0
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Governments Falter in Fight Against Corruption
The poorest people punished most
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Afrobarometer Explained
The Afrobarometer (AB) is a comparative series of public opinion surveys tha...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Survey Scope
 Round 1, 1999-2001, 12 countries
 Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibi...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Who is Afrobarometer
A Pan-African Network of survey researchers and analysts.
 In each country the...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Survey Methodology
• Nationally representative sample of adult citizens
– all respondents are random...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Global Dissemination Events
• 1 October 2013 - Lived poverty and the Economy
• 16 October 2013 Globa...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Face to Face
Interviews in 34
Countries
Finding out what the people
have to day
7
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
HOPE FADES FOR FIGHTING CORRUPTION
Disapprovals of government anti-corruption efforts rise
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Key Findings
• A majority across 34 countries say that governments
handle their anti-corruption work...
Measuring Satisfaction with
Governments’ Handling of Corruption
• To gauge public views on governments‟
efforts to reduce ...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Government’s Corruption
Reduction Efforts Assessed
11
46 45
49
54
43 44
41
37
12 11 10 9
0%
10%
20%
...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Biggest Changes in Negative Ratings for
Governments’ Fight Against Corruption
12
Changes over time i...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Government Anti-Corruption
Performance Ratings by Country
28%
28%
29%
32%
39%
41%
42%
42%
43%
44%
44...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
CORRUPTION IN STATE INSTITUTIONS SCRUTINIZED
Police, Government, Tax Officials Garner Highest Corrup...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Key Findings
• Police rank highest in perception of crime in all countries with two
out of every fiv...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
16
24
27
29
30
34
35
43
41
43
45
45
39
44
38
17
15
11
12
10
8
9
17
15
15
12
17
13
10
0% 20% 40% 60% ...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Countries with Highest & Lowest
Perceptions of Police Corruption
17
Proportion who said that ‘most o...
Countries with Highest & Lowest Perceptions of
Government Officials Corruption
Proportion who said that ‘most or all’ gove...
Countries with Highest & Lowest Perceptions of
Tax Officials Corruption
Proportion who said that „most or all‟ tax officia...
Countries with Highest & Lowest Perceptions of
Local Councilors Corruption
Proportion who said that ‘most or all’ local co...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Perceptions of Corruption Index
21
Based on 34 countries included in R5 across five government insti...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
CORRUPTION PUNISHES THE POOR
The poor exploited in countries with high corruption rates, low protect...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Key Findings
• One in three respondents reports at least one instance of paying a
bribe to obtain a ...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Tracking Day to Day
Bribery, Exploitation
24
• To find out how often people are forced to pay for pu...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Personal Bribery Experience,
Lived Corruption
25
9%
7% 6% 5%
4%
4%
5%
4%
3%
3%
3%
4%
4%
2%
2%
0%
5%
...
Regional Experiences of Bribery
22
21
17
10
16
23
21
17
7
15
20
18
15
8
1413
10
13
6
10
12
11
9
5
8
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
...
Bribery to Get a Permit, Countries with the Highest &
Lowest Ratings
Percentages who said that they had paid a bribe at le...
Experiences of Bribery: Countries with the Highest &
Lowest Ratings
28
27%
21%
19%
17% 16%
8%
2%
1% 1% 1% 1%
0%
10%
20%
30...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
CORRUPTION’S CONSEQUENCES
Corruption Punishes the Poor; Satisfaction for Democracy Dwindles
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
Key Findings
• The poor are the people most vulnerable to demands for bribes in return
for the basic...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
People Who Have Scarce Resources
Report Higher Perceptions of
Corruption
31
The chart shows people w...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
People Who Have Scarce Resources
Experience Higher Levels of Bribery
32
The chart shows people who h...
People Who Suffer Food Deprivation Pay Bribes Most in Countries Where
Percieved Corruption is High
The chart shows people ...
Corruption Affects People’s Satisfaction with
Democracy
Data show satisfaction with democracy among people who have paid a...
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG
STUDY, PRESENTATION PREPARED BY SAMANTHA RICHMOND, AFROBAROMETER OPERATIONS MANAGER FOR
CAPACITY BUI...
