Th4_Gender equity implications for rice value chain development initiatives


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3rd Africa Rice Congress
Theme 4: Rice policy for food security through smallholder and agribusiness development
Mini symposium 3: Socio-economic drivers of change in rice sector development
Author: Akongo

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Th4_Gender equity implications for rice value chain development initiatives

  1. 1. Dr. Thelma Akongo National Agricultural Research Organisation, Uganda Kampala
  2. 2. Overview 1 Introduction 2 Study focus - conceptualization 3 Results 4 Recommendations
  3. 3. Introduction  Gender equity and food insecurity-emerging priority concerns:  Efforts to improve agricultural production/ increase food security - undermined by gender inequalities- to date.  A rising concerns – Questions  Current government initiatives to promote of agro-enterprises - for income generation, to empower women and achieve greater gender equity ---will succeed,  Existing complexities and nature of inequalities existing within the agricultural sector.
  4. 4. Focus of study The extent to which rice -enterprise development can be used to empower women, promote gender equity Focusing mainly on-the relationship between rice -enterprise development, women empowerment and gender equity. Main objective of the study: To gather insights and perceptions on critical issues to consider in ensuring effective women empowerment through agro-enterprise development interventions Specific objectives were; Establish the various gender (in)equity concerns (social, economic and biophysical) along the rice value chain. Determine the extent to which gender equity is influencing rice-enterprise development Determine the extent to which rice-enterprise development is influencing gender equity Document the implications of these findings for policies related to women empowerment through rice enterprise development. Recommend / develop strategic interventions that effectively address gender concerns in rural communities
  5. 5. Rice enterprise development- women empowerment –gender equity • the ability of women to take charge of their lives- income/improve food security promoting household gender equity achieved, However, instances were rice enterprise development initiatives are achieving their intended purposes- opposite of the above • Then household inequities are being reinforced. Women Empowerment Investigations /analysis • How the current state of gender equity described by prevailing social, economic and biophysical concerns are influencing women’s ability to effectively engage in rice agro-enterprise development • How rice -enterprises/ development initiatives are influencing gender equity. Insights and perceptions generated from the study : •Basis for analysis – •Generate recommendations /strategies for the promotion of effective women empowerment and rice-enterprise development interventions. Gender Equity
  6. 6.  Respondents – Groups /Associations - engaging in rice production, processing and marketing…  Producers, processors/millers, whole sellers/produce dealers, retailers, middle men.  Key informants- Government officials, L.Cs , village elders, councilors, Market authorities  Individual rice farming households (male and female headed)  Categories of enterprises- (Successful/un- successful)  Poverty levels – (Rich and poor)  Defined and selected by group members and agricultural officers/  Snow blowing – identification of individual respondents  Data – Qualitative –insights /perceptions  Data collection Methods – Key informants/ Household Interviews, Focus group discussions , observations and document reviews.  Data analysis –content review / NVIVO -qualitative data analysis .
  7. 7.      Land –  Low awareness, lack of rights– no command/control over rice enterprise , poor soils, climatic conditions –drought and floods/ diseases Limited use and access to agricultural research and advisory services (research -technologies/ information)  Lack awareness -knowledge and skill, incomes low to purchase equipment esp. postharvest processing rice equipment, limited engagementcapacity building interventions Food insecurity Poor health , low income / limited decision making ability , Domestic violence , lack of credit , labour shortage Women’s limited decision making Joint enterprises, land for production of rice, management of the enterprises, use of rice inputs, marketing of the output Marketing –  low production/market supply, farm gate sales, taxes, lack of information and proper marketing channels  Co-ownership of the process  Costs of membership /poor household s  Gender divisions of labour  Multiple roles /workload  Credit delivery mechanisms  Still not favorable for most women /assets, mobility, loan procedures cumbersome  Target clientele Services favorable to those with some capital assets – the very poor rice farmers are left out  Education- limited- general concern Observations  General concerns but being reinforced by multiple issues  Concerns complex often arising form one issue leading/building up into another .
  8. 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Land right interventions - social structures put in place are challenged, bribery, lack of education -conflicts Training services and modes of implementation- favor-those with assets, mobility timing, participation Agricultural technologies and informationGender insensitive /access-ICTs Marketing and marketing strategy, conditions – mobility , taxes, dues Gender awareness and land sensitization programmes- conflicts and domestic violence- power issues Rice-enterprise benefits- skewed towards those with control, theft, domestic violence , divorce Credit and credit delivery mechanisms conflicts on land and income, labour shortage Women and leadership positions- not allowed to exercise their authority Power issues within households and communities- influence on decisions , ownership , mobility , engagement , etc Benefits from enterprise -change in ownership of enterprise – loss of controlhence loss of benefits from the enterprise Structure elements : norms, values and beliefs and inability of men to provide for their families due to poverty –expressed in terms of power over (common between widows and in-laws, spouses in poor male headed households with less successful enterprises)
  9. 9. Empowerment opportunities- rice enterprise development activities were:  More pronounced among the rich male and female headed households  Engaging in successful rice enterprises Resources , above average levels of education (rural elites).  Characterized by  low level of alcohol intake,  Presence of salvation /practicing Christians  Cooperation between spouses Signs of improvement were noticed in almost all the empowerment indicators studied : Land Sensitization programmes Increasing land rights awareness of women's rights to land, Increased access to information and technologies  Training programs increasing access, engagement , female enterprise ownership, increased decision making In credit access  credit access programs improved and increased access to credit, engagement and venturing rice enterprises Improve access to labour,  labour groups , in kind payments , income payments, hiring equipments Markets  Group marketing / social agency –poor Households , bulk production , market research training Division of roles  Cooperation between spouses, sharing roles and responsibilities Improved incomes  Increases in assets, quality of education, food security, health (household welfare) Self confidence and independence  Taking up positions of leadership, speaking in public, getting into politics Reduced domestic violence  Limited conflicts and fights in the household  Healthy children
  10. 10. PROGRAMME IMPACT Indicators of impact on women empowerment: decision-making power, access and control of livelihoods resources PROGRAMME INTERVENTIONS Household’s riceenterprise development GENDER EQUITY feedback ---Required changes and/or improvements on development policies BROAD CONTEXTUAL FACTORS (Socio- cultural elements i.e. norms, beliefs, values, power relations etc) DEVELOPMENT POLICIES FOR GENDER EQUITY/EQUALITY Rice-enterprise Development Women empowerment through riceenterprise development – • Strongly influenced by structural elements -rural households /communities. Culture, values/norms and power relations To promote gender equity- Ensure that programmes geared towards this cause• Are informed by an initial understanding of the broader contextual factors existing within households and communities • Hence development intervention programmes such as rice –enterprise development interventions can then be introduced in rural communities. • Continuous assessment /these factors and programme interventions Intended to inform the different policies Outcomes should then influence policy development directions.