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Violent Crimes Report for Continental U.S. (1980 - 2009)

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  • 1. VIOLENT CRIME IN THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES 1980 - 2009
    By Manuel C. Wilson
    GEOG 313
  • 2. Table of Contents
    Statement of purpose II
    Map Interpretation III
    Violent Crimep1
    The FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program p2
    Violent Crime Pre-1980’s p4
    Violent Crime in the 1980’s p5
    1980’s Violent Crime Index Rate maps p7 – p16
    The Average Violent Crime Rate for the 1980’s p17
    1980 – 1989 Total Reports p18
    Violent Crime in the 1990’s p19
    1990’s Violent Crime Index Rate maps p21 – p25; p29 – p33
    Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 p26
    Criminal Provisions of the1994 act p27,p28
    The Average Violent Crime Rate for the 1990s p34
    1990 – 1999 Total Reports p35
    Violent Crime in the 2000’s p36
    1980’s Violent Crime Index Rate maps p37 – p46
    The Average Violent Crime Rate for the 1980’s p47
    1980 – 1989 Total Reports p48
    Conclusion p49
    Total Violent Crime Figures p50, p51
    Bibliography p52
    I
  • 3. Statement of Purpose
    The purpose of this report is to present information on violent crimes in the contiguous 48 states.
    To give the reader comprehensive knowledge of what a violent crime is and what it entails as the subject of this report.
    To show the reader a time line represented in maps from 1980 to 2009, detailing the rise and fall of violent crime rates in each contiguous state (excluding the District of Columbia).
    To list and explain factors that have directly or indirectly influenced the violent crime rate in the U.S. by decade, using cited sources and created graphs.
    II
  • 4. Map Interpretation
    Information in the maps presented in this report, created using ESRI software, have been shown to the reader in many different ways. The most common are the maps that represent the Violent Crime Index Rate per 100,000 inhabitance. These maps were created in this fashion as to represent each contiguous state evenly. As almost every state differs greatly in population and size, the use of the base 100,000 inhabitance, gives the reader the ability to equally compare the largest state to the smallest state.
    The formula to creating the Violent Crime Index Rate per 100,000 inhabitance is as follows: Take the population of a state and divide it by 100,000 to get an answer. Next take the total violent crime reports for that yearand divide it against the previous answer. This new answer will be your Violent Crime Index Rate per 100,000 inhabitance. Figure 1 gives an example.
    To get a comparison of violent crime in the nation, the violent crime index rate was split into five mostly equal ranges. To let the reader identify the severity of violent crime in each state easily, the violent crime index was given a specific array colors as Figure 2 shows.
    The national Violent Crime Rate (VCR) shown with each map does not directly follow the violent crime total. Even if total violent crime would rise from one year to another the VCR could show a decrease. This is due to a relative amount of total violent crimes against natural population growth in each state.
    Figure 1:
    Figure 2:
    III
  • 5. Violent Crime
    Violent Crime has been an issue in the United States since its inception. Thus the U.S. has spent billions of dollars to combat it through social and economic programs.
    The most data about violent crime have been kept by the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program to meet the need for reliable, uniform crime statistics for the nation.
    Violent crime and crime in general has been linked to many social causes in today’s society. These include the lack of family stability, low education, and unemployment. These social problems, while recognized as such, haven’t been specifically tackled by the government. The government has taken more of a position to punishing violent crime then to spend money preventing the causes of violent crime.
    The reports and statistics compiled by the UCR, FBI, state and local governments are only a partial picture of the total amount of violent crime in the United States. Hundreds if not thousands of violent crimes are not reported by victims to law enforcement for various reasons, such as, long legal procedures, distrust of law enforcement, non-understanding of police procedure, threats made to victims, victims own criminal history and victims taking justice into own hands.