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Governments Falter in Fight Against Corruption - The poorest people punished most

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This presentation was made at the 3rd Afrobarometer Round 5 Global Release event in Dakar, Senegal on November 13, 2013

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Transcript of "Governments Falter in Fight Against Corruption - The poorest people punished most"

  1. 1. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Governments Falter in Fight Against Corruption The poorest people punished most
  2. 2. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Afrobarometer Explained The Afrobarometer (AB) is a comparative series of public opinion surveys that measure public attitudes toward democracy, governance, the economy, leadership, identity, and other related issues. The AB is an independent, non-partisan, African-based network of researchers. The first round of surveys took place in 1999-2001 in 12 countries. The Network is now conducting “Round 5” surveys in up to 35 countries during 2011-2013. Purpose: To measure popular perspectives on the social, political, and economic environments in each country where it is implemented and across Africa. Goal: To give the public a voice in policy making processes by providing high-quality public opinion data to policy-makers, policy advocates and civil society organizations, academics, media, donors and investors, and ordinary Africans. 2
  3. 3. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Survey Scope  Round 1, 1999-2001, 12 countries  Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe  West Africa: Ghana, Mali, Nigeria  East Africa: Tanzania, Uganda  Round 2, 2002-2003, 16 countries, adding:  Cape Verde, Kenya, Mozambique, Senegal  Round 3, 2005-2006, 18 countries, adding:  Benin, Madagascar  Round 4, 2008-2009, 20 countries, adding:  Burkina Faso, Liberia  Round 5, 2011-2013, up to 35 countries, adding:  Algeria, Burundi, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mauritius, Morocco, Niger, Togo, Tunisia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland 3
  4. 4. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Who is Afrobarometer A Pan-African Network of survey researchers and analysts.  In each country there is a National Partner responsible for survey implementation.  Four Core Partners provide technical assistance and Network management:  Center for Democratic Development (CDD), Ghana  Institute for Justice and Reconciliation (IJR), South Africa  Institute for Development Studies (IDS), University of Nairobi, Kenya  Institute for Empirical Research in Political Economy (IREEP), Benin  Two Support Units for capacity building and quality assurance  Michigan State University  University of Cape Town  Round 5 Core Funders include  DFID  SIDA  USAID  Mo Ibrahim Foundation  World Bank 4
  5. 5. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Survey Methodology • Nationally representative sample of adult citizens – all respondents are randomly selected – every adult citizen has an equal and known chance of being selected • Face-to-face interviews in the language of the respondent’s choice • Standard survey instrument across all countries for comparability • These 34-country results therefore represent the views of approximately three-quarters (76%) of the continent’s population with a margin of error of +/-2% at a 95% confidence level. • The total number of respondents in the 34 countries was 51,605. 5
  6. 6. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Global Dissemination Events • 1 October 2013 - Lived poverty and the Economy • 16 October 2013 Globalization and the Freedom to Communicate • 13 November 2013 Corruption & the Poor • 12 December Government Services & Resource Management • 23 January Taxation • 19 February 2013 Gender • 12 March 2013 Democracy 6
  7. 7. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Face to Face Interviews in 34 Countries Finding out what the people have to day 7
  8. 8. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG HOPE FADES FOR FIGHTING CORRUPTION Disapprovals of government anti-corruption efforts rise
  9. 9. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Key Findings • A majority across 34 countries say that governments handle their anti-corruption work badly • Despite an influx of overseas development aid and other funds invested in reducing graft, “bad” ratings have risen in the 16 countries that have been surveyed since 2002 • Only in a few countries have “bad” ratings of government corruption cleanup declined – Malawi, Mozambique, Senegal, Botswana & Lesotho. 9
  10. 10. Measuring Satisfaction with Governments’ Handling of Corruption • To gauge public views on governments‟ efforts to reduce corruption, Afrobarometer asked more than 51,000 people: How well or badly would you say the current government is handling the following matters, or haven’t you heard enough to say: Fighting corruption in government? • The next few charts show you what the people say
  11. 11. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Government’s Corruption Reduction Efforts Assessed 11 46 45 49 54 43 44 41 37 12 11 10 9 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 2002 2005 2008 2012 Fairly/very badly Fairly/very well Don't know
  12. 12. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Biggest Changes in Negative Ratings for Governments’ Fight Against Corruption 12 Changes over time in statement that governments handles the fight against corruption fairly or very badly 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 2002 2005 2008 2012 Mozambique Senegal Botswana Lesotho Malawi 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 2002 2005 2008 2012 Kenya Zimbabwe Ghana Tanzania Mali
