La Roya)

  1. 1. GMCR Supply Chain OutreachRoya Survey Results SummaryA. BackgroundA twenty-four question survey about the impacts of the Coffee Leaf Rust fungus, or “la roya,” wasdeveloped in Spanish by the Supply Chain Outreach team in the web-based Survey Monkey tool: survey was sent out to three GMCR distribution lists: (1) the Supply Chain Outreach team sent thesurvey to key contacts of social projects in coffee-growing communities (principally coops and NGOs)and (2) the Coffee Department sent the Spanish survey to key contacts of their suppliers (principallycoops and importers), and (3) the Coffee Department sent a condensed, English version to importers.The Spanish version of the survey was sent on Monday, February 8, 2013 and there were 96 responsesas of February 28, 2013. There were 15 responses to the English version of the survey. Each questionbelow indicates if the responses represent the complete set of responses (111) or a subset of responsesthat were in Spanish (96).B. Results Summary1. Organization Type Organization where you work (out of 111 responses) Count Organization Type 64 Cooperative 14 NGO 11 blank 19 Other Supply Chain Partner (SCP) 3 Finca or large estate Survey details contain names of responding organizations2. Name Survey details contain names of responders3. Location Country/ Region/ Community where you work (out of 111 responses)Roya_Survey Results Summary 1 of 10 3/14/2013
  2. 2. GMCR Supply Chain OutreachRoya Survey Results Summary Count Country 22 Peru 16 Nicaragua 14 Colombia 14 Guatemala 14 Honduras 7 Costa Rica 7 Mexico 5 Latin America 3 blank 3 El Salvador 3 Global 2 USA 1 Brazil Survey details contain names of specific regions and communities4. Roya Evidence Question: Have you seen directly or heard from coffee producers about the effect la roya has had on the coffee harvest? (out of 111 responses) Count Answer 86 Yes 6 Some 3 No 15 Blank 1 Unknown5. Certified Organic Percentage Question: What is the percentage of Certified Organic producers do you work with? (out of 111 responses) Count Answer 37 blank 17 100% Organic 19 75% Organic 5 50% Organic 10 25% Organic 18 10% Organic 5 0% Organic6. Organic vs. Non-Organic Impact Question: What differences have you noted of the impact la roya has had on organic versus non- organic producers? (out of 111 responses)Roya_Survey Results Summary 2 of 10 3/14/2013
  3. 3. GMCR Supply Chain OutreachRoya Survey Results Summary Mentions Theme 26 No significant difference 17 Unknown 15 More impact on organic farms 12 Impact dependent on farm management, not certification 9 Less impact on organic farms 7 Differences appear with options to combat roya 5 Altitude, variety, soil made the difference7. Financial Impact Question: As a result of la roya, what financial impacts you have seen? (Out of 96 responses) Mentions Theme (Financial Impacts) 27 Lost income 15 Debt, loan, contract defaults (for producer and coop) 13 Lack of income to survive, therefore, not reinvesting in coffee or coop maintenance 9 Unclear impacts at present 5 Less regularly planned expansion/renovation, planting new varieties, more chemical use, lower quality from roya tolerant varieties 4 Unemployment 4 No impact at present 1 Hurt national economy Mentions Theme (triggers of Financial Impacts) 8 Lost yield 6 Low prices 1 Lack of access to financing8. Current Year Losses Question: Percent of coffee that has been lost THIS year as a result of roya. (out of 111 responses) Count Answer 3 5% Loss 23 10% Loss 3 15% Loss 31 25% Loss 3 35% Loss 16 50% Loss 3 75% Loss 29 blankRoya_Survey Results Summary 3 of 10 3/14/2013