    1
  • 6. The FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program
    The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program was created 1929 by the International Association of Chiefs of Police to meet a need for reliable, uniform crime statistics for the nation. In 1930, the FBI was tasked with collecting, publishing, and archiving those statistics. Today, several annual statistical publications are produced from data provided by nearly 17,000 law enforcement agencies across the United States.(http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/crimestats)
    In the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program, violent crime is composed of four offenses: murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. Violent crimes are defined in the UCR Program as those offenses which involve force or threat of force.
    2
  • 7. The FBI's Definitions of a Violent Crime
    Robbery, “as defined by the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program as the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear.” (http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/offenses/violent_crime/index.html)
    Aggravated assault, “as defined by theFBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program as an unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury. The UCR Program further specifies that this type of assault is usually accompanied by the use of a weapon or by other means likely to produce death or great bodily harm. Attempted aggravated assault that involves the display of—or threat to use—a gun, knife, or other weapon is included in this crime category because serious personal injury would likely result if the assault were completed. When aggravated assault and larceny-theft occur together, the offense falls under the category of robbery.” (http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/offenses/violent_crime/index.html)
    Forcible rape, “as defined in the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program, is the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Attempts or assaults to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included; however, statutory rape (without force) and other sex offenses are excluded.” (http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/offenses/violent_crime/index.html)
    Murder and non-negligent manslaughter, “as defined in theFBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program is the willful (non-negligent) killing of one human being by another. The classification of this offense is based solely on police investigation as opposed to the determination of a court, medical examiner, coroner, jury, or other judicial body. The UCR Program does not include the following situations in this offense classification: deaths caused by negligence, suicide, or accident; justifiable homicides; and attempts to murder or assaults to murder, which are scored as aggravated assaults.” (http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/offenses/violent_crime/index.html)
    3
  • 8. Violent Crime Pre-1980’s
    In 1960, the reports of violent crime were miniscule compared to today's levels. There were a total of over 230,000 reports filed that year in the continental United States, compared to over 1.3 million reports in 2009.
    Although 1960 began relatively quiet, violent crime reports would almost triple by the end of the decade. But by 1979 there would be five times as many violent crime reports as there were in 1960, an increase of over 500%
    Some of the factors that have lead to the increase of violent crimes in the 20 years from 1960 to 1980 were deindustrialization of the U.S. in many of its large cities, the resulting growing unemployment rate and the large movement of people from the city to suburbs. Social factors include the Civil Rights unrest of the 1960’s, the rise in single parent homes, proliferation of gangs and gang violence, the creation and use of many new illegal drugs.
    Burned out buildings of the Chicago Riots of 1968
    4
  • 9. Violent Crime in the 1980’s
    In the early 1980’s violent crime was on a slight downward trend, reaching the decade minimum in 1983. But by 1984 violent crime began to surge throughout the nation. The continuing deindustrialization of many U.S. cities had serious consequences on unemployment rates of the country. Figure 14 shows from 1980 to 1989 there were 13,900,626 reports of violent crime
    The Reagan Administration came into power in 1981 and in a effort to reduce federal spending, slashed and restructured federal programs and funds for urban development and social services. This left cities underfunded and unable to fully provide housing assistance and social services. These problems lead to the increase of inner-city joblessness and homelessness.
    The inauguration of Ronald Reagan
    5
  • 10. Violent Crime in the 1980’s
    Crack cocaine, a much cheaper version of powder cocaine, was introduced in 1981 and became wide spread in most major urban markets in 1984. The crack epidemic is correlated with a sharp increase in crime, especially violent crime. Research by two prominent economists from the University of Chicago, Steven Levitt and Kevin Murphy suggest that crack was the most prominent factor contributing to the rise and fall of social ills in the African American and Latino communities between 1980 and 2000(wikipedia.com/crackcocaine)
    By the end of the 1980’s the nation’s Violent Crime Rate or V.C.R. was at 447 violent crimes per 100,000 population. Figure 13 shows states with the five lowest and five highest average violent crime rates of the 1980’s
    Crack Cocaine
    6
  • 11. Figure 3: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 489
    In 1980, 17 states had violent crime rates 500 or more.