  13. 13. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Government Anti-Corruption Performance Ratings by Country 28% 28% 29% 32% 39% 41% 42% 42% 43% 44% 44% 47% 48% 51% 52% 54% 54% 55% 56% 59% 63% 63% 64% 65% 66% 66% 66% 67% 69% 70% 76% 76% 81% 82% 82% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Malawi Lesotho Botswana Senegal Niger Cote d’Ivoire Zambia Cameroon Cape Verde Mozambique Sierra Leone Algeria Benin Burkina Faso Swaziland Guinea Ghana Namibia Average Burundi Liberia Madagascar Mauritius Morocco South Africa Tanzania Togo Tunisia Mali Kenya Sudan Uganda Zimbabwe Egypt Nigeria Fairly/very badly Don't know Fairly/very well 13
  14. 14. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG CORRUPTION IN STATE INSTITUTIONS SCRUTINIZED Police, Government, Tax Officials Garner Highest Corruption Ratings
  15. 15. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Key Findings • Police rank highest in perception of crime in all countries with two out of every five people rating “most or all” as corrupt • Tax and government officials rank second among officials with the highest corruption perceptions • Officials in prime ministers’ and presidents’ offices garner the lowest ratings of corruption • Nigeria, Cameroon & Mali rate highest on Afrobarometer’s perception of corruption index, which combines ratings among all government agencies • Mauritius, Algeria and Cape Verde rate lowest on the perception of corruption index 15
  16. 16. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG 16 24 27 29 30 34 35 43 41 43 45 45 39 44 38 17 15 11 12 10 8 9 17 15 15 12 17 13 10 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% The President and Officials in his Office Judges and Magistrates Members of Parliament Local Government Councillors Tax Officials Government Officials The Police Most/all of them Some of them None of them Don't know Question: How many of the following people do you think are involved in corruption, or haven‟t you heard enough about them to say: _____? Based on 34 countries included in R5 Perceptions of Corruption Among Public Servants
  17. 17. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Countries with Highest & Lowest Perceptions of Police Corruption 17 Proportion who said that ‘most or all’ police are corrupt Based on 34 countries included in R5 14 17 18 25 25 43 62 62 69 69 78 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Algeria CapeVerde Mauritius Tunisia Senegal Average Uganda Zimbabwe SierraLeone Kenya Nigeria
  18. 18. Countries with Highest & Lowest Perceptions of Government Officials Corruption Proportion who said that ‘most or all’ government officials are corrupt Based on 34 countries included in R5 12 14 19 21 22 35 49 50 51 52 59 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% CapeVerde Mauritius Madagascar Burundi Mozambique Average Zimbabwe SouthAfrica SierraLeone Kenya Nigeria 18
  19. 19. Countries with Highest & Lowest Perceptions of Tax Officials Corruption Proportion who said that „most or all‟ tax officials are corrupt Based on 34 countries included in R5 19 9 11 13 19 19 34 48 54 57 58 59 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Mauritius CapeVerde Botswana Lesotho Tunisia Average Liberia Benin SierraLeone Nigeria Cameroon
  20. 20. Countries with Highest & Lowest Perceptions of Local Councilors Corruption Proportion who said that ‘most or all’ local councilors are corrupt Based on 34 countries included in R5 11 11 18 18 18 30 42 49 52 52 62 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Madagasc ar Cape Verde Lesotho Botswana Mauritius Average Zimbabwe Kenya SouthAfrica SierraLeone Nigeria 20
  21. 21. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Perceptions of Corruption Index 21 Based on 34 countries included in R5 across five government institutions: Officials in the office of the presidency, Members of Parliament, Government Officials, Police, Judges and Magistrates 1.20 1.30 1.42 1.44 1.46 1.54 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.56 1.58 1.59 1.59 1.60 1.60 1.63 1.64 1.74 1.76 1.84 1.84 1.86 1.88 1.92 1.94 1.96 2.03 2.08 2.09 2.13 2.14 2.20 2.22 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 Mauritius Algeria Cape Verde Namibia Botswana Tunisia Mozambique Senegal Zambia Malawi Burundi Guinea Cote d’Ivoire Tanzania Niger Lesotho Burkina Faso Average Sudan Swaziland Ghana Egypt South Africa Uganda Zimbabwe Benin Liberia Kenya Sierra Leone Togo Mali Cameroon Nigeria
  22. 22. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG CORRUPTION PUNISHES THE POOR The poor exploited in countries with high corruption rates, low protections
  23. 23. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Key Findings • One in three respondents reports at least one instance of paying a bribe to obtain a service or to avoid a problem in the past year • People were forced to exchange money or favours for a public benefit, most often to obtain a document or service from government • Paying a kickback for medical care ranks second among experiences of bribery • Exchanging money or favours to avoid a problem with the police ranks third 23