  4. 4. GMCR Supply Chain OutreachRoya Survey Results Summary9. Next Year Losses Question: Percent of coffee that will be lost NEXT year as a result of roya. (out of 111 responses) Count Answer 13 10% Loss 32 25% Loss 5 35% Loss 26 50% Loss 8 75% Loss 1 unknown 26 blank10. Lost Income Question: Lost income as a result of la roya (out of 111 responses) Mentions Response 16 Cant estimate 52 Estimate of lost income provided* 2 blank * Survey details contain specific responses to this question. Free responses could not be aggregated because they were listed as a percentage of lost income or an estimate of the amount of dollars lost, and ranged from a per farmer estimate to an estimate on national or global losses.11. Coffee Harvest affected by the roya Question: Percent of coffee harvest affected by the roya. (out of 96 responses) Count Answer 13 10% Affected 32 25% Affected 19 50% Affected 5 75% Affected 1 100% Affected 26 blank12. Actions (current) Question: Please list the actions used to combat la roya. (out of 111 responses) Mentions Theme 31 Coffee Plant Renovations/ Technical Agronomy Trainings 28 Use of fungicides or chemicalsRoya_Survey Results Summary 4 of 10 3/14/2013
  5. 5. GMCR Supply Chain OutreachRoya Survey Results Summary Switching to organic crops/reinforcement of shade grown coffee or 21 preventative tactics 19 Switching to new resistant coffee strains 12 Pruning/ eliminating crops 4 No Action Taken (Diagnostics only) 1 National advocacy/action 1 Abandon farm13. Impact on Yields Next Year Question: What do you believe will be the impact on coffee yields next year as a result of roya? (out of 111 responses) Count Answer 18 High impact on yields (no percentage given) 18 25%-50% yield decrease 13 50% yield decrease 11 Low impact because renovation program already in place 11 10%-25% yield decrease 5 5% or less yield decrease 5 Not known 2 75% yield decrease 28 blank14. Local Support Question: Please list available local support to combat la roya epidemic (out of 96 responses) Mentions Theme 29 Technical assistance offered/ Prevention trainings 26 No assistance available 15 Government /Cooperatives assistance - Supplies, chemicals, etc. 9 Government /Cooperative assistance - Funds 3 Support Available ONLY if conditions are met (changing coffee variety)15. Credit Available Question: What credit is available, if any, at this time? (out of 96 responses) Mentions Theme 24 No credit available 23 Credit available through bank 16 Credit through government available or through private entities 10 Credit available but interest is too high/requires land rights/requires some type of equity from farmer 6 Short term credit available only or must change coffee variety to obtain it 5 Credit through cooperative availableRoya_Survey Results Summary 5 of 10 3/14/2013
  6. 6. GMCR Supply Chain OutreachRoya Survey Results Summary16. Household Impacts Question: As a result of roya, what are the impacts you have seen on the home level? (out of 96 responses) Mentions Theme 22 Less coffee, less income 13 Worry, discouragement, concern, fear, uncertainty 10 Wont know until after the harvest 9 Food insecurity 7 Migration and immigration 6 Debt 5 Lack of education 3 Taking kids out of school 3 Lower quality coffee 2 Lack of healthcare 2 Malnutrition17. Household Income Impact Question: What is the impact roya has had on household income? (out of 111 responses) Mentions Theme 39 Less, lower income 10 Less money for basic needs (food, clothing, education, and home improvements) 17 Harvest not over, dont know, dont know yet, havent seen stats 4 Debt, difficulty paying back debt 2 Migration / immigration 3 Too dependent on coffee 2 Not spending, lower spending 1 Farm abandonment 1 Looking for other income streams 2 blank18. Diet Changes Question: What changes have you seen in families’ abilities to get food and maintain their daily diet? (out of 111 responses) Mentions Themes 18 Harvest isn’t over yet, dont know yet, no stats yet 10 Food diversification 5 Less food and lower quality 5 Off farm work 4 Expanding food plots 3 Food rationing 2 Growing more in pots / patiosRoya_Survey Results Summary 6 of 10 3/14/2013