    7
  • 12. Figure 4: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 486
    Crack Cocaine was introduced to Miami and Los Angles at this time. Violent crime as also risen slightly since 1980 with changes seen in Montana and Delaware. Ronald Reagan became president.
    8
  • 13. Figure 5: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 469
    1982 began a two year downturn in violent crime as New York fell below 1000 violent crimes per 100,000 persons and Georgia fell below 500 violent crimes per 100,000 persons
    9
  • 14. Figure 6: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 441
    1983 had the decades lowest total of reported violent crimes but this trend would reverse beginning in the following year.
    10
  • 15. Figure 7: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 445
    By this year crack cocaine would reach its maximum amount of urban markets where the issue would finally receive attention from the federal government. 1984 would also mark a eight year near- continuous rise in violent crime reports.
    11
  • 16. Figure 8: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 460
    In 1985 violent crime reports rose, resulting in category changes in five states which included , Utah Wyoming, Minnesota, Missouri and Georgia. Only one state, Michigan did violent crime reports actually fall.
    12
  • 17. Figure 9: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 492
    1985 to 1986 saw the highest rise in violent crimes that decade as almost every state sees an increase. Only Florida sees an increase above 1000 reports per 100,000 population.
    13
  • 18. Figure 10: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 480
    Violent crime in 1987 lowered over the past year although this didn’t effect New York as its crime rate climbed over 1000.
    14
  • 19. Figure 11: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 501
    1988 broke the two year stability in violent crime totals and rose by almost 90,000 reports nation wide. George H. W. Bush became president.
    15
  • 20. Figure 12: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 518
    The trend continued in 1989 as violent crime totals through out the country were on the rise.
    16
  • 21. The Average Violent Crime Rate for the 1980’s
    Figure 13: The Graph to the left shows (from top) states with the five lowest and (to bottom) five highest average violent crime rates of the 1980’s
    17
  • 22. 1980 -1989 Report Totals
    Figure 14: Of the 13,900,626 reports of violent crime during the 1980’s they are broken down and categorized as followed:
    Murder and Non-negligent manslaughter:
    203,064 Reports
    Forcible Rape:
    854,923 Reports
    Robbery:
    5,295,993 Reports
    Aggravated Assault:
    7,546,646 Reports
    Gang graffiti
    18
  • 23. Violent Crime in the 1990’s
    The 1990’s were a volatile decade as violent crime in the United States reached its peak as drugs and social unrest marked the early 1990’s. High profile instances of violent crime were the 1992 Los Angles Riots, the 1993 Waco siege and 101 California Street shootings, the Columbine school shootings and Oklahoma City Bombing.
    The national violent crime rate would rise dramatically as seen between Figure 15 and Figure 17 from 569 to 599 violent crimes per 100,000 people.
    President Clinton took the Oval Office in 1993 after George Bush Sr. and in 1994 signed into law largest crime bill in the history of the US; The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. This bill created hundreds of new laws and allocated billions of dollars to end violent crime.
    Because of this landmark bill and the many efforts by local governments, violent crime reports began to decline in 1994 and every year in that decade.
    Burning building during 1992 LA Riots in Los Angles, CA
    19
  • 24. Violent Crime in the 1990’s
    Mid to late 1990’s saw major decreases in violent crime reports exemplified in Figure 19, Figure 20 and Figure 21.
    The 1990’s also saw the economic revival of the nation’s cities and the fall of unemployment numbers.
    Figure 25 shows the five lowest and five highest average violent crime rates of the 1990s.
    By the end of the 1990’s the nation’s Violent Crime Rate or V.C.R. was at 524 violent crimes per 100,000 population.
    Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, Oklahoma City, OK
    20
  • 25. Figure 15: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 569
    Violent crime in 1990 is beginning to look like its rising at an exponential rate with over 125,000 more reports than the previous year. California joins New York and Florida with a violent crime rate over 1000.