  24. 24. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Tracking Day to Day Bribery, Exploitation 24 • To find out how often people are forced to pay for public services, Afrobarometer asked the following question: In the past year, how often, if ever, have you had to pay a bribe, give a gift, or do a favor to government officials in order to: …get a document or permit; get water or sanitation services; get treatment at a local clinic or hospital; avoid a problem with the police (like passing a checkpoint or avoiding a fine or arrest); or get a place in a primary school for a child? • Corruption‟s influence people‟s every day life will become evident in the following charts
  25. 25. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Personal Bribery Experience, Lived Corruption 25 9% 7% 6% 5% 4% 4% 5% 4% 3% 3% 3% 4% 4% 2% 2% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% Get a document or permit Get medical treatment Avoid problem with the police Get school placement Get water or sanitation services Once or Twice A few times Often
  26. 26. Regional Experiences of Bribery 22 21 17 10 16 23 21 17 7 15 20 18 15 8 1413 10 13 6 10 12 11 9 5 8 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% East Africa North Africa West Africa Southern Africa Average Get document or permit Get medical treatment Avoid problem with police Get school placement Get water/sanitation services 26 Based on 34 countries included in R5
  27. 27. Bribery to Get a Permit, Countries with the Highest & Lowest Ratings Percentages who said that they had paid a bribe at least once to get a document or permit Based on 34 countries included in R5 44% 38% 34% 28% 26% 24% 16% 7% 4% 3% 3% 2% 2% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Morocco Kenya SierraLeone Egypt Cameroon Liberia Average SouthAfrica Malawi CapeVerde Namibia Mauritius Botswana 27
  28. 28. Experiences of Bribery: Countries with the Highest & Lowest Ratings 28 27% 21% 19% 17% 16% 8% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0% 10% 20% 30% Morocco SierraLeone Kenya Liberia Cameroon Average Lesotho Namibia Botswana CapeVerde Mauritius Proportion who say they’ve paid a bribe or performed a favor once to many times to avoid a problem with the police Based on 34 countries included in R5
  29. 29. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG CORRUPTION’S CONSEQUENCES Corruption Punishes the Poor; Satisfaction for Democracy Dwindles
  30. 30. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Key Findings • The poor are the people most vulnerable to demands for bribes in return for the basic public services that are their right – for example almost one in five of the people who go without food to eat at least once a year paid a bribe to get medical treatment. Only one in ten people who have never gone without food say they had to exchange money or favours for such care. • The poor also more often have to pay a bribe to obtain a school placement for their children and to obtain documents or permits. • Experience of poverty is also linked to higher perceived levels of corruption, especially in the justice sector. • Perceptions that officials are corrupt are linked to dissatisfaction with democracy. Absolute majorities of people who have never paid a bribe report their satisfaction for democracy while more than one in three who report bribing people at least once in return for services express dissatisfaction with democracy 30
  31. 31. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG People Who Have Scarce Resources Report Higher Perceptions of Corruption 31 The chart shows people who say at least some to all officials in these organizations are corrupt, according to their access to adequate food Based on 34 countries included in R5 22% 27% 24% 33% 39% 27% 30% 31% 36% 46% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Office of the President Members of Parliament Judges and Magistrates Government Officials Police Gone without food at least once Never gone without food
  32. 32. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG People Who Have Scarce Resources Experience Higher Levels of Bribery 32 The chart shows people who have paid a bribe one or more times during the year preceding the survey Based on 34 countries 7% 7% 13% 12% 14% 10% 13% 15% 18% 18% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% Water or sanitation School placement Avoid problem with police Medical treatment Document or permit Gone without food at least once Never gone without food
  33. 33. People Who Suffer Food Deprivation Pay Bribes Most in Countries Where Percieved Corruption is High The chart shows people who are coerced to pay bribes to get a document or permit one or more times during the year preceding the survey, based on number of times they go without food *Based on 34 countries included in R5 53 45 35 25 18 4 17 4 2 41 29 32 19 14 3 12 3 3 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Morocco Kenya SierraLeone Liberia Average CapeVerde Namibia Mauritius Botswana Gone without food Never gone with out food 33
  34. 34. Corruption Affects People’s Satisfaction with Democracy Data show satisfaction with democracy among people who have paid a bribe one or more times in the past year and those who report paying no bribes Based on 34 countries included in R5 7% 9% 12% 13% 13% 10% 12% 16% 17% 19% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% Water or sanitation School placement Problem with police Medical treatment Document or permit Not at all/not very satisfied with democracy Fairly/very satisfied with democracy 34
  35. 35. WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG STUDY, PRESENTATION PREPARED BY SAMANTHA RICHMOND, AFROBAROMETER OPERATIONS MANAGER FOR CAPACITY BUILDING & CARMEN ALPIN, DATA MANAGER PRESENTATION BY RICHARD HOUESSOU, AFROBAROMETER PROGRAMME MANAGER Contacts Thank You
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