Th3_PHYSICOCHEMICAL, SENSORY AND COOKING QUALITIES OF NOODLES PRODUCED FROM FIVE GHANAIAN RICE VARIETIES
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Th3_PHYSICOCHEMICAL, SENSORY AND COOKING QUALITIES OF NOODLES PRODUCED FROM FIVE GHANAIAN RICE VARIETIES

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3rd Africa Rice Congress ...

3rd Africa Rice Congress
Theme 3: Rice processing and marketing
Mini symposium: Adding value to Africa’s rice: rice-derived products
Author: Awudi

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  • 1. PHYSICOCHEMICAL, SENSORY AND COOKING QUALITIES OF NOODLES PRODUCED FROM FIVE GHANAIAN RICE VARIETIES Presenter DORIS AWUDI
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  In Ghana, rice is the second most important cereal after maize which is cultivated in all the regions of the country.  Though local rice production has been increasing, inefficient post-harvest practices have not allowed local producers to take advantage for the increased demand for rice.  Typically, a sizable proportion of locally produced rice in Ghana has a high percentage of broken grains.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION (contd)  Therefore exploring other use of broken local rice grains will lead to;  diversification in rice utilization which will significantly increase the livelihoods of rice actors in the industry.  development of new rice-based products would add value to rice through extension of shelf life and satisfy the drive and demand for convenience foods.  reduction in both post-harvest losses and importation of noodle products
  • 4. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Source of sample  Rice varieties from farmers located in Ashaiman, Afife and Kpong on rice irrigation projects through the facilitation of the Ghana Rice Inter-Professional Body (GRIB)  Five (5) varieties used : • • • • • Marshall Ex-Hohoe Jasmine 85 Jet 3 Viwonor
  • 5. Production of Noodle Samples Composite flour of rice and wheat Egg, Salt, Xanthan gum, Water Mixing of ingredients Resting of dough (20 min) Extrusion of dough Cutting into stands Drying of strands Raw noodle Fig 1: Process flow for noodle production
  • 6. Table 1: Flour and other ingredient combinations for noodle formulation Variety Flour composition Other ingredients Rice flour (%) Wheat flour (%) Egg (g) Salt (g) Xanthan gum (g) Water (ml) Marshall 60 40 15 2 2 38 Ex-Hohoe 60 40 15 2 2 38 Jasmine 85 60 40 15 2 2 38 Jet 3 60 40 15 2 2 38 Viwonor 70 30 15 2 2 38
  • 7. Preliminary formulations 50:50 60:40 100:0 100:0 60:40 Values in red represent % rice flour and values in black represent % wheat flour used
  • 8. Methods for determining cooking quality, chemical and sensory properties 1) Cooking qualities  Optimum cooking time - (Li et al., 2011)  Weight increase - (Li et al., 2011)  Cooking loss - (Jayaena et al., 2010) 2) Proximate composition- (AOAC, 2000)  moisture, protein, ash, fat, fibre,  carbohydrate, energy calculation 3) Sensory properties – colour, smoothness, taste, aroma, mouth feel, firmness, elasticity, stickiness of both cooked and uncooked noodle samples  Descriptive test – 9 trained panelists with score sheets  Acceptability test – 37 untrained panelists using 7-point hedonic scale