    21
  • 26. Figure 16: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 593
    1991 continues the rise in violent crime over the nation with Illinois violent crime rate reaching 1000 for the first time.
    22
  • 27. Figure 17: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 599
    1992 is the peak year, totaling the most violent crime reports in this decade and of the 30 years researched in this report. The Los Angles Riots begin over strained racial tensions and exacerbated by the police brutality of Rodney King.
    23
  • 28. Figure 18: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 596
    In 1993 the nation’s violent crime total drops for the first time since 1987 but a total of five states which include Florida, New York, California, Louisiana, and South Carolina reported violent crime rates over 1000. Bill Clinton becomes president.
    24
  • 29. Figure 19: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 584
    The violent crime rate continued to decline in 1994 as the Bill Clinton signed the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 into law
    25
  • 30. Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994
    The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 was the biggest frontal assault on violent crime in the nations history.
    After six years of work in the legislature it became the largest crime bill in the history of the country. It provided 100,000 new police officers, $9.7 billion in funding for prisons and $6.1 billion in funding for prevention programs designed with significant input from experienced police officers. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violent_Crime_Control_and_Law_Enforcement_Act)
    The Act also significantly expanded the government's ability to deal with problems caused by criminal aliens. The Crime Bill provided $2.6 billion in additional funding for the FBI, DEA, INS, United States Attorneys, and other Justice Department components, as well as the Federal courts and the Treasury Department.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violent_Crime_Control_and_Law_Enforcement_Act)
    26
  • 31. Criminal Provisions of the1994 act
    Assault Weapons Bans the manufacture of 19 military-style assault weapons, assault weapons with specific combat features, "copy-cat" models, and certain high-capacity ammunition magazines of more than ten rounds
    Death Penalty Expands the Federal death penalty to cover about 60 offenses, including terrorist homicides, murder of a Federal law enforcement officer, large-scale drug trafficking, drive-by-shootings resulting in death and carjackings resulting in death.
    Domestic Abusers and Firearms Prohibits firearms sales to and possession by persons subject to family violence restraining orders.
    Firearms Licensing Strengthens Federal licensing standards for firearms dealers.
    Fraud Creates new insurance and telemarketing fraud categories. Expands Federal jurisdiction to cases that do not involve the use of delivery services to commit a fraud. Provides special sentencing enhancements for fraud crimes committed against the elderly.
    Gang Crimes Provides new and stiffer penalties for violent and drug trafficking crimes committed by gang members.
    Immigration Provides for enhanced penalties for alien smuggling, illegal reentry after deportation and other immigration-related crimes.
    Other Creates new crimes or enhances penalties for: drive-by-shootings, use of semi-automatic weapons, sex offenses, crimes against the elderly, interstate firearms trafficking, firearms theft and smuggling, arson, hate crimes and interstate domestic violence. (http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles/billfs.txt)
    Military-style Assault weapons
    27
  • 32. Criminal Provisions of the1994 act
    Juveniles Authorizes adult prosecution of those 13 and older charged with certain serious violent crimes. Prohibits the sale or transfer of a firearm to or possession of certain firearms by juveniles. Triples the maximum penalties for using children to distribute drugs in or near a protected zone, i.e., schools, playgrounds, video arcades and youth centers.
    Registration of Sexually Violent Offenders Requires states to enact statutes or regulations which require those determined to be sexually violent predators or who are convicted of sexually violent offenses to register with appropriate state law enforcement agencies for ten years after release from prison. Requires state prison officials to notify appropriate agencies of the release of such individuals. Requires states to criminally punish those who fail to register. States which fail to establish registration systems may have Federal grant money reduced.
    Repeat Sex Offenders Doubles the maximum term of imprisonment for repeat sex offenders convicted of Federal sex crimes.
    Three Strikes Mandatory life imprisonment without possibility of parole for Federal offenders with three or more convictions for serious violent felonies or drug trafficking crimes.