  7. 7. GMCR Supply Chain OutreachRoya Survey Results Summary 3 Reducing purchases of basic necesities 3 Less money 2 Food security projects 1 Increased prices in basic foods 1 Debt / borrow money 1 Thin months will be harder longer 6 blank19. Household Strategies Question: What strategies have you seen families employ as a result of the negative effects of la roya? (out of 111 responses) Mentions Themes 22 Farm management techniques to prevent/combat roya (nurseries, plant other varieties of coffee, renovate) 20 Crop diversification or livestock production for income & consumption 19 Migrate, seek other work 10 Obtain income (sell land, collaborative groups, obtain credit, non- profit support) 9 Unknown, too soon to tell 7 Cut back on expenses, invest less in farm, pull kids from school to work on farm 5 None 3 Go into debt, increase crime 1 Abandon Farm 5 Blank20. Other Income Sources Question: What percentage of families has additional income resources besides coffee to compensate for the economic impact of la roya? (out of 111 responses) Mentions Themes 40 10%-30% have other sources of income 17 Farmers have no other source of income 9 30%-50% have other sources of income 5 Other additional sources such as beans, bananas, etc. 4 Other sources of income available, but still effect felt at household level 3 50%+ have other sources of income 3 Blank21. Organizational Strategies Question: What initiatives has your organization taken to combat the effects of la roya, if any? If yes, what initiatives have been taken? (out of 111 responses)Roya_Survey Results Summary 7 of 10 3/14/2013
  8. 8. GMCR Supply Chain OutreachRoya Survey Results Summary Mentions Themes 37 Technical support provided/and or supplies provided 20 Financial help provided (FLO, loans, credit) 12 Renovation Supports/and or income diversification support 12 Diagnostics or and/Collaboration with other sectors, entities, government or industry 10 No initiative/strategy taken 3 Blank22. Short and Long term Solutions Question: Can you list some short and long term solutions and initiatives to fight roya? (out of 96 responses) Mentions Themes 37 Renovation, use rust resistant varieties 28 Better soil nutrition, compost, good agricultural practices, technical assistance 16 Spray, fumigate, fertilize, prune 12 Education, training, communication and outreach 12 Help with financing, credits 5 Manage shade 4 Diversify, food security, gardens,23. Industry Strategies Question: What are some initiatives you think that the coffee industry could implement to combat la roya? (out of 111 responses) Mentions Themes 28 Financing/program for renovation, low interest financing/loans, access to credit, soft credit/provision of inputs 27 Technical assistance, experiential exchanges, training, education, improved technology, climate change plan, diversification 12 Plant/research new varieties 11 Research, monitoring, working group, consumer education 10 Just prices for producers, prices set by producers, stable prices, direct trade, better differentials 4 Price, quality-based, ecological/sustainable production incentives 4 Grant funds, emergency fund, insurance for loss from disease or natural disaster 1 Too soon to knowRoya_Survey Results Summary 8 of 10 3/14/2013
  9. 9. GMCR Supply Chain OutreachRoya Survey Results Summary24. Other Comments Question: Do you have any other comments that you would like to share about the impact that roya has or will have on the future of coffee producers? (out of 111 responses) Mentions Themes 16 Reduced income, need to diversify income, food insecurity, vulnerability, poverty, increased local cost of goods 14 Country/industry support needed 10 Low production/yield, low market price, high production costs 10 Plant resistant varieties, lower quality, lack of diversity due to planting resistant varieties 10 Aging plants, poor management and plant care, renovation needed, technical assistance needed 7 Climate Change 7 More info needed to accurately assess situation 1 Migration/leave coffee/illicit crops 1 Any action taken is dependent on producer/coop budget 1 Will see changes in “C” as result of la royaC. Word CloudsUsing the free-response responses of the survey, we created the word cloud below in Spanish. We alsocreated one in English using text from rough translations of responses from several questions, but it isless representative of the true survey responses.1. Spanish Word Cloud (based on participant responses)Roya_Survey Results Summary 9 of 10 3/14/2013
  10. 10. GMCR Supply Chain OutreachRoya Survey Results Summary2. English Word Cloud (based on rough translations of some questions)Roya_Survey Results Summary 10 of 10 3/14/2013