  • 9. RESULTS 1. Table 2: Cooking qualities of rice noodles Variety a, b, c ,d, e. 8±0.00 3.40±0.11 a 6.35±0.66 b 100 8±0.00 3.40±0.12 a 6.35±0.66 b 9±0.00 3.41±0.12 a 6.35±0.66 b 100 8±0.00 3.34±0.24 a 7.04±0.07 b 9±0.00 3.34±0.24 a 7.04±0.07 b 100 8±0.00 3.34±0.24 a 7.04±0.07 b 9±0.00 3.34±0.24 a 7.04±0.07 b 100 7±0.00 3.33±0.17 a 6.86±0.10 b 150 Viwonor 6.35±0.66 b 150 Jet 3 3.39±0.12 a 150 Jasmine 85 Cooking loss (%) 150 Ex-Hohoe Weight increase (g) 100 Optimum cooking time (min) 7±0.00 150 Marshall Particle size (µm) 8±0.00 3.33±0.17 a 6.86±0.10 b Varieties with the same superscript in a column are not significantly different at p≤0.05
  • 10. 2. Table 3: Proximate composition of rice noodles Variety Moisture Fat Fibre Ash Carbohy Energy (g/100g) (g/100g) (g/100g) (g/100g) (g/100g) drate (Kcal/10 (g/100g) Marshall Protein 0g) 7.37± 11.84± 1.34± 0.73± 2.28± 76.45± 365.20± 0.08 a 0.02b 0.08 c 0.14 d 0.00e 0.16 a 1.30 b Ex- 9.70± 11.76± 1.72± 0.04± 2.67± 74.12± 358.97± Hohoe 0.10 b 0.01b 0.05 b 0.01 c 0.01d 0.10 b 0.79 c Jasmine 7.04± 11.70± 1.46± 0.55± 2.40± 76.86± 367.35± 85 0.00 c 0.25b 0.06 c 0.36 d 0.02c 0.04 a, d 1.65 b Jet 3 7.81± 10.99± 1.44± 0.09± 3.09± 76.59± 363.27± 0.05 d 0.21a 0.00 c 0.56b, c 0.01b 0.32 a, d 0.48 b 5.06± 10.99± 3.17± 0.09± 3.08± 77.31± 381.72± 0.05 e 0.21a 0.08 a 0.56b, c 0.01b 0.26 c 0.56 d Viwonor a, b, c ,d, e. p≤0.05 Varieties with the same superscript in a column are not significantly different at
  • 11. 3. Sensory evaluation of uncooked rice noodles Colour 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 Marshall 2 Ex-hohoe 1 Jasmine 85 0 Jet 3 Viwonor Control Aroma Smoothness Fig 2: Intensity rating of sensory attributes of uncooked rice noodles by trained panelists
  • 12. 3. Sensory evaluation of cooked rice noodles Colour 9 8 Elasticity 7 6 Smoothness 5 4 3 marshall 2 Ex-hohoe 1 Stickiness Aroma 0 Jasmine 85 Jet 3 viwonor control Firmness Taste Mouthfeel Fig 8: Intensity rating of sensory attributes of cooked rice noodles by trained panelists
  • 13. 3. Table 4: Sensory characteristics of rice noodles- consumer preference test Variety Colour Smoothness Taste Aroma Mouth-feel Overall acceptability Marshall 2.38±0.92 a 4.16±0.76 b 2.51±0.80 c 2.97±0.9 2.68±0.63 d 2.76±1.07 a 3.41±0.73 c 3.08±0.80 a 2.92±0.72 d 2.78±1.16 a 2.92±0.98 d 2.03±0.76 b 3.03±1.04 d, c 4.78±0.75 c 0a Ex-hohoe 2.24±0.90 a 4.22±0.79 b 2.54±0.80 c 3.14±0.9 2a Jasmine 85 2.19±0.97 a 4.30±0.70 b 2.49±0.99 c 3.03±0.9 3a Jet 3 2.22±0.67 a 4.16±0.76 b 3.41±0.86 b 3.24±0.9 0a Viwonor 5.08±1.28 b a, b, c. d: Rice 3.73±0.73 c 2.65±0.72 c 3.97±0.8 0b noodles with the same superscript in a column are not significantly different at p≤0.05 Scale: 1-like extremely, 2-like slightly, 3-like, 4-neither like nor dislike, 5-dislike, 6dislike slightly, 7-dislike extremely
  • 14. CONCLUSIONS  Noodles developed from the composite flours of rice and wheat were acceptable by panellists even though an imported commercial noodle (used as control) was rated higher with reference to key desirable sensory attributes like elasticity, smoothness and stickiness  Though noodle formulated with Viwonor used the least amount of wheat flour which will have been the most preferred for commercial use, unfortunately some of the panellists were put off with the brown/red colour of the products.  The cooking qualities including percent cooking loss, optimum cooking time and weight increase of the rice noodles were acceptable. Values obtained were within the reference points or limits.  This study showed the potential for commercial production of noodles from some rice varieties produced in Ghana.
  • 15. DORIS AWUDI (from Ghana) Thank You I AM LOOKING FOR A JOB!