    Victims of Crime Allows victims of Federal violent and sex crimes to speak at the sentencing of their assailants. Strengthens requirements for sex offenders and child molesters to pay restitution to their victims. Improves the Federal Crime Victims' Fund and the victim-related programs it supports. (http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles/billfs.txt)
    United States Courtroom
    28
  • 33. Figure 20: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 569
    1995 continued the decline of violent crime reports in the United States although the tragic events of the Oklahoma City bombing occur in April.
    29
  • 34. Figure 21: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 536
    Compared to 1995 levels, 1996 saw a reduction of about 108,000 violent crime reports, the largest such drop recorded from 1980 to 2009.
    30
  • 35. Figure 22: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 526
    Violent crime levels dropped a little slower in 1997
    31
  • 36. Figure 23: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 500
    1998 saw the second largest decrease in violent crime reports in the time period from 1980 to 2009, with about 107, 000 fewer than the previous year. 1998 also marks the first year where no states have a violent crime rate over 1000.
    32
  • 37. Figure 24: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 467
    By 1999, five states have lowered there violent crime rate by at least 250 from their maximum. Those states would include New York, California, Illinois, Maryland and Louisiana.
    33
  • 38. The Average Violent Crime Rate for the 1990’s
    Figure 25: The Graph to the left shows (from top) states with the five lowest and (to bottom) five highest average violent crime rates of the 1990s
    34
  • 39. 1990 -1999 Report Totals
    Figure 26: The 17,324,979 reports of violent crime during the 1990’s are broken down and categorized as followed:
    Murder and Non-negligent manslaughter:
    206,999 Reports
    Forcible Rape:
    988,043 Reports
    Robbery:
    5,670,089 Reports
    Aggravated Assault:
    10,459,851 Reports
    Assault weapons banned in 1994 crime bill
    35
  • 40. Violent Crime in the 2000’s
    In 2000 violent crime had fallen, compiling the lowest total reports since the early 1980’s.
    The economy began to show signs of recession stemming from late 1990’s internet/.com boom that lead to millions of new jobs centered on the computer industry.
    This all came to a head on September 11, 2001 during the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon which preceded the 2001 recession**
    Beginning in 2008, the second greatest recession since the Great Depression started. The problem centered on the collapse of the housing market and mass financial mismanagement by many global banks that lead to near economic collapse around the world
    Violent crime reports were somewhat varied in the 2000’s peaking in 2001 and 2006 but followed the overall trend of decline throughout the nation. Figure 37: shows states with the five lowest and five highest average violent crime rates of the 2000s
    By the end of the 2000’s the nation’s Violent Crime Rate or V.C.R. was at 407 violent crimes per 100,000 population, a giant decrease from the previous decade.
    Virginia Tech Massacre on 4/16/07
    36
  • 41. Figure 27: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 455
    Violent crime began to stabilize in 2000 compared to the previous year.
    37
  • 42. Figure 28: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 453
    Violent crime in 2001 rises for the first time since 1992 although this wasn’t due to the Sep. 11 attacks which were not counted towards the violent crime rate by the UCR. President George W. Bush takes office.
    38
  • 43. Figure 29: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 446
    In 2002 a firm economic recession took hold in the country as the stock market fell due to the collapse of tech stocks and anxiety of terrorist attacks. Violent crime although did drop slightly.
    39
  • 44. Figure 30: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 435
    Violent crime fell for a second straight year nation-wide as Florida drops below 750 on the violent crime index rate.
    40
  • 45. Figure 31: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 428
    The violent crime rate is beginning to stabilize in 2004
    41
  • 46. Figure 32: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 432
    Violent crime totals in 2005 rose for the first time since 2001 starting a two year rise as Tennessee’s violent crime rate rose above 750.
    42
  • 47. Figure 33: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 452
    2006 violent crime totals are the highest for the decade and begin a gradual falling trend.
    43
  • 48. Figure 34: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 447
    In 2007 crime begins to rise in three states, Louisiana, Oklahoma and Nevada but falls over all in the nation.
    44
  • 49. Figure 35: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 435
    Violent crime levels drop nation-wide as every state in the has a violent crime rate below 750.
    45
  • 50. Figure 36: The national Violent Crime Rate(VCR) is: 412
    The violent crime total in 2009 is the lowest of the decade and lowest since 1985. Barack Obama becomes president.
    46
  • 51. The Average Violent Crime Rate for the 2000’s
    Figure 37: The Graph to the left shows (from top) states with the five lowest and (to bottom) five highest average violent crime rates of the 2000s
    47
  • 52. 2000 – 2009 Report Totals
    Figure 38: The 13,832,022 reports of violent crime during the 2000’s are broken down and categorized as followed:
    Murder and Non-negligent manslaughter:
    160,771 Reports
    Forcible Rape:
    913,886 Reports
    Aggravated Assault:
    8,578,393 Reports
    Robbery:
    4,178,972 Reports
    Gang weapons seized by police
    48
  • 53. Conclusion
    In conclusion, the rise of violent crime in the 1980’s and early 1990’s observed in Figure 37, was due to a lack of importance placed on the social well-being of the population, especially in inner-cities of all sizes. Instead of focusing on the needs of people at and below the poverty line, the government focused on the economic expansion of the nation for those in the middle and upper classes. This took away from needed programs for the inner-city.
    As the problems began to mount, especially during the introduction of crack cocaine, rise in gang violence only then did the government take action against crime as a whole in the urban areas.
    This all came to a head as Bill Clinton singed into law Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. This Act was the single largest crime bill in the nations history and allocated billions of dollars to hire more police, build more prisons, regulate assault weapons and create tougher punishments for offenders.
    Although this worked, drastically reducing violent crime levels throughout the U.S., as seen in figure 37, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 didn’t the solve the cause of violent crime. It only expanded its punishment for it.
    For the maximum reduction in violent crime, the government would need to reinvest in the social programs on the local level and boost federal funding in education. Only this way, will the root of violent crime ever be solved.
    49
  • 54. Figure 37: From 1980 to 2009 there were a total of 45,057,630 reports of violent crime in the 48 contiguous states
    50
  • 55. Violent Crime Category Totals 1980 - 2009
    Figure 38:
    Murder and Non-negligent manslaughter:
    570,834 Reports
    Forcible Rape:
    2,756,852 Reports
    Robbery:
    15,145,054 Reports
    Aggravated Assault:
    26,584,890 Reports
    Figure 39:
    51
  • 56. Bibliography
    “Crack epidemic (United States)”. Wikipedia. 20 Apr 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crack_epidemic_(United_States)>
    “Crime Statistics”. 2011. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of Justice. 15 Apr 2011. <http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/crimestats>
     Dreier, Peter. “Reagan’s Legacy: Homelessness in America”. Issue #135, 5/2004. National Housing Institute. 22 Apr 2011. <http://www.nhi.org/online/issues/135/reagan.html>
    “Social and Economic Issues of the 1980s and 1990s”. Amistad Digital Resources. 2009. Columbia University. 20 Apr 2011. <http://www.amistadresource.org/the_future_in_the_present/social_and_economic_ issues.html>
    “Violent Crime”. Crime in the United States. 2009. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of Justice. 15 Apr 2011. <http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/offenses/violent_crime/index.html>
    “Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act”. Wikipedia. 23 Apr 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violent_Crime_Control_and_Law_Enforcement_Act>
    “Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994”. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. 24 Oct 1994. Department of Justice. 23 Apr. 2011. <http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles/billfs.txt>
    “Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics” 29 Mar 2009. U.S. Federal Government, U.S. Department of Justice. 18 Apr 2011. <http://www.ucrdatatool.gov/Search/Crime/State/TrendsInOneVar.cfm>
    52